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ICA. With Bibliographical and Descriptive Essays on 
its Historical Sources and Authorities. Profusely illus- 
trated with portraits, maps, facsimiles, etc. Edited by 
Justin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard University, wih 
the cooperation of a Committee from the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, and with the aid of other learned 
Societies. In eight royal 8vo volumes. Elach volume, 
Htt, ^5.50; sheep, fief, ^6.50; half morocco, net, ^7.50. 

{So/J only by subscript ton /or the entire set. ) 

OLUTION. i6mo, $f.2S. 

cated parchment paper, 75 cents. 

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. With portrait and 
maps. 8vo, gilt top, $4.00. 

Boston and New York. 


BEHA.y. 1497 

AMERICA. 1892. 



OF discoyh;h.y 



Vera pro ^tlh • 

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Fthlii EDtriOX, KE VISED 



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Br JUSTOr WIH80&. 

r •JUlrighUrtmrved, 

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The Historian of New France. 

Deab Pabkman : — 

Yon and I have not followed the maritime peoples of western Europe 
in planting and defending their flags on the American shores without 
observing the strange fortunes of the Italians, in that they have provided 
pioneers for those Atlantic nations without having once secured in the 
New World a foothold for themselves. 

When Venice gave her Cabot to England and Florence bestowed 
Verrazano upon France, these explorers established the territorial 
claims of their respective and foster motherlands, leading to those con- 
trasts and conflicts which it has been your fortune to illustrate as no 
one else has. 

When Grenoa gave Columbus to Spain and Florence accredited her 
Vespucius to Portugal, these adjacent powers, whom the Bull of De- 
marcation would have kept asunder in the new hemisphere, established 
their rival races in middle and southern America, neighboring as in 
the Old World ; but their contrasts and conflicts have never had so 
worthy a historian as you have been for those of the north. 

The beginnings of their commingled history I have tried to relate in 
the present work, and I turn naturally to associate in it the name of 
the brilliant historian of France and EIngland in North America 
with that of your obliged friend. 


Gambuidoe, June, 1890, 

Oopyrigfat, 1691, 

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• •^rig^ reserved. 

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80UBCB8, AND THE Gatherers of them 1 

Illustrations : Manuscript of Columbus, 2 ; the (renoa Costo- 
dia, 5 ; Columbus's Letter to the Bank of St. George, 6 ; Co- 
lumbus's Annotations on the Imago Mundiy 8 ; first Page, 
Columbus's First Letter, Latin edition (1493), 16 ; ArohiYO de 
Simancas, 24. 


Biographers and Portraitists 30 

Illustrations : Page of the Giustiniani Psalter, 31 ; Notes of 
Ferdinand Columbus on his Books, 42 ; Las Casas, 48 ; Roselly 
de Lorgues, 53 ; St. Christopher, a Vignette on La Cosa's Map 
(1500), 62 ; Earliest Engraved Likeness of Columbus in Jovius, 
63 ; the Florence Columbus, 65 ; the Yanez Columbus, 66 ; a 
Reproduction of the Capriolo Cut of Columbus, 67 ; De Brj's 
Engraving of Columbus, 68 ; the Bust on the Tomb at Havana, 

Thk Ancestrt and Home of Columbus 71 



Illustrations : Drawing ascribed to Columbus, 80 ; Benincasa'a 
Map (1476), 81 ; Ship of the Fifteenth Century, 82. 


The Allurements of Portugai 85 

Illustrations : Part of the Laurentian Portolano, 87 ; Map of 
Andrea Bianco, 89 ; Prince Henry, the Navigator, 93 ; Astro- 



tioril-U, A!«n TIIK (lATnKRKMM or THKM 1 

Iixi'«tTiiATio!«i« : ManuMript of Columbuji, 2 ; tbe Genoa Cnalo- 
diA, .*! ; Colli inbun*!! letter to the Bunk of 8t. George, 6 ; Co- 
IuidImm'ii AunotAtionii on tbe Imago Mundi, 8 ; FInt Fftge, 
Culuinhiu*!! Kint I^ttor, Utin edition (14IK5), 16 ; ArchiTO de 
Simaarai, !24. 


BkitftAMiKkak A!«r» I'bRTRAinii'nji 30 

Iur4TKATio!«(t : Pa|c«* of tbe (tiufltinijuii Pudter, 31 ; Notes of 
KrnliiuuMi ('uluiiib«ts on hui Koolu, 42 ; \j^ CaMM, 48 ; Roeelly 
•ir I^rpifA, .*kI ; St. (*bmtopher, a Vignette on Iji Coiia*H Bfap 
(ITitM)), (S2 ; Earlimt Kngrave<l LikeneM of Colnmbuii in tFoviu.s 
(tS : the KIorpiM^e (\ilunilHiit, (V> ; the Yanei ColuinbiiH. 6(> ; a 
Ikprodartion «if the Capriolo Cut of Colunib«i«, (>7 ; 1>«* Bry'fl 
Mngrating of Columbus, GH ; the Bust on tlit* Tomb at HaTana, 

Trk .ljK*t»TiiT AXD HoMK or CoLrMBrs 71 


Tut rx^-VRTAiimm o» Tin: Kari.y Lift: ok Coli'mbuh .... 79 
lui «TRATli»N4 : I^niwiiig MMTiU'd to Columbus, 80; 
Map ( 147c>). Ml : SInp of tlic FifU-enth Century, 82. 


Tri \itrR»icr^TH <ii Pukti iiAI . . HA 

Iliii^trationa . Piirt nf tlif I«aun*nti:ui l*iirtol.-ini», 87 ; Map of 
Andrra Buuu*«i, H*i ; Priuct* llfur}, the* Navigator, tt3 ; ^Vstr»- 



Columbus again in Spain, 1500-1502 407 

Illustrations : First Page of the Mundus Novtu, 411 ; Map of 
the Straits of Belle Isle, 413 ; Manuscript of Gaspar Cortereal, 
414 ; of Miguel Cortereal, 416 ; the Cantino Map, 419. 


The Fourth Voyage, 1502-1504 437 

Illustrations : Bellin's Map of Honduras, 443 ; of Veragua, 


CoLUiffBUs's Last Years. Death and Character 477 

Illustrations : House where Columbus died, 490 ; Cathedral at 
Santo Domingo, 493 ; Statue of Columbus at Santo Domingo, 


The Descent of Columbus's Honors 513 

Illustrations : Pope Julius IL, 517 ; Charles the Fifth, 519 ; 
Ruins of Diego Colon's House, 521. 


The Geographical Results 529 

Illustrations: Ptolemy, 530; Map by Donis (1482), 531 ; Ruysch's 
Map (1508), 532; the so-called Admiral's Map (1513), 534; Mun- 
ster's Map (1532), 535 ; Title-Page of the Globus Mundi, 352 ; 
of Eden's Treatyse of the Newe India, 537 ; Vespucius, 539 ; 
Title of the Cosmographicn Introduction 541 ; Map in Ptolemy 
(1513), 544, 545 ; the Tross Gores, 547 ; the Hauslab Globe, 
548 ; the Nordenskiold Gores, 549 ; Map by Apianus (1520), 
550 ; Schoner's Globe (1515), 551 ; Frisius's Map (1522), 552 ; 
Peter Martyr's Map (1511), 557 ; Ponce de Leon, 558 ; his 
tracks on the Florida Coast, 559 ; Aylloii's Map, 561 ; Ballma, 
563 ; Grijalva, 566 ; Globe in Schoner\s Opusadum, 567 ; (Mo- 
ray's Map of the Gulf of Mexico, 5(;8 ; Cortes's Map of the 
Gulf of Mexico, 569 ; the Maiollo Map (1527), 570 ; the I^nox 
Globe, 571 ; Schoner's Globe (1520), 572 ; Ma^jollan, 573 ; Ma- 
gellan's Straits by Pizafetta, 575 ; Modem Map of the Straits, 
576 ; Freire's Map (1546), 578 ; Sylvanus's Map in Ptolemy 
(1511), 579; Stobnicza's Map, 580; the Alleged Da Vinci 



CnimBr* in Spaisc again ; Mabch to Skptkhber, HfiS . . . 243 
lixiwTKATioxs : 'IV Armi of Colambun, 250; Pope AlezMMUr 
VU UoS ; Cra«liow.M«ker, :a» ; CUick.M«ker» 200. 


The sr«^wD VoYAor, I41)()-I4m 264 

Itti>TKATiti» : Map of (iujuUloiip<», Mmrie Galante, and 


Tiir »i>iixr> Vdtagk, <x>xtinuei>, 141M 284 

III i>TRATU»y : Mau on Sborv, 298. 


Trk >r4^i!«ii Voyage, o>NTi!crED, 141H-1496 300 

lu I -'TRATii»N.*« : Map of tlie Native Divisions of EnpafloU, 906 ; 
Map «tf >|Hiiii?«h SottlviniMiU in K!«|KiAula, H21. 


Is >r%i^. lltui UIM. Da (;ama. V^HnviiH, Cabot 325 

lui «rK%Ti<iKf» : FVnIinanJ «>f Anii;oii, ^l2H ; lUrtbolonivw Co- 
luniUi». :iLl» ; VancMi Da (iama, 'XV\ : Map of Siiith Africa 
1 1 '»!:(), :i:ir» ; Earlif!»t R4*pn*iM*iitatioii «if South American Na- 
ti^rn, Il3li. 


Till TiiiKi* ViivA^iF. Htw !.",<«» 347 

Iiii •TkATioxi* : Map of till' (iiilf i»f Paria. IVVl ; Pn'-Columbian 
M4p|wiiii»nil<*. n*«tor«'il. .V»T : lUmiiHiii\ Map of K.H|mn«»la. ^MiO ; 
1^ C«iu*A Map { irrfMh. :iS4i. :\S\ : Uiti«>ni*» Map of tlM> Antillva 


Tn I^«BA|iATI<>N AND Dlii|l» AK1 » NM» M «>» (Nil.lMHrH (iriOO) .*MK 

IlL(«trati<iN : Santo Di»niingo, 3*JI. 

roSTEyrs axd illustrations. xi 

SkHrh-Mmp, oKi> ; Rriiirh*ii Map (1515), 583 ; rom|ioiiiai Me- 
U*« World- Ma|s 5K4 ; Vaduuiiiii, 585 ; Apuums, 586 ; Scbfiner, 
VM ; KtMrnthal or Nurvmberic Horn, oUO ; the Martyr-Oriedo 
Map ( l.kM), 5Srj, Sm : the Verrauoo Map, 5M ; Sketch of A^- 
DTM*** Mmp (15:16), 505 ; Mttiuter < Map (I^VIO), 506, 507 ; Mi- 
rharl IaiI'a Map ( 15H2), 596 ; John White** Map, 500 ; Robert 
pHinir's Map ( 15*J7), (MX) ; SebaRtian Mttniter, 602 ; House and 
bbrarr of Ferdinand ( olumlnu, 601 ; Spaninh Map (1527), 605 ; 
thr NancT (;iube, tillli. «)07 ; Map of Orontiiu Finffnt (1532), 
iHM ; the same, reducml to Merrator's prujeetion, 600 ; Cortes, 
tilU : ('A»Kino*» l*alifomia, 611 ; Kitrart from an old Portolano 
cif thr Dc»rtlwa»t C'oaiiK of North America, 613 ; IIomem*i Map 
(1.V.S). t;il : /irjrlerV SclioiHlia, 615 ; KuHcelli's Map (1514), 
f'>l<i ; Carta Marina (l.VtH), 617 : MTritiuft*ii Map (1500), 618 ; 
/^ltuTi-'» Map (15li«>). 610; Torvacehi's Map (1572), 620; 
Mrrrati.r'ii <;ic»bi* (15:W).(;22.623 ; Miiniiter*H America (1515), 
t^J't ; MrrvatorV (i«in-fi (1541), reduced to a pUne projection, 
f;:!5 ; SriMtian (*abut*ii Mappemonde (1M4), 626 ; Medina*! 
Map (l.VU). «;2H. 621»; Wytiliet*< America (1507), 630, 631 ; 
thr Cn«»^Sufr. i):ti ; the Z^*ni Map, 631. eXi ; the Map in the 
Wamaw Codei (1467). 63t;. «n7 ; Mercator*! America (1560), 
6:iS ; Portrait of Mercatnr. 6:iO ; of Orteliuii, 640 ; Map by Or- 
trliiit (1570). 611; Sebantian Cahot. 042; Krobisher, 't>l3 ; 
Kr«Jn«hrr*« Chart ( 1578). ^44 ; Francis Drake, 015 ; r;ilbert*B 
Map (1576). M7 : the Rack^SufT. 648 ; Uke Foi'ii Map of the 
Arrtir lt«*(non5i (lUVi). 651 ; ll«*nnepin*!i Map of JeMo, 653 ; 
iKtmina Farrcr*!i Map (UmI). 6.^4, tkV> ; liuache'fl Theory of 
North American (;«*<»fn«phy (1752), ti56 ; Map of Bering's 
.MrmitB, ti5i ; 3klap uf ||ie North weiit Pauage, 650. 

llKX 661 

i.u\ . . OF i:^E 




I.N* conttidering the i«<>unv8 of information, which are original, 
M ilisitinrt from those which are derivative, we must place first 
in imp4irtauc«* the writings of Coliuiilms himself. We may 
pbre next the documentary proofs belonging to private and 
pahlic an*hive!(. 

Ilarrisse |M>ints out that ( olumbus, in his time, acquired such 
a piipular Deputation for prolixity that a c*ourt fool of Charles 
th^ Fifth linkinl the dis4*overer of the Indies with hi. 
Pu>leniy as twins in the art of blotting. He wrote p™'***^- 
u ca*«ily as ]>eopli* of rapid impuls4*s usually do, when they are 
»>! n*^trainiH| bv habits of onlerlv delil)eration. He has left us 
a ma*iH of jumbliMl tlMHights and ex|)erienees, which, unfortu- 
luttly, often |N*rpK*x the hist4»rian, while they of neivssity aid 

Ninety-seven dintinet piiH*t*s of writing by the hand of Colum- 
bus either exist or an> known to have existtnl. Of h^ 
»och, whether memoirs, rehitions, or letters, sixty- '^**"«^ 
(our ar%» preservi^l in their entin»ty. Thi»si» inelude twenty-four 
•hirh are wholly or in |Kirt in his own hand. All of them have 
bprn printe«l entire, exiH*pt one wliirh is in the Bib1i'it%*<*a d^ 
lumbina, in Seville, the I/khnj th hi» PntficiaA^ wrUten ap|mr- 
fotly betwe«*n 1501 and 1 504, of which only paVt'i^f in (\iluni- 
ba«*« own hand. A s4*<!ond document, a memoir addressed to 
Ferdinaml and Isaliella, l>efore June, 14t>7: is now in the (*ol- 
In-tion of the Martpiis «if San Roman at M:ldfid, and was 
printed for the first time by Harrisse in Ins i /triitfophr Co- 
^'*mh. A thinl and ftMirtii an* in the public arcUivcs in Ma- 
drid, hi'ing letters a4ldn*sHe<l to the S|>anish monafcbs': oiie with- 
•«t daU* in 149G or 1497, or perhaps earlier, in 14*.'?. iind tlie 


other February 6, 1502 ; and both have been printed and given 
in facsimile in the Cartas de Indias, a collection published by 

A <». -me- Ci ^Mr* * / 

[From a MS. in the Biblioteca Colombfna, given in UarriBse^s Notes on Columlnu.} 

the Spanish government in 1877. The majority of the existing 
private papers of Columbus are preserved in Spain, in the 
hands of the present representative of Columbus, the Duke of 
Veragua, and these have all been printed in the great collec- 
tion of Navarrete. They consist, as enumerated by Harrisse in 
his Cohimhus and the Bank of Saint George^ of the following 
pieces : a single letter addressed about the year 1500 to Ferdi- 
. . 4iand* and Isabella; four letters addressed to Father Gaspar 
. •/.••/•.Crorricip,.— ^^one from San Lucar, April 4, 1502; a second from 
• *,/l;V»»*^ the.Graifd*C^Aaria, May, 1502 ; a thirtl from Jamaica, July 7, 
1503 ; anfI['(JjLj!.la»t from Seville, January 4, 1505 ; — a memo- 
rial addressed' to 'his son, Diego, written either in December, 
1504, or in January, 1505 ; and eleven letters addressed also to 
Diego, all frqm^Se>dlle, late in 1504 or early in 1605. 

Without e«^J)tif n, the letters of Columbus of which we have 
lui9wj^ge were written in Spanish. Harrisse has 

• • • 

•V • 

All In 

• • • • 


l^olnmbiu mui more omref ul of the documentary proofs of his 
mles and priTiieges, granted in consequence of his q, 
diiTOT«rie«« than of his own writin|2p}. He ha<l more i*****h^ 
•nlirttode t<> prot4H*t, by such reconU, the pecuniary and titular 
r^rfata of his descendants than to preserve those personal papers 
which, in the eyes of the historian, are far more valuable. 
TKt-«e attested evidences of his rights were for a while in- 
rli*«rd in an iron chest, kept at his tomb in the monastery of 
\j^A IWvaji* near Seville, and they remained down to 1609 in 
thr costodv of the Carthusian friars of that convent. At this 
datr, Nufto de Portugallo having been declared the heir to the 
riktau* and titles of Columbus, the papers were transferred to his 
lumping : and in the end, by legal decision, they passed to that 
iKikf <»f Veragua who was the grandfather of the present duke, 
who in due time inherited these public memorials, and now pre- 
merxr* them in Madrid. 

In 1502 there were copies made in book form, known as the 
^ 'fjrx I^i/ilomaiicus^ of these and other pertinent 
4ocimH*nts, raising the numWr from thirty -six to Diplomatic 
fi»rtT-four. These copies were attested at Se\'ille, by 
ttrdrr of the Admiral, who then aimed to place them so that 
thr rectird cif his deeds and rights should not l>e lost. Two 
n»|iir« urem to have been sent by him through different chan- 
DrU to Nicoki Oderigo, the (lenoese ambassador in Madrid; 
and in lt>70 lioth of these copies came from a dt'S(*endant of 
tlial ambassatir; as a gift to the Itt^public of (fenoa. Both 
of thrie later disap|>eanHl fnim its archives. A third iH)py 
sent to Alonso Sanchez do Carvajal, the factor of Colum- 
in F^pafloU, and this <*opy is not now known. A fourth 
cvvpr was deposited in the monastery c»f I.«as Cuevas, near 
Srville^ to be later sent to Father (iorricio. It is ver>' likely 
this last copy which is mentioniHl by F^iwanl Kverett in a 
•ale to his oration at Plymouth (^I^)Hton, 1825, p. 64), where, 
frfrrring to the two copies sent to Oderi^^o as the only ones 
■ukJe by the onler of ColumbuH, as th<*n undt^rstood, he adds : 
* Whether the two manuscripts thus mentioiie<l lie the only 
in existeni*e mav admit of doubt. When I was in Hor- 
in 1818, a small folio manum*ript was brought to me, 
on parchment, ap|mrently two or thn*e centuries old, 
hinding once very rich, but now worn, containing a stories of 


documents in Latin and Spanish, with the following title on 
the first blank page : ^ Treslado de las Bullas del Papa Alex- 
andra VIm de la concession de las Indias y los titulos, privile- 
gios y cedulas reales, que se dieron a Christoval Colon.' I was 
led by this title to purchase the book." After referring to the 
Codice, then just published, he adds : ^^ I was surprised to 
find my manuscript, as far as it goes, nearly identical in its 
contents with that of Genoa, supposed to be one of the only 
two in existence. My manuscript consists of almost eighty 
closely written folio pages, which coincide precisely with the 
text of the first thirty-seven documents, contained in two hun- 
dred and forty pages of the Genoese volume." 

Caleb Cushiug says of the Everett manuscript, which he had 
examined before he wrote of it in the North American Review^ 
October, 1825, that, ^^ so far as it goes, it is a much more per- 
fect one than the Oderigo manuscript, as several passages which 
Spotomo was unable to decipher in the latter are very plain 
and legible in the former, which indeed is in most complete 
preservation." I am sorry to learn from Dr. William Everett 
that this manuscript is not at present easily accessible. 

Of the two copies named above as having disappeared from 
the archives of Genoa, Harrisse at a late day found one in 
the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris. 
It had been taken to Paris in 1811, when Napoleon I. caused 
the archives of Genoa to be sent to that city, and it was not 
returned when the chief part of the documents was recovered 
by Genoa in 1815. The other copy was in 1816 among the 
papers of Count Cambiaso, and was bought by the Sardinian 
government, and given to the city of Genoa, where it is now 
deposited in a marble custodia^ which, surmounted by a bust of 
Columbus, stands at present in the main hall of the palace of 
the municipality. This " custodia " is a pillar, in which a door 
of gilded bronze closes the receptacle that contains the relics, 
which are themselves inclosed in a bag of Spanish leather, 
richly embossed. A copy of this last document was made an(J 
placed in the archives at Turin. 

These papers, as selected by Columbus for preservation, wer^ 
edited by Father Spotomo at Genoa, in 1823, in 
Mtionby volume called Codice diplomatico Colomho-Ami 
cano^ and published by authority of the state. Th 


was an English edition at 
London, in 1823 ; aud a 
Spanish at Havana, in 
1867. Spotomo was re- 
printed, with additional 
matter, at Genoa, in 1857, 
as La Tavota di Srotizo, it 
pallio di seta, ed U Codice 
Colomboamericano, ntio- 
vametUe illustrati per cura 
di Giuseppe Banchero. 

This Spotomo volume in- 
eluded two additional let 
tera of Columbus, not yet 
mentioned, and addressed, 
March 21, 1502, and De- 
cember 27, 1504, to Ode- 
rigo. They were found 
pasted in the duplicate 
copy of the papers given to 
Genoa, and are now pre- 
served in a glass case, in 
the same custodia. A third 
letter, April 2, 1502, ad- 
dressed to the governors of 
die bank of St. George, was 
omitted by Spotomo; but 
it is given by Harrisse in 
luB Columbus 

I the Bank i 
Saint Georg 
(New York, 1888). This 
last was one of two letters, 
which Columbus sent, as 
he says, to the bank, but 
the other has not been 
fonod. The history of the 
one preserved is traced by 
Harrisse in the work last 
mentioned, and there are 



("^ ffo'^^^f^ yy^<^ (f~h>3*X^ ?«*4iAJ. / ,^^ 




[Reduced in aixe by photographic proceM.] 


litbop^phio and photogrmphic reproductions of it Harrisae^s 
work juHt referred to was undertaken to prove the forgery of a 
manuM'ript which has within a few years been offered for sale, 
rtiher ad a duplicate of the one at Genoa, or as the originaL 
Whirn reprt-^»nted as the original, the one at Genoa is pro- 
iKTaorvd a facsimile of it. Harrisse seems to have proved the 
forpfry of the one which is seeking a purchaser. 

Some manuscript marginalia found in three different books, 
ui^ by Columbus and preserved in the Biblioteca 
l\ikNnbina at Seville, are also remnants of the auto- 
(H^phs of Columbus. These marginal notes are in copies of 
«(Ineas Sylviiis*s Jlistoria Jierum uhique gestarum (Venice, 
1477 > of a Latin version of Marco Polo (Antwerp, 1485 ?), 
and of Pierre d*Ailly*s IJe Imagine Mundi (perhaps 1400), 
tboogh there b some suspicion that these last-mentioned notes 
aaay be those of Bartholomew, and not of Christopher, Colum- 
bcu. These books have been particularly described in Jos^ 
^^Uverio Jorrin*s VarioB AutogmfoB ineditoB de CriBtdbal 
C'Jon^ published at Havana in 1888. In May, 1860, Jos^ 
Maria Femandes y Velasco, the librarian of the Biblioteca 
1 olombina, discovered a Latin text of the letter of Toscanelli, 
written by Columbus in this same copy of i£neas T(Mmiem*ft 
Sylvius. He Itelieved it a Latin version of a letter **"^* 
uripnally written in Italian; but it was left for Harrisse to 
divcuver that the Latin was the original draft. A facsimile of 
this script is in HarrisM**s Fernando Colon (Seville, 1871), 
ami specimens of the marginalia were first given by Harrisse in 
hi* y*»UB on ColnmbuB^ whence they are reprtnlueed in ]mrt in 
tht \arrafire antl (^riticat History of America (vol. ii.). 

It is understocMl tliat, under the auspices of the Italian gov- 
«-moifnt, an e<iit4)rial iMmimittiH.' in at presi^nt engageil with 
pnr}arin^ a natioiud memorial insue of the writin«;8 
of C«*lunibus Mmiewhat in acconianre with a im>iM>si- tar 
t>MQ matle bv Harrisse to the Minister of Public In- 
stnirtion at Rome in liis Lr Quatrivme ( %*uU-na\re dv la De^ 
nmrffie #/m \nurraH Mnmlv ((lenoa, 1887). 

There are n»ferenei»s to other works of C<»hinibus which I 

have not seen, aji a /)rriararittfi dv Tabla Sarifiatnria^ 

»%• roi«Mii»«i«i 
aaueseti to a tn*utiH«\ ihl I no av la Carta dv Sa- pnni«i 


regar^ by Dr. (irajales ; a Tratado de I ft a ( *inro Zf>- 

HabiiabltB^ which Humlmldt found it verv difficult to find. 

mriiiorUl of 


Of the manuscripts of Columbus which are lost, there are 
Huiort traces still to be discovered. One letter, which he 
writtog^ j^^ ^£f ^jje Canaries, February 15, 1493, and which 


ji«rdCnf«-inrjirtmiMi ':;:±^^ 

lMmui^f«rfBCwn.b« r^^-^y^-'^^^^^s^ 

incc0 lnoo« « Sirfra ^^^r 
•meat f ragCB iiice b)>ciiU9 
bomioca . drpbancte in 

:i^ prntofbaptonmoti lot ,s,^.4^^\,j^\^^^fiff , 

tnou oatotmiigna c-Rp ^irrf^^lF^v;!^ 

4a c?! ceroa pare babtcaDi 

ipff btcac furopa) dll ma , -^ 
9ico isic^ q? Frona inote (^ «*^'^ dri^c^^.*- vfy «^ 
c proporr rr^ionrm *piadba fV*^'^'*^'^' 
1^ maiiB magnu otTcenota gkatrV^*4j:,.uMr.i Jlj. 
;am infmortm feu Tifhc^ .^xX^ *^{f*^^ // 
ii9 inoir ocfcenoit a cropi 
(10 monrfm Af)aM. a rrgi 
if nunc 7lr)>mbocacnr F9a 

ift Qym • bna Tub foini ts.^\^ r^U.^ v.^ r^ ^ 
ioorquanunccfircrmov r.u|hr-.u^u.3^V. " 
'tciinrnfoiobabiraaonia ^^ ' 

motet fcp cecrione i mtri 

mtontaponcda 1?iomfalc Hfi^r»^!r^wr 
't raluccm tn meoio cqfc^ "ww^%«icrrv' 

iinf ftcuc rupraoicoim efl I 
./ilib^lnoif/ Caxbi- 

aoialn$arate 9fort 

nirabitiu baneracc F)S 

i&tgm n ouoa cub icom^ !^^ i^^cJlo^^^^t^t ;: » 

paiittc ocrauo fcnricunt • ^'^'^^ v^**t^ ^/^hI^ 

uuncn frrpcAcum qui ibi f f *>aU»s 

aox)bU*nLCubKto9 logi «^'^voW.,«.c»4H»r^ 

Maqjaungueepfminc rs'^f^^ 

ro in igne amort aire at 

iqm parol tee c6Fecco* ji^t^^fr'^^-^HAi^yei^^^^ 

Ooin parac irimpiua lu *^ '**^^'nf^v«*5^Jjr^ 

€nD9Q»dauiiit5i (itf '^ - 

[From Harrine's Note* on Columbus.'\ 


have oontained some account of his first voyage, is only 
known to us from an intimation of Marino Sanuto that it was 
inoliKltHi in the Chronica Delphinea. It is probably from an 
iuperftfcl copy of this last in the library at Brescia, that the 
Irttrr in qnestion was given in the liook's third part (a. d. 
14o7-lo00 ), which is now missing. We know also, from a let- 
Urr *tiU pn^served (December 27, 1504), that there must be a 
k-itrr M>mtfwhere« if not destroye<l, sent by him respecting his 
fourth voyap^s to Messer Uian Luigi Fieschi, as is supposed, 
the same who led the famous conspiracy against the house of 
lK>na. Other letters, Columbus tells us, were sent at times to 
tin* Si}n)«>ra Madonna Catalina, who was in some way related 
to KiirsH'hi. 

In 178U« Francesco Pesaro, examining the papers of the 
i*ouiu*il of Ten, at Venice, read there a memoir of Columbus, 
tettin*; forth his maritime project ; or at least Pesaro was so 
an<i«Tstoo«l by Marin, who gives the story at a later day in the 
^\«-nth vohinie of his history of Venetian commerce. As Har- 
ri««« remarks, this pa|)er, if it could be discovered, would prove 
tbr mitsit interesting of all Columbian documents, sim*e it would 
pnili;il>ly lie found to fall within a |)erio<I, from 1473 to 1487, 
«hrn we have little or nothing authentic res|>ecting (^oluinbus*s 
litr. Indt^tnl, it might happily elucidate a stage in the develop- 
iD<nt of the Admirars cosmogruphioal views of which we know 

Wv have the letter which (\>luinbus addresseil to Alexander 
VI.. ill Februar)\ lo02, sis prestTvwl in a eopy made by his son 
F«-niinantl : but no historical student has ever set^n the C^om- 
ii.«'ntar\-. whieh he is said to have written after the manner of 
t*ji-*ar. n-4*ounting the haps and ini!iha]>s of the first voyage, 
ami mhich he is thought to have st*nt to the ruling Pontiff. 
Thi% M't of duty, if done aft«*r his return from his last voyage, 
mu«t liave lM*«*n made to Julius the Sh*oii(1, not to Alexander. 

Irving and otliers h(h*ui t4> have eonsidered that this C:esarian 
f^rfonuanee was in faet, the well-known journal of 
thi' lir*t vt»yagi' ; but there is a giKHl ileal of dim- ofhunn* 
rulty in identifying that wliieli we only know in an 
ahridgrd form, as ma«lt* by Ijhh ( asas, with the narrative s<*nt or 
iatcmleil to be wnt to the Pi»|m*. 

Fpffdinand, or tlie writer of the ///^^«rlV, later to be men- 


tioned, it seems clear, had Colnmbos's journal before hinif 
though he excuses himself from quoting much from it, in order 
to avoid wearying the reader. 

The original ^^ journal " seems to have been in 1554 still in 
the possession of Luis Colon. It had not, accordingly, at that 
date been put among the treasures of the Biblioteca Colombina. 
Thus it may have fallen, with Luis's other papers, to his nephew 
and heir, Diego Colon y Pravia, who in 1578 entrusted them 
to Luis de Cardona. Here we lose sight of them. 

Las Casas's abridgment in his own handwriting, however, ha^ 
..... . come down to us, and some entries in it would seem to 

Abridged , , 

^lAfl indicate that Las Casas abridged a copy, and not the 
original. It was, up to 1886, in the library of the 
Duke of Orsuna, in Madrid, and was at that date bought by the 
Spanish government. While it was in the possession of Orsuna, 
it was printed by Varnhagen, in his Verdadera Guanahani 
(1864). It was clearly used by Las Casas in his own JBistoria^ 
and was also in the hands of Ferdinand, when he wrote, or out- 
lined, perhaps, what now passes for the life of his father, and 
Ferdinand's statements can sometimes correct or qualify the text 
in Las Casas. There is some reason to suppose that Herrera 
may have used the original. Las Casas tells us that in some 
parts, and particularly in describing the landfall and the events 
immediately succeeding, he did not vary the words of the origi- 
nal. This Las Casas abridgment was in the archives of the 
Duke del Infantado, when Navarrete discovered its importance, 
and edited it as early as 1791, though it was not given to the 
public till Navarrete published his Coleccion in 1825. When 
this journal is read; even as we have it, it is hard to imagine 
that Columbus could have intended so disjointed a performance 
to be an imitation of the method of CaBsar's Commentaries, 

The American public was early given an opportunity to judge 
of this, and of its importance. It was by the instigation of 
George Ticknor that Samuel Kettell made a translation of the 
text as given by Navarrete, and published it in Boston in 1827, 
as a Personal Narrative of the first Voyage of Columhus to 
America^ from a Manuscript recently discovered in Spain, 

We also know that Columbus wrote other concise accounts of 
his discovery. On his return voyage, during a gale, on Feb- 


roAry 14« 149S« fearing his ship would founder, he prepared *a 
ctatement oo parchment, which was incased in wax, 
put in a ban^ and thrown overboard, to take the uoMoThii 
chance of washing ashore. A simiUir account, protect- 
ee! in like manner, he placed on his vessers poop, to be washed 
•iff in case of disaster. Neither of these came, as far as is known, 
u> the notice of anybody. They ver^ likely simply duplicated the 
letters which he wrote on the voyage, intended to be dispatched 
to their destination on reaching port The dates and places of 
these letters are not reconcilable with his journal. He was ap- 
parently approaching the Azores, when, on February 15, he 
dated a letter ^'oflF the Canaries," direcrted to Luis de Sant- 
angeL So faLie a record as ** the Canaries " has never been 
suisfartorily explained. It may be imagined, perhaps, that the 
letter had been written when Columbus 8up|K>sed he would 
make those islands instead of the Azores, and that the place of 
writing was not changed. It is quite enough, howeveri to rest 
flatuAed with the fact that Columbus was always careless, and 
easily erred in such things, as Navarrete has shown. The post- 
script which is added is dated March 14, which seems hardly 
probable, or even possible, so that Man*h 4 has been suggested. 
He prt)fes!(eft to write it on the day of his entering the Tagus, 
and this was March 4. It is possible that he altered the date 
vhen be reached Palos, as is Major*8 opinion. (\)lumbu8 calls 
this a second letter. Perhaps a former letter was the one which, 
u alreaily stated, we have lost in the missing part of the Chrof^ 

The original of this letter to Santangel, the treasurer of Ar»> 
if»>n, and intended for the eyes of Fenlinand and Isa- Lrtt^,^ 
hella, was in Sjianish, and is known in what is thought ^**'>'*'v*'' 
to be a contemporary copy, found by Navarrete at Simancas ; 
^nJ it is printed by him in his f^tJecnon^ and is given by Ket- 
W-11 in English, to make no other mention of places wh«^re it is 
nocewible. HarriAiie denien that this Simanras mHnusc*ri])t rep- 
a^esenfei the original, as Navarrete hatl contended. A letter 
«iafted off the island of Santa Maria, the sotitherninost of the 
Awres, three days after tlie letter to Santangel. February 18, 
itiaily the same, and a4ldrf*H8ed ti) (rabrirl San(*hez, 1^,(^10 
foand in what seemed to Ik; an early copy, among *•»*•*»«• 
the papers of the Colegio Mayor de Cuenca. This text was 


printed by Vamhagen at Valencia, in 1858, as Primera Epistola 
del Almirante Don Cristobal Colon^ and it is claimed by him 
that it probably much more nearly represents the original of 
Columbus's own drafting. 

There was placed in 1852 in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana at 
p^^^ Milan, from the library of Baron Pietro Custodi, a 
•diuona. printed edition of this Spanish letter, issued in 1493, 
perhaps somewhere in Spain or Portugal, for Barcelona and 
Lisbon have been named. Harrisse conjectures that Sanchez 
gave his copy to some printer in Barcelona. Others have con- 
tended that it was not printed in Spain at all. No other copy 
of this edition has ever been discovered. It was edited by 
Cesare Correnti at Milan in 1863, in a volume called Lettere 
autogrqfe di Cristoforo Colombo^ nuovamente atampate, and 
was again issued in facsimile in 1866 at Milan, under the care 
of Girolamo d'Adda, as Lettera in lingua Spagnuola diretta 
da Cristoforo Colombo a Luis de Sant-AngeL Major and 
Becher, among others, have given versions of it to the English 
reader, and Harrisse gives it side by side with a French version 
in his Christophe Colomb (i. 420), and with an English one 
in his Notes on Columbus, 

This text in Spanish print had been thought the only avenue 
of approach to the actual manuscript draft of Columbus, till 
very recently two other editions, slightly varying, are said to 
have been discovered, one or both of which are held by some, 
but on no satisfactory showing, to have preceded in issue, prob- 
ably by a short interval, the Ambrosian copy. 

One of these newly alleged editions is on four leaves in 
quarto, and represents the letter as dated on February 15 and 
March 14, and its cut of type has been held to be evidence of 
having been printed at Burgos, or possibly at Salamanca. That 
this and the Ambrosian letter were printed one from the other, 
or independently from some unknown anterior edition, has been 
held to be clear from the fact that they correspond throughout 
in the division of lines and pages. It is not easily determined 
which was the earlier of the two, since there are errors in each 
corrected in the other. This unique four-leaf quarto was a few 
months since offered for sale in London, by Ellis and Elvey, 
who have published (1889) an English translation of it, with 
annotations by Julia E. 8. Rae. It is now understood to be in 


ihe poMeuioo of a New York collector. It u but fair to say 
thai iii»piciuiu of its genuineneaii have been entertained ; indo^ 
tkerv can be icaice a doabt that it is a modem fabrication. 

Th^ other of these newly discovered editions is in folio of two 
leavca. and was the last discovered, and was very recently held 
by Maisionneuve of Paris at <>5,000 francs, and has since been 
offervd by Quaritch in London for Xl,600. It is said to have 
brrn discovered in Spain, and to have been printed at Barce- 
lona ; and this last fact is thought to be apparent from the Cat- 
alan ft»rm of some of the Spanish, which lias disappeared in 
the Ambmiian text. It also gives the dates February 15 and 
Marvh 14. A facsimile edition has been issued under the title 
/-•J Ltttrt (If ChrUtophe Colombo annonfant la Dicouverte du 
.V"irrr«iif Monde, 

i*aleb Cushing, in the Xorth American lieview in October, 
1^:23, rvfers to newspaper stories then current of a recent sale 
of a ctipy of the Spanish text in Loudon, for £33 12s. to the 
Ihike of Buckingham. It cannot now be traced. 

Harriiwe finds in Ferdinand's catalogue of the Biblioteca 
i'olombina what was probably a Catalan text of this n^^x^ 
>)ani^ letter ; but it has disappeannl from the col- ^^ 

IWrgenroth found at Simaneas, some years ago, the text of 
aiii<her letter bv C*ohimbus, with the identical dutes 
^Irvaiiy give o« and addressed to a friend: but it eon- foandby 
^t\tA nothing not known in the ]»rinted Spanish texts. 
Hr. however, gave a full abstraet of it in the Calendar of /State 
Pitperg relatintj in Entjlaml and Spain. 

Columbus is known, aft4*r his return from the Hei*ond voyage, 
tfthavp lH*en the guest of Andri*s IWrnuIdez, the C'ura cniumim* 
•ir |iM Palat'ios, and he is alsci known t4) have plaei^il J>*Ji,S3r* 
)apm in this friend's hands ; and so it has Wen held '''''' 
probsble by Muflox that an<»tlier S|)anish text of (\>Iumbus*s 
^■^ areount is emUMrufd in B«*rnaldez*s Ilisfttria dv Ion liet^s 
^'*u/Jirtni. The uianuscript of this work, which gives thirteen 
<'hi|4rr% ti» l*olumbus, long rt*inained unprinted in the royal 
''^■rvy at Ma^lrid, and Irving, Pn*HCH>tt, and IIunilM>ldt all usc<l 
n 10 that ftirtn. It was finally ]»rinted at (inina4la in 18r>(>, as 
*^it«d by Miguel I^fuentc y Aleiintara, and was reprinted at 
^•"ille in 1870. Ilarrisse, in his ^'ofm nn Columhun^ gives an 
^lifth verHi«in of this MH'tion on tli«* ('olunibiis voyage. 


These, then, are all the varieties of the Spanish text of Co- 
lumbus's first announcement of his discovery which 

Varietiec of . -r^rt At a i • 

thespuiiah are at present known. When the Ambrosian text 
was thought to be the only printed form of it, Vam- 
hagen, in his Carta de Cristdhal Colon enviada de Lishoa d 
Barcelona en Marzo de 1493 (Vienna, 1869 ; and Paris, 1870), 
collated the different texts to try to reconstruct a possible 
original text, as Columbus wrote it. In the opinion of Major 
no one of these texts can be considered an accurate transcript 
of the original. 

There is a difference of opinion among these critics as to the 
Origin of the Origin of the Latin text which scholars generally cite 
uwntext, j^ ^jjjg gj^ij le^ej. of Columbus. Major thinks this 

Latin text was not taken from the Spanish, though similar to it ; 
while Varnhagen thinks that the particular Spanish text found 
in the Colegio Mayor de Cuenca was the original of the Latin 

There is nothing more striking in the history of the years 

immediately following the discovery of America than 

fame of the the transient character of the fame which Columbus 

acquired by it. It was another and later generation 

that fixed his name in the world^s regard. 

Harrisse points out how some of the standard chroniclers of 
the world's history, like Ferrebouc, Regnault, Galliot du Pr^ 
and Fabian, failed during the early half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury to make any note of the acts of Columbus ; and he could 
find no earlier mention among the German chroniclers than that 
of Ileinrich Steinhowel, some time after 1531. There was even 
great reticence among the chroniclers of the Low Countries ; and 
in England we need to look into the dispatches sent thence by 
the Spanish ambassadors to find the merest mention 
menuooi of Coluuibus SO early as 1498. Perhaps the refer- 
ence to him made eleven years later (1509), in an 
English version of Brandt's Shijppc of Fooh^ and another 
still ten years later in a little native comedy called The New 
Interlude^ may have been not wholly unintelligible. It was not 
till about 1550 that, so far as England is concerned, Columbus 
really became a historical character, in Edward Hall's Chron- 

Speaking of the fewness of the autographs of Columbus 


which are preterTed, HarrUse adds: **The fact is that Co- 
lainbas was Yety far from being in his lifetime the important 
prmoage he now is ; and bis writings, which tben commanded 
nrtiher respect nor attention, were probably thrown into the 
w a rt e -baaket as soon as received/* 

N«¥«rtheless, substantial proof seems to exist in the several 
cditiofu of the Latin version of this iirst letter, which 
wirre issued in the months immediately following tlie tiwUUB 
iTtum of Columbus from his first voyage, as well as 
in the popular versification of its text by Dati in two editions, 
Uich to October, 1498, besides another at Florence in 1495, 
vi *how that for a brief interval, at least, the news was more or 
Wm engrossing to the public mind in certain confined areas of 
• Earupe. Before the discovery of the printed editions of the 
Spanish text, there existed an impression that either the in- 
wnnt in Spain was less than in Italy, or some eflFort was made 
br the Spanish govemment to prevent a wide dissemination of 
ibr details of the news. 

The two (ienoese ambassadors who left Barcelona some time 
^ter the return of Columbus, perhaps in August, 1493, may 
ptsftiUy have taken to Italy with them some Spanish edition of 
Um* ttter. The news, however, hail in some form reached Komo 
:d *tiMm to be the subject of a pa|)al bull on May 3d. We know 
^ Aliander or Leander de Cosco, who made the Latin ver- 

t*w. Tt-nr likely from the Sanchez copy, finiHhed it probably at 
Rifn^lona, on the 29th of ApriK not on the 25th as is sometimes 
*^i. Cosco sent it at once to Komo to 1h» printed, and his manu« 
•nipi poMibly conveyed the first tidings, to Italy, — such is 
HarnMe's theory, — where it reached first the hands of the 
I^^»p of Monte Peloso, who abided to it a Latin e]>igram. It 
*>« ke who is supposed to have c<imniitte<l it to the printer in 
n*^tDf, and in that city, during the rent of 1493, four editions 
^ Itaflt of Cosoo*s I^atin a]>|>eare<l. Two of tlu^se etlitions are 
HippuMtl to be prinUnl by Plannck, a faniouH Uonian printer; 
'•^ i« known to have come from the press of Franck Sillwr. 
•^U Init one were litth* quartos, of the familiar old style, of three 
"f foQr blai*k-letter leaves ; while the exreptitm was a small oc- 
^v<» vitb woodcuts. It is Harrisse's o]nni<»n that this ])ictorial 
^itioQ was really printe<l at Bstde. In Paris, during the same 
^*^ or shortly after, there were three editions of a similar ap 


pearance, all from one press. Tlie Litest of all, brought to ligW 

Imt reoentlj, seems to have hemi printed by a liUtiiiguislieil 

ff i^llota tfbrflfofbriCorom ; ntf fCasnoftra imltu iSebctt de 
JnTuHsTridif ftipia fSangannupcr Inunuid'fid qnw perqof r 
rcndadoccauo antes mmfe oufptcfjiB'i ffi tnoictimmf f cmanr 
pboelnn Sannwdufdem IfTaufTuiil UrgieXcraurtiriD mifTai 
qoamnobiHe ocltmrocuB rtr SUinda-dctTorco ablTifpano 
fdcomatcin lattnutn conticrrtr : tertiottat'9d?si]>Q?'CCCC'lcUJ* 
pOfUfftamwSlecandri Qeai finno ptimo* 

QtTonf amfaTceptf pwulntlf mn pofectam me cSfecntun 
fttiffe gratum ribi fbic fcio: baa conftinit erararf: qij{ re 
imiuraiiurt^rd in boc noftro imcre gf ftf inacnrp^ ad/ 
morvant; JCriccrimorcrrio di( poft^ ©adibus difcf ffi in mare 
Jndicu peruml:rbi plurimae infuha innumcrle babitataa bor 
inmibu0rtppo1:quarinn omnium piofoelicifTfmollcgenoftro 
pif convo ctlebtaro i rerillie ccffliftoconrradicenrf mmirw pof/ 
rcflrroneinaccq)i:prcmfcpcaromdim Saluaronenomcn fnipff^ 
fui:flJiuglTcru9aunlioraiti adbanfr^adcfrfrasaliasperue/ 
niinua-tfam fra ^^di ©uanabafiin rocanr-Bliaram rria mam 
quanc^ nouo nomine nuncupaui'fQmppr alia tnfulam 6an£C{ 
OJartf i£om:q)noni9.alijm j-"emandmam • aliam 'Dp fabtllam» 
In cam infulam quadudum '^ohana vocari din appuHmue:iu 
eammagnanullorfpCTTofincmuaii:rrnon infulam: fed COIUI 
pida municJpiaucin mariti mis lira confinib'prfrfrahquoeri/ 
timl acnoopidebaiir funipt(banrf[jgam--p!cgn:ditbaTrltra: 
cctlUmane aliqua mt rrbnn nllafue fnumturum-^enii^iridte 
if longc admodum p;ogrcfTiB nibii noui emergtbam bmoi via 
no9 ad Septal rrioncm dcfn-cbat:if ipfc fugtrcetoptaba:terri» 


[Ficrn tbe Buloir rap;, do» In llic BiHtriii Fiiblk' Winry.] 

flemish printer, Thierry Martens, probably at Antwerp, 



a* DOl tmprolMiUe that other editions printed in all these or 
other cities may yet be found. It is noteworthy that nothing 
vas issued io Germany, as far as we know, before a German 
Tersioo of the letter appeared at Strassburg in 1497. 

Tbe text in all these Latin editions is intended to be the 
iaae. Bot a vety few copies of any edition, and only a single 
copy of two or three of them, are known. The Lenox, the Car- 
ter-Brown, and the Ives libraries in this country are the chief 
ones possessing any of them, and the collections of the late 
Henry C. Murphy and Samuel L. M. Barlow also possessed a 
cDpy or two, the edition owned by Barlow passing in Febnuuy, 
1S90« to the Boston Public Library. This scarcity and the 
rivalry of collectors would probably, in case any one of them 
UiKittkl be brought upon the market, raise the price to fifteen 
baodrod dollars or more. The student is not so restricted as 
this might imply, for in several cases there have been modem 
farsiatiles and reprints, and there is an early reprint by Ve- 
radoa, annexed to his poem (1494) on the capture of Granada. 
The text usually quoU*d by the older writers, however, is that 
embodied in the Brllum Chrintianorum Princijmm of Ko- 
beftas Monarchus (Basle, 1533). 

In these original small <[uartoA and octavos, there is just 
•-noagh uncertainty and obsKuirity as to dates and ])rinti'r8, to 
XxxTT biblic»graphers and critirs of ty|)(>graphy into reseaivh and 
«^*ntroversy ; and hanily any two of them agree in iissigning 
the same onler of publication to these sevenil issues. ord«rof 
Th<? present writ4»r has in the M'(*ond voluino of the i***"*^*****- 
.V'tmttirr and Critintl Illninry of A mrrica grou|KHl the varied 
vi«-w«, so far as tht^v had in 188/> lieen made kn<iwn. The bib> 
li«»graphy to which Harrisse n^fors as being at the end of his 
«ork on Columbus was crowdetl out of its ])hu'e and has not ap- 
fi>*are<l ; but he enters into a long examination of the question 
«>f priority in tlie set*oiid rhaptiT of his last volume. The ear- 
liest Kogiish translation of this I^tin text ap|ieared in the 
KdiiUfmrt/h Itfrirw in 181t>, and other issues have been va- 
rif»usly made since that dato. 

We get some details of this first voyagi* in Ovi«»do, which we 
do Dot find in the journal, and Vicentt^' VaAoz Piiizon and ller- 
nao Perex Matheos, who were companions of Columbus, are 


said to be the source of this additional matter. The testimony 
AddiUoiua "^ *^® lawsuit of 1515, particularly that of Garcia 
■ourcesr^ Hemaudez, who was in the " Pinta," and of a sailor 

■pecting the ' , ^ ' 

flrrt voyage named Francisco Garcia Vallejo, adds other details. 
<» There is no existing account by Columbus himself of his ex- 
Second voy- pericnces during his second voyage, and of that cruise 
*^* along the Cuban coast in which he supposed himself 

to have come in sight of the Golden Chersonesus. The Historie 
tells us that during this cruise he kept a journal, Libra del 
Segwido Viage, till he was prostrated by sickness, and this 
itinerary is cited both in the Historie and by Las Casas. We 
also get at second-hand from Columbus, what was derived from 
him in conversation after his return to Spain, in the account of 
these explorations which Bemaldez has embodied in his Het/es 
Catdlicos. Irving says that he found these descriptions of 6er- 
naldez by far the most useful of the sources for this period, as 
giving him the details for a picturesque narrative. On disem- 
barking at Cadiz in June, 1495, Columbus sent to his sover- 
eigns two dispatches, neither of which is now known. 

It was in the collection of the Duke of Veragua that Navar- 
coiumbuB't ^^^ discovered fifteen autograph letters of Columbus^ 
letters. f^^j. q£ f^y^Qj^ addrcsscd to his friend, the Father Gas- 
par Gorricio, and the rest to his son Diego. Navarrete speaks 
of them when found as in a very deplorable and in parts al- 
most unreadable condition, and severely taxing, for deciphering 
them, the practiced skill of Tomas Gonzalez, which had been 
acquired in the care which he had bestowed on the archives 
of Simancas. It is known that two letters addressed to Gor- 
ricio in 1498, and four in 1501, beside a single letter addressed 
in the last year to Diego Colon, which were in the iron chest at 
Las Cuevas, are not now in the archives of the Duke of Vera- 
gua ; and it is further known that during the great lawsuit of 
Columbus's heirs, Cristoval de Cardona tampered with that 
chest, and was brought to account for the act in 1580. What- 
ever he removed may possibly some day be found, as Harrisse 
thinks, among the notarial records of Valencia. 

Two letters of Columbus respecting his third voyage are only 
Third voy- kuown iu early copies ; one in Las Casas's hand boi 
■**• longed to the Duke of Orsuna, and the other ad- 

dressed to the nurse of Prince Juan is in the Custodia collection 
at Genoa. Both are printed by Navarrete. 


Colaiiibos« in a letter dmted December 27, 1504, mentions a re- 
htioQ of hu fourth voyage with a supplement, which he wouxth n^. 
kul seat from Seville to Oderigo ; but it is not known. "<** 
We are without trace also of other letters, which he wrote at 
IXKutnica and at other points during this voyage. We do 
k»iw« however, a letter addressed by Columbus to Ferdinand 
and Isabella, giving some account of his voyage to July 7, 1508. 
The lost Spanish original is represented in an early copy, which 
is printed by Navarrete. Though no contemporary Spanish 
edition is known, an Italian version was issued at Venice in 
ir»Oo, as Copia de la LttUra per Colombo mandata. This was 
nrprinted with comments by Morelli, at Bassano, in 1810, and 
the title which this librarian gave it of Lettera liarissima has 
clung to \U in most of the citations which refer to it. 

Peter Martyr, writing in January, 1494, mentions just having 
tvcvived a letter from Columbus, but it is not known to exist 

Las Casas is said to have once possessed a treatise by Co- 
lomlnu oo the information obtained from Portuguese 
and Spanish pilots, concerning western lands ; and he oMaCoioai. 

al«o refers to Libros de MemoriaB del Almirante. 
He* iift also known by his own statements to have had numerous 
autugraph letters of Columbus. What has become of them i£ 
u-4 known. If they were left in the monastery of San Uregorio 
at Valladolid, where Las Casas usetl them, they have disap- 
pi-guvd with papers of the convent, since they were not among 
tht- archives of the suppresse<I convents, as Ilarrisse tells us, 
«hK*h were entmste<l in 1860 to the Academv of History at 

In his letter to Dofta Juana, Columbus says that he has de- 
pMited a work in the Convent de la Mejonula, in workonUw 
which be has predicted the discovery of the Arctic ^'^^**«p<>*^ 
poU. It has not been found. 

llarriMe also tells us of the unsuccessful .Hearc*h which he has 
madr for an alleged letter of Columbus, said in Crun- mMtag 
thrr and Si*hultx*s handUmk of aut«>j:^phs ( I^Mpzig, ****•"• 
1nS6) to have been bought in England by the Diiko of Buck- 
ingham ; and it was learne<l from Tross, the Paris lK>oks(41er, 
that aboat 1850 some autiigraph letters of Columbus, seen by 
kins, were sent to England for sale. 


After his return from bis first voyage, Columbus prepared a 
ooinmbas't °^^P ^^^ ^° accompanying table of longitudes and lati- 
""•^ tudes for tbe new discoveries. Tbey are knovm to 

have been the subject of correspondence between him and the 

There are various other references to maps which Columbus 
had constructed, to embody his views or show his discoveries. 
Not one, certainly to be attributed to him, is known, though 
Ojeda, Nifio, and others are recorded as having used, in their 
explorations, maps made by Columbus. Peter Martyr's Ian- 
guage does not indicate that Columbus ever completed any 
chart, though he had, with the help of his brother Bartholomew, 
begun one. The map in the Ptolemy of 1513 is said by San- 
tarem to have been drawn by Columbus, or to have been based 
on his memoranda, but the explanation on the map seems rather 
to imply that information derived from an admiral in the ser- 
vice of Portugal was used in correcting it, and since Harrisse 
has brought to light what is usually called the Cantino map, 
there is strong ground for supposing that the two had one pro- 

Let us pass from records by Columbus to those about him. 
We owe to an ancient custom of Italy that so much 
tariai reo- has been preserved, to throw in the aggregate no small 
amount of light on the domestic life of the family in 
which Columbus was the oldest born. During the fourteen 
years in which his father lived at Savona, every little business 
act and legal transaction was attested before notaries, whose 
records have been preserved filed in Jilzas in the archives of 
the town. 

These ^feas were simply a file of documents tied together by 
a string passed through each, and a jilza generally embraced a 
year's accumulation. The photographic facsimile which Har- 
risse gives in his Columbus and the Bank of Saint George^ of 
the letter of Columbus preserved by the bank, shows how the 
sheet was folded once lengthwise, and then the hole was made 
midway in each fold. 

We learn in this way that, as early as 1470 and later, Colum- 
bus stood security for his father. We find him in 1472 the 
witness of another's will. As under the Justinian procedure 


tke ooUuT*fl declaration sufficed, rach documents in Italy are 
Boc rradered additionally interesting by the autograph of the 
witncsa, as they would be in England. This notarial resource is 
DO new discovery. As early as 1G02, thirteen documents drawn 
fnmi Aimilar de{XMitaries were printed at Genoa, in some anno- 
tations by (iiulio Salinerio upon Cornelius Tacitus. Other 
ftiniilar pa|)er8 were discovered by the archivists of Savona, 
ifian Tommaso and Gianibattista Belloro, in 1810 (reprinted, 
1^21 ) and 1839 respectively, and proving the general correct- 
DTflkA of the earlier accounts of Columbus*s younger days g^ven 
in <vallu, Senarega, and Uiustiniani. It is to be regretted that 
tikr original entries of some of these notarial acts are not now 
to he found* but patient search may yet discover them, and 
erm do something more to elucidate the life of the Columbus 
familv in Savona. 

Tkere has been brought into prominence and published 
boelv a memoir of the illustrious natives of Savona, 
writti^ by a lawyer, Giovanni Vincenzo Verzellino, 
wbo died in tliat town in 1688. This document was printed at 
>aTima in 18K'>, under the editorial care of Andrea Astengo; 
t'lX HarriHAe has given gpreatcr curn^ncy to its elucidations for 
•Hir purpoM* in his Chrintophr C<Jomb et Savone (Genoa, 
l^^TT I. 

IIarri«>««e is not unwisc^lv confident that the nineteen docu- 
tti«-nt4 — if no more have been added — throwing li^ht q^^^ o^u. 
«»n minor {utints «if the obscurt* {larts of the life of Co- '*^ »«»«*»■ 
lumbu« aiul hi.H kindre<l, which during: recent years have been 
dlM^>vftvtl in tlie notarial files of (ienoa by the Marquis Mar- 
c*-ll«» Staglieno, may be only the pretMintors of others yet to be 
cn«»arthe<U and that the pages of the Ginrnale Luj9intico may 
O'Htinue to re(*onl such discoveries an it has in the past. 

TIm- n-conis of tlic Itaiik of Saint (leor^^e in (lenoa have 
«irMr«i Mini«*thini:, but not niiieh. In tlie state arehives 

ltM*orilM of 

of 4 trmia. preservtHi sinec 1817 in the Palaz7A*tto, we thr^Buikof 
mi;;fat hofie to fin<l S4)me n*port of the gn*at discover}', 
4ftl which the (tencK'se ambassailons Franeeseo Marohesio and 
( tbin Aotimio Grimakli, were informed, just as th(*y W(>re takin*; 
Irave of Fenlinand and IsalieHa for returniii}^ to Italy ; but 
noChing of thai kind has yet been brought to ii;;ht there ; nor w:is 
it rrrr there, unless the account which Senarega gives in the 


narrative printed in Muratori was borrowed thence. We may 
hope, but probably in vain, to have these public archives deter- 
mine if Columbus really offered to serve his native country in 
a voyage of discovery. The inquirer is more fortunate if he 
explores what there is left of the archives of the old abbey of 
St. Stephen, which, since the suppression of the convents in 
1797, have been a part of the public papers, for he can find in 
them some help in solving some pertinent questions. 

Harrisse tells us in 1887 that he had been waiting two years 
Vatican ar- ^^^ permission to search the archives of the Vatican. 
ohiTea. What may yet be revealed in that repository, the 
world waits anxiously to learn. It may be that some one shall 
yet discover there the communication in which Ferdinand and 
Isabella announced to the Pope the consummation of the hopes 
of Columbus. It may be that the diplomatic correspondence cov- 
ering the claims of Spain by virtue of the discovery of Colum- 
bus, and leading to the bull of demarcation of May, 1493, may 
yet be found, accompanied by maps, of the highest interest in 
interpreting the relations of the new geography. There is no 
assurance that the end of manuscript disclosures has yet come. 

Some new bit of documentary proof has been found 
inanu- at times in places quite unexpected. The number of 

Italian observers in those days of maritime excitement 
living in the seaports and trading places of Spain and Portugal, 
kept their home friends alert in expectation by reason of such 

appetizing news. Such are the letters sent to Italy 
about Co- by Hanibal Januarius, and by Luca, the Florentine 

engineer, concerning the first voyage. There are 
similar transient summaries of the second voyage. Some have 
been found in the papers of Macchiavelli, and others had been 
arranged by Zorzi for a new edition of his documentary collec- 
tion. These have all been recovered of recent years, and Har- 
risse himself, GargioUi, Guerrini, and others, have been instru- 
mental in their publication. 

It was thirty-seven years after the death of Columbus before, 
spanifth under an order of Charles the Fifth, February 19, 
apchivea. 1543^ the archivcs of Spain were placed in some sort 
of order and security at Simancas. The great masses of 
papers filed by the crown secretaries and the Coimcils of the 


IiMlie% mntl of Se\iUe, were gradually gathered there, but not 
until many had been lost. Others apparently disappeared at a 
lai^rr day, for we are now aware that many to which Ilerrera 
n* fen emnnoC be found. New efforts to secure the preservation 
and systemattie the accumulation of manuscripts were made by 
order of Philip the Second in 1567, but it would seem with- 

• »ut all the success that might have been desired. Towards the 

• otl of the last centur>\ it ^*as the wish of Charles the Third 

th»t all the public papers relating to the New World i ^i 

Uioakl be selected from Simanoas and all other places *^ 8*vu>^ 
f»f d«*posit and carried to Seville. The act was accomplished in 
1788, when they were placed in a new building which had been 
provided for them. Thus it is that to-day the student of Co> 
Iambus must rather search Seville than Siiuancas for new doc- 
omrnta, though a few papers of some interest in connection 
with the contests of his heirs with the crown of Castile may 
•till exist at Simancas. Thirty years ago, if not now, as Bergen- 
roch tells ua, there was little comfort for the student of history 
in wt»rking at Simancas. The papers are preserved 
in an old castle, formerly belonging to the admirals 
of CaAtile, which had been confiscated and devoted to the uses 
«»f %iioh a reportitor}*. The one large room which was assigned 
f<»r the accommodation of readers had a northern aspei*t, and 
X* n«» fires were allowed, the note-taker found not infrecjuently 
m winter the ink partially cH>ngeale4l in his pen. There was no 
imaginable warmth even in the landsca|>e as seen from the 
« iDtiows, since, amid a treeless waste, the whistle of cold blasts 
;n winter and a blinding African heat in summer characterize 
thr climate of this part of Old Castile. 

Of the early career of Cohinibus, it is very certain that 
*<»iiiething may be gained at Simancas, for when IWr^enroth, 
«rnt by the Knglish goveniiuent, niatle s€*ar(*h then* to illuntnite 
the relations of S|iain with Kngland, and ]>ublisluHl his results, 
«ith the assintance of (iayangos, in 18t>2-1870. as a Calendar 
*y L^ttrrn^ heMfHiirhen^ and State Papers relatintj to Xetjotia- 
fi-#fiji fpetfreen Entjland and Spain ^ one of the earliest en tries of 
hi« first printed volume, und(*r 14H/), was a complaint of Ferdi- 
nAod and Isabella agiiinst a ( \)himl)UH — some havi* siip|)osed 
it <Hir (*hristopher — for \\\^ |»;irti(*i|mnoy in the piratical service 
o# th^ Fr»»nrh. 


IlarriAte oonipluiiis that we have as yet but scant knowledge 
of what the an'biveii of the Indies at Seville may con- 
but they proljably throw light rather ui>on the 

of Columbus tluin uiM»n the cancer of the Admiral 

Tbe notarial an*hives of Seville are of rt^cent <*onstruction, 
the gathering of scatU'retl material having been first 

Lite as 18(>iK The jKirtial examination nouru 
vhieli baa lunoe bet*n niaile of thiMu has revealed some 
Uiglift eTidenceN of the life of some of Columbus's kindreil, and 
it ie cpiite fiossible some future inquirer will lie rewarded for 
kU diligent search among them. 

It ia also not unlikely that something of interest may bo 
brooght to light res|HH*ting the descendants of Columbus who 
bave lived in Seville* like the Counts of (fclves ; hut little can 
be expected reganling the life of the Admiral himsc*lf. 

T^ pemonal fame «>f Columbus is much m(»re intimately con- 
rith the monastery of Santa Maria <le his Cue- 
Ilerv his remains were trans|K)rteil in V^W ; and arUuCu*- 
at a later time, his brother and son, e:u*h Diego by 
namr, were laid beside him, as was his gnnnlson Luis. IIei*e 
in an in>n ch<*st the family munimrnts and jewels were kt*pt, 
a* baa been said. It is aftirm«Ml that all th«* diK^unieiits which 
mif^t have grown out of thesi* tran^ai'tionn df duty aii«l preeau- 
tioo, and which mi;;ht incid«*ntally have yieldtMl souk* biot^iph- 
irml information, an* nowhere t4i In* fouml in the reeords of the 
iDOoaater}*. A ivntury af^o or so. wh(*n Miitio/. was workin*; in 
tbrae rpc«irds« then* si-ems to have lN*en enou;;h t4) n*pa\ his 
•-aertiona, as we know by his eitatious made lK*tw(*i*n 1781 and 

The national an*hive4 of tin* Torn* do TonilN>, at Lis}>on, 
br^^n »o far bai*k as lI^IH), an* well known ti» have i...rt,ifcnir« 
brra explon^l by Santan*in. then tin'ir kfi*|HT, pri- r/n*7j 
narilr for trac**'* of the eaniT of Vf Njnn-inM ; but -^o "'■"•''" 
tntrlligent an antiipiary (*ouIil not havf f<>ri:ott*>n. :i< a s«>eond- 
arv aim, tho aeti of (*i»luinbn^. The >«i':iri*h viflilcd him, liow- 
wxvT^ nothing in this last direetion ; nor w-i-t Variilia^^i'U more 
fortunati*. Harris^M* had Iio]h-s to di-M-ovi-r tlien* tin* eorre- 
«poniifn<H' of Cohnnbus with •li>liii tin* Sci>oii«l. in 148H; but tin* 


search was futile in this respect, though it yielded not a little 
respecting the. Perestrello family, out of which Columbus took 
his wife, the mother of the heir of his titles. There is even 
hope that the notarial acts of Lisbon might serve a similar pur- 
pose to those which have been so fruitful in Genoa and Savona. 
There are documents of great interest which may be yet ob- 
scurely hidden away, somewhere in Portugal, like the letter 
from the mouth of the Tagus, which Columbus on his return in 
March, 1493, addressed to the Portuguese king, and the diplo- 
matic correspondence of John the Second and Ferdinand of 
Aragon, which the project of a second voyage occasioned, as 
well as the preliminaries of the treaty of Tordesillas. 

There may be yet some hope from the archives of Santo 
Domin&fo itself, and from those of its Cathedral, to 

Santo Do- ... 

mingo trace in some of their lines the descendants of the 

Admiral through his son Diego. The mishaps of na- 
ture and war have, however, much impaired the records. Of 
Columbus himself there is scarce a chance to learn anything 
Lawsuit here. The papers of the famous lawsuit of Diego 
papers. Colon with the crown seem to have escaped the at- 
tention of all the historians before the time of Muiloz and 
Navarrete. The direct line of male descendants of the Ad- 
miral ended in 1578, when his great-grandson, Diego Colon 
y Pravia, died on the 27th January, a childless man. Then 
began another contest for the heritage and titles, and it lasted 
for thirty years, till in 1608 the Council of the Indies judged 
the rights to descend by a turn back to Diego's aunt Isabel, 
and thence to her grandson, Nufio de Portugallo, Count of 
Gelves. The excluded heirs, represented by the children of a 
sister of Diego, Francisca, who had married Diego Ortegon, 
were naturally not content ; and out of the contest which fol- 
lowed we get a large mass of printed statements and counter 
statements, which used with caution, offer a study perhaps of 
some of the transmitted traits of Columbus. Harrisse names 
and describes nineteen of these documentary memorials, the 
last of which bears date in 1792. The most important of them 
all, however, is one printed at Madrid in 1606, known as Me- 
tnorial del Pleyto^ in which we find the descent of the true and 
spurious lines, and learn something too much of the scandalous 
life of Luis, the grandson of the Admiral, to say nothing of the 


lUrgiumate tainU of various other branches. Ilarrisse finds 
i!4uSance in working out some of the lines of the Admiral^s de- 
iraiilanU, in Antonio Caetano de Sousa^s Ilistoria Genealogica 
f/«i /Vi4Hi Rttil Portwjueza (Lisbon, 17S5-49« in 14 vols.). 

The moHt important collection of documents gathered by in- 

ilivklual efforU in S|)ain, to illustrate the early his- TboMuSot 

u»ry of the New World, was that made by Juan Bau- *»"•****»«• 

U*ta Muil4)x« in pursuance of royal orders issued to him in 1781 

ind 1788, to examine all Siianish archives, for the purpose of 

collecting material for a comprehensive History of the Indies. 

Mufltii lias given in the introduction of his history a clear 

fttatrnient of the condition of the different dejiositories of 

irrhives in S|iain, as he found them towards the end of the 

U»t century-, when a royal onlcr o|)ene<l them all to his search. 

A first volume of MuAoz*s elaborate and judicious work was 

i&«ued in 1793, and Muflox die<l in 1799, without venturing on 

a 4t<t^>nd volume to carry the 8t4»ry beyond 1500, where he had 

Wft iL lie was attacked for his views, and there was more or 

ie*s of a pamphlet war over the book before death took him 

frnm the strife : but he left a fragment of the second volume in 

manuscript, and of this there is a c*opy in the Ix^nox Library in 

N*n York. Another c*opy was sold in the Urinlev wile. The 

Af uiitix odlection of i^opies came in part, at least, at some time 

=ift«-r iIm* i*«»llet*tor*H death int4> the liaiuls of Ant4>nio do Uguina, 

^h*» pla4V<l them at the dis|H>sal of Irving ; and Trrnaux seeiiis 

al«i> to liave umhI them. They were finally di*|K>sit4*<l by the 

>|«ani!»h goveninM*nt in the Acadiiny of Ilistor}' at Madrid. 

Wvtit Alfre<l I>i*niers4»y saw thorn in l8(>*2-ti3, and des(*rib4Hl 

thrni in the Hull et in of the Frt*nch ( leogniphical S«K*ioty in 

JuUf*. lHti4, and it is on this dosoription an well as on one in 

Fu*lfr'* liiUiotrrfi I'tilrnrianti^ that llarrisso do|>ends, not 

iuvin;: him^'lf oxamined the documents. 

Martin Foniandex d«' Navarn*te was guidinl in his carei'r an 
1 tHiUtvtor of dfH'unients wlu^n i harlos tlie Fourth 
ouiib* an ordor, (K*t4>ber lo. 11 W. that thon* should l>e rf^'ron^-. 
•orh a work U^gun to constitute tho niiolons of a 
libnr\ ami inuM*uni. Th«' tn>ul>lous times whioh sno€*o4Hle<l in- 


ifmipted the work, and it was nt>t till 182*') that Navarrote 
l>r«Mi;;ht out the first volunio of his Coltrrlnn dv Inn VlmfeH i/ 
Ihtr-fihrimientoM f^nr hicitrofi pnr Mar Ins /CttjuiNnlrH tlttde 


Fines del Siglo XV.^ a publication which a fifth volume com- 
pleted in 1837, when he was over seventy years of age. 

Any life of Columbus written from documentary sources 
must reflect much light from this collection of Navarrete, of 
which the first two volumes are entirely given to the career of 
the Admiral, and indeed bear the distinctive title of HdacioneSj 
Cartas y otros Documentos^ relating to him. 

Navarrete was engaged thirty years on his work in the ar- 
chives of Spain, and was aided part of the time by 
Marches of Mufioz the histoHan, and by Gonzales the keeper of 
the archives at Simancas. His researches extended 
to all the public repositories, and to such private ones as could 
be thought to illustrate the period of discovery. Navarrete has 
told the story of his searches in the various archives of Spain, 
in the introduction to his Coleccion^ and how it was while 
searching for the evidences of the aUeged voyage of Maldonado 
on the Pacific coast of North America, in 1588, that he stum- 
bled upon Las Casas's copies of the relations of Columbus, for 
his first and third voyages, then hid away in the archives of the 
Due del Infantado ; and he was happy to have first brought 
them to the attention of Mu£ioz. ^ 

There are some advantages for the student in the use of the 
French edition of Navarrete's Relations des Qiiatre Voyages 
entrepris par Colombo since the version was revised by Navar- 
rete himself, and it is elucidated, not so much as one would 
wish, with notes by Kdmusat, Balbi, Cuvier, Jomard, Letronne, 
St. Martin, Walckenaer, and others. It was published at Paris 
in three volumes in 1828. The work contains Navarrete's ac- 
counts of Spanish pre-Columbian voyages, of the later literature 
on Columbus, and of the voyages of discovery made by other 
efforts of the Spaniards, beside the documentary material re- 
specting Columbus and his voyages, the result of his continued 
labors. Caleb Cushing, in bis Reminiscences of Spain in 1833, 
while commending the general purposes of Navarrete, complains 
of his attempts to divert the indignation of posterity from the 
selfish conduct of Ferdinand, and to vindicate him from the 
charge of injustice towards Columbus. This plea does not find 
to^ay the same sympathy in students that it did sixty years 

Father Antonio de Aspa of the monastery of the Mejorada, 


formed a collection of documents relating to the discovery of 
tbe New World, and it was in this collection, now pre- 

* Madrid 

•rrrrd in the Academy of History at Madrid, that acmi«b7o( 
Navarrele discovered that curious narration of the 
i«eood voyage of Columbus by Dr. Chanca, which had been sent 
t«> tbr chapter of the Cathedral, and which Navarrete included 
in ht!« collection. It is tliought that Bemaldea had used this 
i hanca narrative in his Reyf» Cat6licos. 

Navarrvte'ii name is also connected, as one of its cilitors, with 
the cxtcmtive (\Jrrrlon Je Ihjrutnfnton Inediton para 
i't I/tjiioria iff /C^jHifia^ the publication of which was iM»r»tment0t 
U-j^tin in Madrid in 1847, two years before Navarrete^s 
d««th. This collection yields something in elucidation of the 
•t«iry to be here told ; but not much, except that in it, at a late 
da} . the liiMnria of Las Casas was first printc<l. 

Id 1804, there was stiU another series begun at Madrid, 
f''Jerriom dr Ih^mmenton Ineditoa rtlativntt at Drscubrimiento^ 
i ''^H*^9tista y CiJimlzacinn de las Po$e»loneH K»pahfJafi en 
America y Orrania^ under the editing of Joaquin Pacheco and 
F'ranrt4cu de i^artlonas, who have not always satisfied students 
br the way in which they have done their work. Beyond the 
japrrs which Xavarrcte ha<l earlier given, and which are here re- 
|*rint«d« there is not much in this c^ollection to rc]>ay the student 
of C%»lumbuA, except M>me long accounts of the Kc])artimicnto 
in K«|iaAoku 

Th«- latA^ documentary contribution is the large folio, with 
ui ap|»<*ndix of fai*siniile writings of Colmnhus, Ves- carucdt 
l';>«*iui^ and others, publisheil at Madrid in 1877, by ^'^^^ 
tl>«- pjvcniment* and callinl Cartas dr Imlian^ in which it has 
\trm. n hinted some use has been niailc of the matter accumulated 

bv Navarrete for additional volumes of his (.\Jrccion. 


la rrftTrorr to the Ikrlartirion th Tahiti Sarigtitttrin {nnte^\\. 7) llarrituie 
tA« n^rratlj rrf'xaniiiMit thi* iiianiiM*n|>t in tht* Kiii)^\ tiltRtry nt Madrid, 
\mi htmi% it ti» ciintaiti C'«iluiii)>ii«**!t W(dl-kni>frn ai'ooiiiit of liin thinl voyiige, 
&aJ a r*)^^y of tbe nwrypnal lr)^«nfU attarhrd tti the* V^r\% (Mipy of th<* (*alM»t 
-aap r4 l.'V44. a* «ritt«*u h\ a I>r. <trsjal<'!i, which in thr **rartA de nave- 
r»r " rrfrrrrd to. Tbrff furr, llumfioldt and othtT* have ernnl in calling 
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We mav UKMt readily divide by the nationalities of the writers 
oar enumeration of those who liave used the material which haa 
kwn coDMdered in the previous chapter. Wc begin, naturally, 
vith the Italians, the countrvinen of Columbus. We mav look 
firts to three (lenoese, and it has been shown that while they 
used documents ap|)arently now lost, they took nothing 
from them which we cannot get from other sources ; 
uftd tbey all borrowetl from common originals, or from each 
cichfr. Two of tliese writers are Antonio Crallo, the official 
c-krr>nit*U*r of tlie (lenoese Republic, on the first and second voy- 
of Columbus, and so presumably writing before the third 
made« and Rartholomew Senarega on the affairs of Genoa, 
U»ch (»f whii'h recitals were publishetl by Muratori, in his great 
Italian cHdItftion. The thinl is (iiustiniaui, the Bishop of 
NrbbiiK who. publishing in 1510, at (lenosi, a polyglot Ps;ilter, 
Aiidrd, as one of his elucidations of the iiineti*enth ps^ilni, on the 
|iira ttiat i\»lumbuH had often boaste<l he was c*hos4»n to fulfill 
It* pn»ph«*«*y, a brief life of Columbus, in which the story of the 
bumble origin of the navigator has in the |)ast l>een hup{)osed 
U* have first Invu t4>ld. The other atHHHints, it now :ip])ears* 
had gi%'en that c<mdition an iH|ual pnmiinence. Giu- 
fttiniani was but a child when Columbus left Genoa, 
aiHl ecKiU not have known him ; and taking, ver^' likely, much 
fi^icn brmrmay, he might have msule some errors, which were n*- 
pratnl or only |Kirtly c*orrei*t«Ml in his Annals of (leiioa, pub- 
it«b«tl in 1«*>«)7, the year following his own death. It is not found, 
kowever, tliat the sketch is in any essential {mrticular far from 
r«<mn*t« and it has Iwen confinn«Hl by nnvnt investigations. The 
fla^li»h of it is given in IIarriss4'*s ynten on (^plumhus (pp. 
74-7yi. The statements of the Psalter res|>ecting Coluiiibns 
««-f>- rrrkoned with other things so falsi* that tlu* Senate of 


Genoa prohibited its perusal and allowed no one to possess it, 
— at least so it is claimed in the Historie of 1571 ; but no one 
has ever found such a decree, nor is it mentioned by any who 
would have been likely to revert to it, had it ever existed. 

The account in the Collectanea of Battista Fulgoso (some- 
times written Fregoso), printed at Milan in 1509, is of scarcely 
any original value, though of interest as the work of another 
Genoese. Allegetto degli AUegetti, whose Ephemerides is also 
published in Muratori, deserves scarcely more credit, though he 
seems to have got his information from the letters of Italian 
merchants living in Spain, who communicated current news to 
their home correspondents. Ber&fomas, who had pub- 
lished a chronicle as early as 1483, made additions to 
his work from time to time, and in an edition printed at Venice, 
in 1503, he paraphrased Columbus's own account of his first 
voyage, which was reprinted in the subsequent edition of 1506. 
In this latter year Maffei de Volterra published a commentary 
at Rome, of much the same importance. Such was the filtering 
process by which Italy, through her own writers, acquired con- 
temporary knowledge of her adventurous son. 

The method was scarcely improved in the condensation of 
Jovius (1551), or in the traveler's tales of Benzoni (1565). 

Harrisse affirms that it is not till we come down to the 
casoni, Annals of Genoa, published by Filippo Casoni, in 
1708. 1708, that we get any new material in an Italian 

writer, and on a few points this last writer has adduced docu- 
mentary evidence, not earlier made known. It is only when we 
pass into the present century that we find any of the country- 
men of Columbus undertaking in a sustained way to tell the 
whole story of Columbus's life. Leon had noted that at some 
time in Spain, without giving place and date, Columbus had 
printed a little tract, Declaracion de Tahia Navigatoria ; but 
no one before Luigi Bossi had undertaken to investigate the 
writings of Columbus. He is precursor of all the 
modern biographers of Columbus, and his book was 
published at Milan, in 1818. He claimed in his appendix ta 
havp added rare and unpublished documents, but Harrisse 
points out how they had all been printed earlier. 

Bossi expresses opinions respecting the Spanish nation that 
are by no means acceptable to that people, and Navarrete not 


mfnN{iientlT takes the Italian writer to task for this as for his 
I maoy errors of statement, and for the confidence which he 
pLvvs even in the pictorial designs of De Bry as historical 

There is nothing more striking in the history of American 
JiHx>TerT than the fact that the Italian people furnished to 
S|ttin Columbus, to England Cabot, and to France Verrazano ; 
ftiiil that the three leading powers of Europe, following as mari- 
time eiplorers in the lead of Portugal, who could not dispense 
with Vespucius, another Italian, pushed their rights through 
mrn whom they had borrowed from the central region of the 
Mediterranean, while Italy in its own name never jxissessed a 
fuod of American soil. The adopted country of each of these 
Italians gave more or less of its own impress to its foster child. 
No ooe of these men was so impressible as Columbus, and no 
oonntry so much as Spain was likely at this time to exercise an 
iadnence on the character of an alien. Humboldt has remarked 
that C^Jumbus got his theological fervor in Andalusia and 
(tranada, and we can scarcely imagine Columbus in the garb of 
a Franciscan walking the streets of free and commercial Genoa 
as be did those of Seville, when he returneil from his second 
Toy ape. 

The latest of the irfmsiderable popular Italian lives of Colum- 
ba* i* G. B. I>emoyne*H (\»lombn e la Scoperta delP America^ 
i*<»urd at Turin, in 1873. 

We may |iass now to the historians of that country to which 
r«.|unibu!t lietook himself on leaving: luily ; but about all to be 
f«Hin«i at firnt hand is in the ohronirlo of Jofto II. of prmiriMi 
Pitrtn^ral. as pre|)are<I by Kuy tie Pinii, the art*hivist ^^^^ 
*4 the Torre do Tomljo. At the time of the voyage of Colura- 
i*a« Kuy was over fifty, while (lart^ia 4le Kesende was a youti^ 
man th«*n living at the Portnp]es4> court, who in his (Itoroniat^ 
|iublL%he<l in 1 r>llti, did little more tiian iNirrow from his el<ler« 
Kiiv ; and Kenendt* in turn furnish<*(l to JoSo dt* Ikirros the 
fttaple of tin* lattt*r*s narrative in his />ir/irAi da Asia^ printed 
at Lii»bun, in 17o2. 

We find more of value when we sunmion tiu* Spanish writers. 
Although Peter Martyr crAn^hieni was an Italian, MuFioz 


reckons him a Spaniard, since he was naturalized in Spain. 
8pani-h He was a man of thirty years, when, coming from 
wTiterfc Rome, he settled in Spain, a few years before Colum- 
bus attracted much notice. Martyr had been borne thither 
Peter ^^ ^ rcputatiou of his own, which had commended 

^^^*^' his busy young nature to the attention of the Spanish 
court. He took orders and entered upon a prosperous career, 
proceeding by steps, which successively made him the chaplain 
of Queen Isabella, a prior of the Cathedral of Granada, and 
ultimately the official chronicler of the Indies. Very soon after 
his arrival in Spain, he had disclosed a quick eye for the 
changeful life about him, and he began in 1488 the writing of 
those letters which, to the number of over eight hundred, exist to 
attest his active interest in the events of his day. These events 
he continued to observe till 1525. We have no more vivid 
source of the contemporary history, particularly as it concerned 
the maritime enterprise of the peninsular peoples. He wrote 
fluently, and, as he tells us, sometimes while waiting for dinner, 
and necessarily with haste. He jotted down first and uncon- 
firmed repoi*ts, and let them stand. He got news by hearsay, 
and confounded events. He had candor and sincerity enough, 
however, not to prize his own works above their true value. 
He knew Columbus, and, his letters readily reflect what in- 
terest there was in the exploits of Columbus, immediately on 
his return from his first voyage ; but the earlier preparations 
of the navigator for that voyage, with the problematical char- 
acteristics of the undertaking, do not seem to have made any 
impression upon Peter Martyr, and it is not till May of 1493, 
when the discovery had been made, and later in September, that 
he chronicles the divulged existence of the newly discovered 
islands. The three letters in which this wonderful intelligence 
was first communicated are printed by Harrisse in English, in 
his Notes on Columbus. Las Casas tells usTiow Peter Martyr 
got his accounts of the first discoveries directly from the lips of 
Columbus himself and from those who accompanied him ; but 
he does not fail to tell us also of the dangers of too implicitly 
trusting to all that Peter says. From May 14, 1493, to June 6, 
1497, in twelve separate letters, we read what this obsei-ver has 
to say of the great navigator who had suddenly and temporarily 
stepped into the glare of notice. These and other letters of 


Peurr Martyr have not eiK^apecl some serious o.riticisni. There 
ATv cootrmdictioDs and anachrouisois in them that have forcibly 
helped Ranke« Ilallam, Gerigk, and others to count the text 
vhich we have as more or less changed from what must have 
br^en the text, if honestly written by Martyr. They have im- 
apnrd that some editor, willful or careless, has thrown this 
lurkltfss accompaniment upon them. The letters, however, 
claimed the confidence of Prescott, and have, as regards the 
parts touching the new discoveries, seldom failed to impress 
with their importance those who have used them. It is the 
opinion of the last examiner of them, J. II. Mariejol, in his 
pHrr Martyr (tAnyhera (Paris, 1887), that to read them at- 
Crntively is the best refutation of the skeptii*s. Martyr ceased 
t<> ri'fer to the affairs of tlie New World after 1499« and those 
of his earlier letters which illustrate the early voyage have 
appeared in a French version, maile by Uaffarel and Louvot 
iPkria, 1885). 

The representations of Columbus easily convini*ed Martyr 
that there opened a subject wortliy of his pen, and he set about 
CMHuposing a special treatise on the discoveries in the New World, 
and« under the title of I)e Orhr Xoro^ it occupiinl his attention 
fnim Octolwr, 14m« to the day of his death. For the earlii^r 
\rarH he had« if we may believe him, not a little help from Co- 
lumbus him5w*lf : and it would seem fnmi his one hunilriHl and 
thirty-five epistles that he was not altogetiier prt*}>ared to go 
with i\»lumbus, in aci*ounting the new islands as lying off the 
r^of^t of Asia. He is particularly valuable to us in treating of 
<*olambus*s conflicts with the natives of Es]mriola, and I.«as 
i 'anas found him as helpful as we do. 

These iJ^ailrs^ as the tn^atisi* is usually cidleil, formed en- 
larged bulletins, which, in s«>veral copies, were tninsmitt^nl by 
him to some of his noble friends in luily, t4> ktH'p tlx^ni i*onver- 
«aat with the iMUMUig events. 

A certain Angelo Trivigiano, into whom* hands a copy of some 
of the early sections fell, translated them into easy, 
ihH U* nMX vulgar, Italian, and sent them to Veniot*. in 
f«Hir diffrrent copi«*H, a frw months aft4»r they were written : :iiul 
in this war tlie firnt m*vt*n ImmiIch of the first diH»»<Ie fell into tlie 
hands of a Venetian print4»r, who, in April, 1504, bntught out 
a little book of sixteen leavrn in the dialiTt of that n*gion. 


known in bibliography as the Libretto de Tutta la Navigatian 
de Re de Spagna de le Isole et Terreni novamente trovcUu 
This publication is known to us in a single copy lacking a 
title, in the Biblioteca Marciana. Here we have the first ac- 
count of the new discoveries, written upon report, and supple- 
menting the narrative of Columbus himself. We also find in 
this little narrative some personal details about Columbus, not 
contained in the same portions when embodied in the larger 
De Orbe Novo of Martyr, and it may be a question if some- 
body who acted as editor to the Venetian version may not have 
added them to the translation. The stoiy of the new discover- 
ies attracted enough notice to make Zorzi or Montalboddo — if 
one or the other were its editor — include this Venetian version 
of Martyr bodily in the collection of voyages which, as JPaesi 
novamente retrovati^ was published at Vicentia somewhere about 
November, 1507. It is, perhaps, a measure of the interest 
felt in the undertakings of Columbus, not easily understood at 
this day, that it took fourteen years for a scant recital of such 
events to work themselves into the context of so composite a 
record of discovery as the Paesi proved to be ; and still more 
remarkable it may be accounted that the story could be told 
with but few actual references to the hero of the transactions, 
** Columbus, the Genoese." It is not only the compiler who is 
so reticent, but it is the author whence he borrowed what he 
had to say, Martyr himself, the observer and acquaintance of 
Columbus, who buries the discoverer under the event. With 
such an augury, it is not so strange that at about the same time 
in the little town of St. Di^, in the Vosges, a sequestered teacher 
could suggest a name derived from that of a follower of Co- 
lumbus, Americus Vespucius, for that part of the new lands 
then brought into prominence. If the documentary proofs of 
Columbus's priority had given to the Admiral's name the same 
prominence which the event received, the result might not, in 
the end, have been so discouraging to justice. 

Martyr, unfortunately, with all his advantages, and with his 
access to the archives of the Indies, did not burden his recital 
with documents. He was even less observant of the lighter 
traits that interest those eager for news than might have been 
expected, for the busy chaplain was a gossip by nature : he liked 
to retail hearsays and rumors ; he enlivened his letters with 


fierMMiml charftcteristicii ; but in Mpeaking of Coluinbas he is 
»infnalarly rvtioent upou all that might picture the man to us as 
h«- livnl. 

\Vhen« in 1584, these portions of Martyr's Decades were com- 
bin«^l with a summary of Oviedo, in a fresh publiea- otMo. 
tioa. there were some curious |H'rsonal details added to Baw"^ 
Martyr s narrative ; but as Uamusio is supiiosed to have edited 
thf compilation, these i»articulars are usually accredited to that 
autlwir. It is not known whence this Italian iH>mpiler could 
have p>t them, and there is no confirmation of them elsewhere 
t«* W ftnmd. If these additions, as is supposed, were a foreign 
p^it u|Hm Martyr's recitals, the staple of his narrative still re- 
uiaini^ not altogtrther free from some suspicions that, as a writer 
kimvlf. be was not wholly frank and trustworthy. At least a 
I'rrtain confusion in his method leads some of the critics to dis- 
•*«»vt*r MMiH^thing like im)x>sture in what they charge as a habit 
of antedating a letter so as to apiiear prophetic ; while his de- 
frotirr-i find in these same evidences of incongruity a sign of 
»|kint3io«*ity that argues freshness and sincerity. 

Th«* confidence which we may readily plac^* in what is said 
••f C*olumbus in the chronicle of Fenlinand and Isa- 
U-IU. written by Andrt*s Itenialdez, is prompteil by his 
»L>|uaintance with Columbus, and by his being the recipient of 
«<*CD« uf the navigator's own writinpi from his own Iiands. lie 
i« a1««» known t4i liave had acc*oss to what C^hanca and other 
oHii|KUiions of (\>lumbus luul written. This country curate, 
m\M liviil in the neighliorhooil of Seville, was also the chaplain 
• tf the An*hbtshopof Seville, a |»ersonal friend of the Admiral, 
xTtd from him Bemaldcz n.H*t*iv4Hl some help. He does not add 
iDu<-h. however, to what is given us by Peter Martyr, though 
:ii n"^|«'«'t ti> the MHHind voyage and to a few ]N*rsonal details 
iVrnaldi-i is of some confirmat4)ry value. The manus(*ript of 
hi« narrative reiiiaimnt unprinteil in the royal library at Madrid 
till abiiut thirty-five years ago; but nearly all the leading 
»nler% have made une of it in copies which have In^en fur. 


In looming to Ovie<lo. we encounter a chronicler who, as a 
writrr. iKMMMes an art far from skillful. MuRoz laments that 


his learning was not equal to his diligence. He finds him of 
little service for the times of Columbus, and largely 
because he was neglectful of documents and pursued 
uncritical combinations of tales and truths. With aU his vaga- 
ries he is a helpful guide. ^^ It is not," says Harrisse, ^^ that 
Oviedo shows so much critical sagacity, as it is that he col- 
lates all the sources available to him, and gives the reader the 
clues to a final judgment." He is generally deemed honest, 
though Las Casas thought him otherwise. The author of the 
Histarie looks upon him as an enemy of Columbus, and would 
make it appear that he listened to the tales of the Pinzons, 
who were enemies of the Admiral. His administrative services 
in the Indies show that he could be faithful to a trust, even at 
the risk of popularity. This gives a presumption in favor of 
his historic fairness. He was intelligent if not learned, and 
a power of happy judgments served him in good stead, even 
with a somewhat loose method of taking things as he heard 
them. He further inspires us with a certain amount of confi- 
dence, because he is not always a hero-worshiper, and he does 
not hesitate to tell a story, which seems to have been in circu- 
lation, to the effect that Columbus got his geographical ideas 
from an old pilot. Oviedo, however, refrains from setting the 
tale down as a fact, as some of the later writers, using little of 
Oviedo's caution, and borrowing from him, did. His opportu- 
nities of knowing the truth were certainly exceptional, though it 
does not appear that he ever had direct communication with the 
Admiral himself. He was but a lad of fifteen when we find 
him jotting down notes of what he saw and heard, as a page in 
attendance upon Don Juan, the son of the Spanish sovereigns, 
when, at Barcelona, he saw them receive Columbus after his 
first voyage. During five years, between 1497 and 1502, he was 
in Italy. With that exception he was living within the Span- 
ish court up to 1514, when he was sent to the New World, and 
passed there the greater part of his remaining life. While he 
had been at court in his earlier years, the sons of Columbus, 
Diego and Ferdinand, were his companions in the pages' ante- 
room, and he could hardly have failed to profit by their ac- 
quaintance. We know that from the younger son he did 
derive not a little information. When he went to America, 
some of Columbus's companions and followers were still living. 


— i*iiiiiiiu Ponce de Leon, and Diego Velasquei, — and all 
tkr^*** could kardly have failed to help him in his note-taking. 
He also telU us that he sought some of the Italian compatriots 
uf the Admiral, though Ilarrisse judges that what he got from 
thrm vas not alUtgether trustworthy. Oviedo rose naturally in 
due time into the position of chronicler of the Indies, and tried 
h\% »kill at first in a descriptive account of the New World. A 
CLHuitiaud of Charles the Fifth, with all the facilities which 
KK'h an order implied, though doubtless in some degree embar- 
nk%9^ by many of the documentary proofs being preserved 
ntlitrr in Spain than in the Indies, finally set him to work on a. 
//jVi«ri«i (wtneral ile lam India*, the opening portions of which, 
aDti those covering the career of Columbus, were printed at 
>r«ille in 1535. It is the work of a consistent though not 
blimltHl admirer of the Discoverer, and while we might wish he 
had bt*lped us t4> more of the proofs of his narrative, his recital 
i». on the whole, one to be signally grateful for. 

<t«icnara« in the early part of his histor}*, mixed up what he 
t(ji>k from Oviedo with what else came in his way, with an avid- 
ity that rejected little. 

litit it in to a biography of Columbus, writtt'n by his youngcMt 
•■•n, Frrtlinand* as was universally believetl up to //,^,„rir«». 
l^^Tl, that all the hist4)rians of the Admiral have Uh-ii KcnTiI»lii 
oi^iuly indebted for the personal details and other ^'*>*»>»'»^ 
rirvumAtances which leml vividness to his storv. As the l>ook 
h»% to^lay a good many able defenders, notwithstanding the 
di«rrrdit which HarrisM.* has sought to placv u]Mm it, it is worth 
while to trace the devious paths of iu transmission, and to meas- 
nrt the bunlrn of confidence {>la4*tMl u]M>n it fn>m the days of 
Frnlinand to our own. 

Thr rumor goes tliat some of the statements in the Psalter 
D-»t«- «*f 151t>, fiarticularly one resjK'cting the low origin of the 
Admiral, disturbed the pride of Fcnlinand to such a degree that 
ti.i* win of Columbus undertook to leave l)ehind him a <letailed 
ATK^rHinC of his father*s caretT, such as the Admiral, though 
unrvj to do it, hail never ftnmd time t4) writ4». Fenlinan<l was 
hi« youDgmt sou, and was liom only thn*e or four years U^fore 
bi« father left Palos. There are two dates given for his birth, 

k apparently on good authority, but tlu»se are a year a|Kirt. 


The language of Columbus's will, as well as the explicit state- 
ments of Oviedo and Las Casas, leaves no reasonable ground 
for doubting his illegitimacy. Bastardy was no bar to heirship 
in Spain, if a testator chose to make a natural son his heir, as 
Columbus did, in giving Ferdinand the right to his titles after 
the failure of heirs to Diego, his legitimate son. Columbus's 
influence early found him a place as a page at court, and during 
the Admiral's fourth voyage, in 1502-1504, the boy accompa- 
nied his father, and once or twice at a later day he again visited 
the Indies. When Columbus died, this son inherited many of 
his papers ; but if his own avowal be believed, he had 

Career of ^*_ , •i»ri»Ti»» • 

Ferdinand neglectcd occasious in his father s lifetime to question 
the Admiral respecting his early life, not having, as he 
says, at that time learned to have interest in such matters. 
His subsequent education at court, however, implanted in his 
mind a good deal of the scholar's taste, and as a courtier in 
attendance upon Charles the Fifth he had seasons of travel, 
visiting pretty much every part of Western Europe, during 
which he had opportunities to pick up in many places a large 
collection of books. He often noted in them the place and date 
of purchase, so that it is not difficult to learn in this way some- 
thing of his wanderings. 

The income of Ferdinand was large, or the equivalent of 
what Harrisse calls to-day 180,000 francs, which was derived 
from territorial rights in San Domingo, coming to him from the 
Admiral, increased by slave labor in the mines, assigned to him 
by King Ferdinand, which at one time included the service of 
four hundred Indians, and enlarged by pensions bestowed by 
Charles the Fifth. 

It has been said sometimes that he was in orders ; but Har- 
risse, his chief biographer, could find no proof of it. Oviedo 
describes him in 1535 as a person of ^^ much nobility of char- 
acter, of an affable turn and of a sweet conversation." 

When he died at Seville, July 12, 1539, he had amassed a 
Bibiioteca collcctiou of books, variously estimated in contempo- 
coiombina. ^^^.y accouuts at from twelve to twenty thousand vol- 
umes. Harrisse, in his Grandeur et Decadence de la Colom- 
bine (2d ed., Paris, 1885), represents Ferdinand as having 
searched from 1510 to 1537 all the principal book marts of 
Europe. He left these books by will to his minor nephew, Luis 


yntnrtitA^M^ Itttiltnnen et Latines du Commenremtnt du XVI 
>*"if ( Parift* 1887), an account of book rarities found in that 

\\'«' an* fortunate* nevertbelewi* in having a manuscript cata- 
I«»;;u»* «if it in Ferdinand's own hand« though not a complete 
«*tM-« fur he die<l while he was making it. This library, as well 
:»« « liat we know of bis writings and of the reputation which he 
*«*n* among his contemporaries, many of whom speak of him 
uml of bin librar}' with approlmtion, shows us that a habit, 
« an'If!«.<« of inquiry in his lioybood, gave place in his ri{)er years 
i<» -^tiidy and resjiect for learning. He is said by the inscription 
••n hi<» tomb to liave composed an extensive work on the New 
Wiirld and bin father*8 finding of it, but it has disap|)eared. 
Nfitlh^r in hi.4 library nor in his catalogue do we find any trace 
iif th«' life of his father which he is credited with having pre- 
{urv^L None of his friends, some of them writers on the New 
\\*«irld. make any mention of such a book. There is in the cat- 
a]«*jtH> a not4\ however, €>f a life of Columbus written about 
l*i'i.*». of which the manuscript is credittnl to Ferdi- ^n,^^ 
nan. I IVrez de Oliva, a man of some repute, who die<l ^^ 
in l.Vi«». Whether this writing lH)n» any significant rclatitm to 
r;.' liiV which is assiM*iat4Ml with the owner of the librar>' is 
3{*;>:ir>-fitly U*yond dii«H>vcrv. It can scarcely bt» 8up|M)se<l 
tiifct it «Niuld have In^cn written other than with Ferdinand's 

• »-^u/-:iniv. Tliat there was an ac^^ount of the Admirars 

• -jir«*«r. quotiNl in I.«as (\uas antl attributed to Ferdinand 

< •luiiibuA, and tliat it existed U'fore Ifh'tiK si^^^ms to In* nearly 
*-^ .taiti. A nianusi*ript of the end of the sixt^^enth (H.Mitury, by 
<*>>ri/iilo ArgoU* de Molina, mentions a re]>ort that Ferdinand 
ivi*i ift ritt«*n a life of his father. Ilarrisse tells us that he h:is 
••• n ;i printetl lMM>k (Catalogue, apparently of the time of Munoz 

• •: .N:i\.ir«*tt4*, in which a S|Kinish life of (*olumbus by Fenlinand 

< •>ltiml>u<» in entereil ; but the fact stantis without any explana- 
:. -II «ir verification. S|M)t4>rno. in lH23, in an intnNluction to 
:..« •^•lli'«'tion of fl«N*unients aUmt Columbus, savs that the man- 
.- r;[»t of mhat liiw passe^l for Fenlinand^s memoir of his father 
«.t- taken from Spain to (tenoa by Luis (\)lon, the Duke of 
N •r.i^ia, >-»n of I)iego and gnindson of ( *hri<«topher Columbus. 
I: U ii«»t known that Luis ever hail any |NTS4»nal relations with 
f I nitnand, who died while Luis was still in Santo iKnningo. 


Alma tunm facro Tnconia pc dhis oliuo 
FudfctSC inde fcatet ne<flar:araoma fitiunt; 

Xe fouec Aegidium qux polTidet Aegida Paflas 
In formas ttibuens vertere faxa noua^* 

Aegidos in iilices vertebac corpora terron 
Infolicaexfaxisconficis arteviros^ 

E/rr Jltr^ C^po •H^iHvftyrr»vrp ^*nr( fif titl^rtfp 

^fhd ^Ti^r^i^^u^^ ^^^^" ^»»<f ^^lUi»»H Y^p^juj^ 

[From Harriaae^s Grandeur el Decadence de la Colombine (Paris, 1885).] 



namio fo/f>l^ published in Seville, in Spanish, which was fol- 
kwni the next year by his Femand Colombo in the original 
FrvBch text as it had been written, and published at Paris. 
Ilarrisse*s view was recnforced in the Additions to his Biblio- 
(K^ru Afnrrirana Vetuntinnima^ and he again reverted to the 
«ubjrct io the first volume of his Chrintophe CfJomb^ in 1884. 
In the interim the entire text of Las Casas's Ilistoria had been 
)iQhli%bed for the first time, rendering a comparison of the two 
liOi»k% more easy. Harrisse availed himnelf of this facility of 
rxamination, and made no abatement of his confident disbe- 
lief. That Las Casas borrowed from the lliMorie^ or rather that 
the two b(N>ks had a common source, HarrisHe thinks satisfac- 
torilv lihown. He further tlirows out the hint that this source, 
or prototype, may have been one of the lost essays of Ferdi- 
naod. io which he had followed the career of his father ; or in- 
tl««d« in some way, the account written by Oliva may have 
foimed the basis of the book. He furtlier implies that, in the 
transfonuation to the Italian edition of 1571, there were en- 
zraftnl upon the narrative many ctmtradictions and anai^hnm- 
lAna, which seriously impair its value. Hence, as he contends, 
it 14 a shame to ini|KMe its authorship in that forei^ shape 
u|tmi FVnIinand. He also denies in the main the stor}* of its 
tranMiiiviion as told by S|M)tonio. 

So much of this iKwk as is authentic, and may Ik? found to l>e 

rorruUiratAtl by oth<*r evidence, may very likely Im* due to the 

• » • » 

manusi^ript of Oliva. trans|)orteil to Italy, and useil as the 
«"rk of Fenliiuind Columbus, to give it larger interest than 
the name of Oliva would carry ; while, to gratify prejudices and 
un^rvmse its attractions, the various inter|M>lations were made, 
«hi€'b Harrisse thinks — and with much n*ason — (*ould not 
have proceeded from one so near to Columbus, m) well iiiforme<l, 
^tkA w> kimlly in disposition as we know his son Ferdinand 
i»» have fac>i*n. 

So icoo4K*laHtic an outburst was sure to elicit vindicat<irs of 
iIm* workl's faith as it had long been held. In counU*r publica- 
ckms, Harrisse and DWvezac, the latter an eminent French au- 
thority GO questions of this peri^wl, fought out their battle, not 
withoat some sharpness. Henry SteveuK, an old an- 
tairooist of Harrisse, assailed the new views with his Ht-f»Mai7 
acrufttooied ooofidence and rasping assertion. Oscar 


It is said that it was in 1568 that Luis took the manuscript to 
Genoa, but in that year he is known to have been living else- 
where. He had been arrested in Spain in 1558 for having 
three wives, when he was exiled to Oran, in Africa, for ten 
years, and he died in 1572. Spotomo adds that the manu- 
script afterwards fell into the hands of a patrician, Marini, 
from whom Alfonzo de UUua received it, and translated it into 
Italian. It is shown, however, that Marini was not living at 
this time. The original Spanish, if that was the tongue of the 
manuscript, then disappeared, and the world has only known it 

in this Italian Historie, published in 1571. Whether 
oftheiTw. the copy brought to Italy had been in any way 

changed from its original condition, or whether the 
version then made public fairly represented it, there does not 
seem any way of determining to the satisfaction of everybody. 
At all events, the world thought it had got something of value 
and of authority, and in sundry editions and retranslations, 
with more or less editing and augmentation, it has passed down 
to our time — the last edition appearing in 1867 — unques- 
tioned for its service to the biographers of Columbus. Muiioz 
hardly knew what to make of some of ^Mts unaccountable 
errors," and conjectured that the Italian version had been made 
from "a corrupt and false copy;" and coupling with it the 
" miserable " Spanish rendering in Barcia's Historiadores^ 
Munoz adds that ^' a number of falsities and absurdities is dis- 
cernible in both." Humboldt had indeed expressed wonder at 
the ignorance of the book in nautical matters, considering the 
reputation which Ferdinand held in such affairs. It began the 
Admiral's story in detail when he was said to be fifty-six years 
of age. It has never been clear to all minds that Ferdinand's 
asseveration of a youthful want of curiosity respecting the 
Admiral's early life was sufficient to account for so much reti- 
cence respecting that formative period. It has been, accord- 
ingly, sometimes suspected that a desire to ignore the family's 
early insignificance rather than ignorance had most to do with 
this absence of information. This seems to be Irving's infer- 
ence from the facts. 

In 1871, Henry Harrisse, who in 1866 had written of the 
Attacked by book, " It is generally accepted with some latitude," 
Harrisse. made the first assault on its integrity, in his I^er^ 


f 14**2-1 />06), no other one of his contemporaries gives us so 

tiiui'h tif documentary proof. Of the thirty-one papers, falling 

vithin this interval, which he transcribed into his |>ages nearly 

in Un^ir entirety, — throwing out some preserved in the archives 

oi the I hike of Veragua, and others found at Simancas or Sev- 

illr. — there remain Hevent4*en, that would be lost to us but for 

tbisb faithful chronicler. How did he command this rich re- 

•tiurt*f ' As a native of Seville, Las Casas had come there to 

u «-«»n«ecrate<l as bishop in 1544, and again in 1547, after he 

laA «|uitleil the New World forever. At this time the family 

)a|iiTt of (IVdumbus, then held for Luis Colon, a minor, were 

) «-ke«l up in a strong box in the custody of the monks of the 

ori^hlwring monastery of Las Cuevas. There is no evidence, 

h^mt-vvr, that the chest was o])ened for the ins|MK;tion of the 

rhn»uicler. He also professes to use original letters sent by 

i •ilumbus to Ferdinand and Isabella, which he must have found 

in tlir archives at Valladolid l)efore 1545, or at Simancas after 

that tlate. Again he s|NNiks of citing as in his own collection 

att«-«t*-tl cH>pies of some of Ctdumbus's letters. 

In 1550, ami during his later years, I^as Casas live<I in the 
m<»na.<tterv of San (rregorio, at Valladolid, leaving it only for 
vt*it« t4» Tidetio or Madrid, unless it was for briefer visits to 
>iuiaiica5(, not far off. Some of the documents, whirh he nii;^ht 
\ix\^' found in that reiMMitory, are not at present in tlio84> 
anhive^. It was then* tlmt he might have fountl nnmerouH let- 
u-T^ which he cites, but which are not otherwiHi* known. From 
th»* u^* I^as lianas makes of them, it woultl hi^mu that thev 


«rrv of more im|M)rtanco in showing the discontent and 
•(tic-rulousneiM of Ctdumbus than as ailding to details of his 
■ Mf>«wT. Again it ap|H*ars clear that Lan Casas gof diH'umeuts 
in siHiie wav fnmi the roval archivt»s. We know the journal of 
4 olunibu^ on his first voyage only fn>ni th«* a))ridgineut whirh 
I.A« < 'a>as maile of it, and mu(*h thr sanit* is true of th«* ree(»rd 
• »f hi* thinl voy »;;••. 

Ir. %mifl* |ii>rtion, at least, of his citations from the l(*tters of 
t '4*1 u minis, t lien* mav In* n*a*M)n to think that Las Casas t<Nik 
tU iti at H«H*ond hand, and llarris.M^ with his lN*li<'f in th** deriv- 
ati\«- f'harai*ter of the Ifittforlt of Fenlinand (*olunihiis. v«tv 


^a»ily <*v>njeetun*s tluit this primal S4Min*e may have Immmi the 
iiianu«ori{it upon which the (H>mpiler of th«* lllntnrlt w:is etMially 


Peschel, the German historian, and Count Circourt, the French 
student, gave their opposing opinions ; and the issue has been 
joined by others, particularly within a few years by Prospero 
Peragallo, the pastor of an Italian church in Lisbon, who 
has pi*essed defensive views with some force in his HAuten- 
ticitd delle Ilistorie di Fernando Colombo (1884), and later 
in his Cristoforo Colombo et sua Famiglia (1888). It is 
held by some of these later advocates of the book that parts 
of the original Spanish text can be identified in Las Casas. 
The controversy has thus had two stages. The first was marked 
by the strenuousness of D'Avezac fifteen years ago. The sec- 
ond sprang from the renewed propositions of Harrisse in his 
Christophe Colombo ten years later. Sundry critics have 
summed up the opposing arguments with more or less tendency 
to oppose the iconoclast, and chief among them are two Ger- 
man scholars : Professor Max Biidinger, in his Aden zur Co- 
lumhus^ Geschichte (Wien, 1886), and his Zur Columbus Lit- 
eratur (Wien, 1889) ; and Professor Eugen Gelcich, in the 
Zeitschrift der Geselhchaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin (1887). 
Harrisse's views cannot be said to have conquered a position ; 
but his own scrutiny and that which he has engendered in 
others have done good work in keeping the Ilistorie constantly 
subject to critical caution. Dr. Shea still says of it: "It is 
based on the same documents of Christopher Columbus which 
Las Casas used. It is a work of authority." 

Reference has already been made to the tardy publication of 
the narrative of Las Casas. Columbus had been dead 
something over twenty years, when this good man set 
about the task of describing in this work what he had seen and 
heard respecting the New World, — or at least this is the gen- 
erally accredited interval, making him begin the work in 1527 ; 
and yet it is best to remember that Helps could not find any 
positive evidence of his being at work on the manuscript be- 
fore 1552. Las Casas did not live to finish the task, though he 
labored upon it down to 1561, when he was eighty-seven years 
old. lie died five years later. Irving, who made great use of 
Las Casas, professed to consult him with that caution which 
he deemed necessary in respect to a writer given to prejudice 
and overheated zeal. For the period of Columbus's public life 


ai>u«« in 1544 to the convent of San Pablo in Seville, and was 
ni*c reiwivwl to the cathedral till 1552, it may altM) have hap- 
firiitftl that along with it he use<l there the J)e Imayinr Mandi 
of Pierre d Willy, Columbus'ii own i-opy of which was, and still 
i«. prrtenrvd in the Bibliote<*a C'olonibina, and shows the Ad- 
■lirml's own maniucript annotations. 

1% was in the chapel of San Pablo that Las Casas had beer 
a« bishop in 1544. antl his associations with the 
oonld have given easy aci^ess to what they held in cus- 
lodr, — too easy, perhaps, if Il:irrisse*s snp|K>sition is correct, 
that tbcj let hiui take away the map which Tosi^anelli sent to 
Cohmbom and which would account for its not being in the 
Kfaranr now. 

We know, also, that Las (*iLHas hail um* of tin* famous letter 
his third voyage, wliich the Admiral ad- HUoppor. 
to the nurse of the Infant I Km Juan, and '*'^*^ 

ttrat laid lief ore modem students when SjMtonio 
it. in 1823. We further understand that the account of 
tW fofUtli voyage, which students now call, in its Italian form, 
tW I^fiieru Jtarinnhna. was also at his dis|M>s;il, as wi^re many 
of Bartholomew, the brother of C\)luinbus, thou;^h they 
It only elucidate tht* A f rican voyairc of 1 )iaz. 
la addition to the?*e manusi*ript M>un*cs, L:is Casas shows 
a stutlent, he wa.^ familiar with anti appri'ciatcd the 
of Peter Martvr, and hail ri'iul the aii^ounts of C'olum- 
ia (iareia ile Kes4*ndc, li:irro^, and CastaAiula, — to sav 
of what he may have dcrivtHl fn»m the sup|K)sable pro- 
of the //fW'/rfV. It is ivrtain that hiH|»crs<mal actpiaint- 
brooght him into ndations with tlu* Atlniinil himself. — for 
ipanie«l him on his fourth voya;;t*. — with the Admirars 
r, son, and son*s wife : and moreover his own father and 
had saile«l with Columbus. Thi*re wrrc. among his other 
arqaaintancen, the An*hbishop of Seville. Pinzon. ami other 
of the cont4*m|M>rary mivigiitorn. It lian l)cen elaiminl by some, 
ij'it aivunitely, wc sus|Mvt, that L:is (*:i>:is had also aeci>m- 
}iAiii''«i ('<»lumbus on his third voyage. NotwitliManding all 
thr^«r Mp|iort unities of a«*<piiring a tli(»nmgh intimacy with the 
*l0»r\ ut (^ulumbus, it is mmtended bv Ilurrisse that the aid af- 
fonl^l b\ I.«as (*asas disap]H>ints one: and that all esM*ntial 
data with ahich his imrrative is supplieil can be found elne- 


Tk ppmonml oontributions of the later writers, Mufioz and 
Navinvle, have been already considered, in speaking i^^^ g^^. 
«'f the diversified mass of documentary proofs which ^ '*'*<«^ 
iceiNQpany or gave rise to their narratives. 

The (^JoH tn AVt/Kiiiri of Tomas Rodriguez Pinilla (Madrid, 
1*«M) in in effect a life of the Admiral ; but it ignores much of 
tiir rvcent critical and controversial literature, and deals mainly 
•itb the old established outline of events. 

Among the (rermans there was nothing published of any im- 
pi>rtjiui*e till the critical studies of Forster, Peschel, o^rmui 
aimI liugk\ in recent days. De Bry had, iudecil, by •^*•"• 
bi« trauiJatiunri of Benzoni (1594) and Ilerrera (1G23), famil- 
iArijEA*tl the Gcnnaiis with the main facts of the canMT of Coluui- 
Ui^ I>uring the present centur}', Humboldt, in his 
//r«i/w# H ( 'ntii/iir de F IliMoirr et de la GriH/raphie du 
y-ftrrati CnnthteMt^ has borroweil the language of France to 
«khi>w the Heo|ie of bin critical and learne<l inquiries into the 
rarly history of the Spanish contact in America, and has left it 
t«> an«>ther hand to give a (fcrman rendering to his labors. 
With thill work by Humboldt, brought out in its completer 
«ha|»* in 1830--d9, and using most happily all that hatl Imhmi 
ii«<ue bv MufiDZ and Navarrete U^ make clear Inith the acts and 
• Dvirimment.H «if the Admiral, the intelligence of our (»wn time 
mav ind(*e«i be* naid to luivc first clearly apprchendi'iK under the 
]i;;ht of a critii*al spirit, in which Irving was tletieient, the true 
«iiniifi«^ance uf tlie great de<Nis that g:ive Amerit*a t4i Kun>|)e. 
HuniU»ldt has strikingly grou|HM] the lives of Toscanelli and 
I^A i *sftias« from the birth of the Florentine physician in 1397 
t«» the death of the A|MMtle to the Indi«ins in 15<>r>, as covering 
the beginning aiul end of the great disi^overies of the fiftct^nth 
au<l •sixteenth centuries. 

It !!» aLM» ia be remark(*<l that this service of broadlv, and at 
the same time critically, surveying the field was the work of 
a tirrman writing in French: while it is to an American citi- 
jpn writing in French that we owe, in more ret^iMit years, such a 
minute «*«>llation and examination (»f every original soun*e uf 
itif'trmation as set the kilNirs of Henry IIarriss4s for n^^^^ 
thi^iughn<*«i and disi*riminati(m, in mlvance of any "^'^**' 
critical labor that has ever before l)een given t4> the career and 


character of Christopher Columbus. Without the aid of his 
researches, as embodied in his Christophe Colomb (Paris, 
1884), it would have been quite impossible for the present 
writer to have reached conclusions on a good many mooted 
points in the history of the Admiral and of his reputation. Of 
almost equal usefulness have been the various subsidiary books 
and tracts which Harrisse has devoted to similar fields. 

Harrisse's books constitute a good example of the constant 
change of opinion and revision of the relations of facts which 
are going on incessantly in the mind of a vigilant student in 
i*econdite fields of research. The progress of the correction of 
error respecting Columbus is illustrated continually in his se- 
ries of books on the g^at navigator, beginning with the Notes 
on Columbus (N. Y., 1866), which have been intermittently 
published by him during the last twenty-five years. 

Harrisse himself is a good deal addicted to hypotheses ; but 
they fare hard at his hands if advanced by others. 

The only other significant essays which have been made in 
French Frcuch havc been a series of biographies of Colum- 
writers. y^^^^ emphasizing his missionary spirit, which have 
been aimed to prepare the way for the canonization of the 
Attempted g^cat uavigator, in recognition of his instrumentality 
ScS^^**" in carrying the cross to the New World. That, in 
***^ the spirit which characterized the age of discovery, 

the voyage of Columbus was, at least in profession, held to be 
one conducted primarily for that end does not, ceiiainly, admit 
of dispute. Columbus himself, in his letter to Sanchez, speaks 
of the rejoicing of Christ at seeing the future redemption of 
souls. He made a first offering of the foreign gold by convert- 
ing a mass of it into a cup to hold the sacred host, and he spent 
a wordy enthusiasm in promises of a new crusade to wrest the 
Holy Sepulchre from the Moslems. Ferdinand and Isabella 
dwelt upon the propagandist spirit of the enterprise they had 
sanctioned, in their appeals to the Pontiff to confirm their 
worldly gain in its results. Ferdinand, the son of the AdmiraL 
referring to the family name of Colombo, speaks of his father 
as like Noah's dove, carrying the olive branch and oil of bap- 
tism over the ocean. Professions, however, were easy ; &ith is 
always exuberant under success, and the world, and even the 
Catholic world, learned, as the ages went on, to look upon the 



tpctil that pat tbe poor heathen beyond the pale of hanuuiity 
u Boi partiiiilarly sanctifying a pioneer of de^'astation. It is 
ihr wotU'b misfortune when a great opportunity loses any of 

V dignity ; and it in no great satisfuotion to look upon a per^ 
<>« uf ('uluml)us*s environments and find hiiu but a creature of 

(uniMBable graoe. So his cannuization lias not, with all tbe 
'tKlnToTH which hare been uiadf, liet-n brought about. The 
tomt )<oo«picuous of tlte advocates of it, with a crowd m,,^^ ^ 
■W imituora about him, has been Antoine Fnin(,-ois **■»■"■ 
Fclii Valalette. Comte Kosellr de LoT^nes. who liegan in 1844 

bi devote his pncrjn'-'* to this ond. Hi- hiLi ]iulilishe<l nevt-ral 
Fooks on Columbiw. {lart i-f thont InopfrapliiiMl. and all uf tht-m. 
JBrluiliRe his fhri^Uifih i'lJniuh iif lMi4, nit-rv di^frni.inl sugt- 
pliratioiu lo the l*<)|-e V* onb-r a dvwrvi-d sanctitit-Miion. As 
'vatribatiofu to thr historical study of tin- life of Colunilma, 
tVy arr «if no important' whai«'viT. Kv<t>' acl and saying 
M the AdmiTBl ra|iable <>f <iutiM>rving thr |mr)MMi> in view are 


simply made the salient points of a career assumed to be holy. 
Columbus was in fact of a piece, in this respect, with the age in 
which he lived. The official and officious religious profession 
of the time belonged to a period which invented the Inquisition 
and extirpated a race in order to send them to heaven. None 
knew this better than those, like Las Casas, who mated their 
faith with charity of act. Columbus and Las Casas had little 
in common. 

The Ilistoire Posthume de Colombo which Roselly de Lor- 
gues finally published in 1885, is recognized even by Catholic 
writers as a work of great violence and indiscretion, in its 
denunciations of all who fail to see the saintly character of 
Columbus. Its inordinate intemperance gave a great advan- 
tage to C^sareo Fernandez Duro in his examination of De Lor- 
gues's position, made in his Colon y la Historia Poatuma, 

Columbus was certainly a mundane verity. De Lorgues 
tells us that if we cannot believe in the supernatural we cannot 
understand this worldly man. The writers who have followed 
him, like Charles Buet in his Christophe Colomh (Paris, 
1886), have taken this position. The Catholic body has so far 
summoned enough advocates of historic truth to prevent the re- 
sult which these enthusiasts have kept in view, notwithstanding 
the seeming acquiescence of Pius IX. The most popular of the 
idealizing lives of Columbus is probably that by Auguste, Mar- 
quis de Belloy, which is tricked out with a display of engrav- 
ings as idealized as the text, and has been reproduced in Eng- 
lish at Philadelphia (1878, 1889). It is simply an ordinary 
rendering of the common and conventional stories of the last 
four centuries. The most eminent Catholic historical student 
of the United States, Dr. John Gilmary Shea, in a paper on 
this century's estimates of Columbus, in the American Catholic 
Quarterly lieview (1887), while referring to the " imposing 
array of members of the hierarchy" who have urged the beat- 
ification of Columbus, added, " But calm official scrutiny of 
the question was required before permission could be given to 
introduce the cause ; " and this permission has not yet . been 
given, and the evidence in its favor has not yet been officially 

France has taken the lead in these movements for canoniza- 
tion, ostensibly for the reason that she needed to make som< 


rrptration for snatching the honor of naming the New World 
fnjiD ColunibuA, through the printing-presses of Saint Di^ and 
Stmwburg. A sketch of the literature which has followed this 
Bhivroirnt is given in Baron van Broeken's Den Vicissitudes 
P'»*(h times dr Christophe Colond)^ et de sa Bentification Pos- 
Mr (^ Leipzig et Paris, 18(>5). 

Of the writers in English, the labors of Ilakluyt and Pur- 
rlix4 noly incidentally touched the career of Coluin- Knttiab 
ha» : ami it was not till Stevens issuetl his garbled ^^'^^ 
Trrsion of llerrera in 1725, that the English public got the ree- 
oni of the Spanish historian, garnished with something that did 
not rt* pn»sent the originaL This book of Stevens is responsible 
fi>r not a little in English opinion respecting the Spanish age 
of di^roviT}** which needs in these later days to be qualified. 
SiffDe 4»f the early collections of voyages, like those of Churchill, 
I'inkerton* ami Kerr, indmled the stor}' of the I/istorie 
uf l/iTl. It was not till Robertson, in 1777, published 
the beinnning of a contemplated History of America that the 
Ko;;li^h reader hail for the first time a scholarly and justified 
narrativi*, which indeed for a lt>ng time remaincil the onliuary 
iMKirce (»f tlie English view of Columbus. It was, however, but 
xa outline sketch, not a sixth or seventh part in extent of what 
Inin^, w|i«*n he was cimHidering the 8ubji*ct, thought necessary 
f'-r a rvx^oiuible presentation of the subject. Kt>lK*rtson*s foot- 
n**!*-^ «»how tliat his main de|)endcnce fi>r the story of Colum- 
t-u* wa.4 u|M»n the |»ages of the Ilistoriv of 1571, Peter Mar- 
tyr. Oviiili^ and Ilcrrcra. He was debarred the help to be 
^l*- ri vtnl fn»m what we now use, as t*onveyin;; Cohinibus*s own 
n->^>nl of his st4>r^'. I^)nl Gninthaiii, then the British anilKis- 
M<i«*r at Madrid, did all the scrviee h<* i*oul<K and his scM»n*tarv 
of I«-;ra&tion worktnl asssiduously in C(miplyin<:^ with the wishes 
«hi<*h KoU*rtson prefernnl ; but no solieitation eould ut that 
tU% rentier eaitilv ac*cessible the an*hives at Siiiiancas. Still, 
lM»U*rtM»n got from one S4iun*e or another more than it was 
{•i^xiant to the SjKinish authorities to set* in print, and tliey 
Lstt-r e<>ntrive<l to prevent a publication of his work in Spanish. 

The t*arli(»st considerable re^Nmntinu of the storv of (\)liim- 
ha% in Anierii*a was by Dr. Jeremy l^'lknap, who, j^^^y 
having delivered a commemorative discount* in Bos- '^^^^'^r 


ton in 1792, before the Massachusetts Historical Society, after- 
ward augmented his text when it became a part of his well- 
known American Biography^ a work of respectable standing 
for the time, but little remembered to-day. 

It was in 1827 that Washington Irving published his Life 
WMhington 9f Coluinbus^ and he produced a book that has long 
inring. remained for the English reader a standard biography. 
Irving's canons of historical criticism were not, however, such 
as the fearless and discriminating student to-day would ap- 
prove. He commended Herrera for " the amiable and pardon- 
able error of softening excesses," as if a historian sat in a con- 
fessional to deal out exculpations. The learning which probes 
long established pretenses and grateful deceits was not accep- 
table to Irving. " There Is a certain meddlesome spirit," he 
,says, " which, in the garb of learned research, goes prying about 
the traces of history, casting down its monuments, and marring 
and mutilating its fairest trophies. Care should be taken to 
vindicate great names from such pernicious erudition." 

Under such conditions as Irving summoned, there was little 
chance that a world's exemplar would be pushed from his ped- 
estal, no matter what the evidence. The vera pro gratis in 
personal characterization must not assail the traditional hero. 
And such was Irving's notion of the upright intelligence of a 

Mr. Alexander II. Everett, who was then the minister of the 
United States at Madrid, saw a chance of making a readable 
book out of the journal of Columbus as preserved by Las Casas, 
and recommended the task of translating it to Irving, then in 
Europe. This proposition carried the willing writer to Madrid, 
where he found comfortable quarters, with quick sympathy of 
intercourse, under the roof of a Boston scholar then living 
there, Obadiah Rich. The first two volumes of the documen- 
tary work of Navarrete coming out opportunely, Irving was not 
long in determining that, with its wealth of material, there was 
a better opportunity for a newly studied life of Columbus than 
for the proposed task. So Irving settled down in Madrid to 
the larger endeavor, and soon found that he could have other 
assistance and encouragement from Navarrete himself, from the 
Duke of Veragua, and from the then possessor of the papers 
of Munoz. The subject grew under his hands. " I had no 


'tAr%r he says, ^ of what a complete labyrinth I had entangled 

iiiv«elf in/* He regretted that the third volume of Navarrete's 

book was not far enough advanced to be serviceable ; but he 

vurked as betit he could, and found many more facilities than 

Koliertson's helper had discovered. • He went to the Biblioteca 

(oloinbina, and he even brought the annotations of Columbus 

in (he copy of IMerre d* A illy, there preserved, to the attention 

o( its custodians for the first time ; almost feeling himself the 

di«ci>vercr of the book, though it was known to him that Las 

( 's»a!^ at least, had had the advantage of using these minutes of 

rolumbus. Irving knew that his pains were not unavailing, at 

itiy rate, for the English reader. **I have woven into my 

bi«>k/* he says, '^ many curious particulars not hitherto known 

coocfming C olumbus ; and I think I have thrown light upon 

tnoMf |M>intii of his character which have not been brought out 

h\ biA former biographers.*' One of the things that pleased 

tht- Df w biographer most was his discover}', as he felt, in the 

ar^xMint by Benudilez* that Columbus was born ten years earlier 

than had been usiudly rcckone<l; and he supjMNied that this 

iDcreajte of tbt* age of the disc*overer at the time of his voyage 

aJdeil much greater force t4> the characteristics of his career. 

IrviD;;*« lKM>k readily nuule a mark. Jeffrey thought that its 

fain«* Would lie enduring, and at a time when no one looke<l 

f**r new light from Italy, he considennl that Irving had done 

\*n^i in working, almost exclusively, the Spanish Held, where 

jd*«n«- ** it was obvious ** material could be fountl. 

When .\lexander H. Even»tt, panlonably, as a godfather to 
thr work, undertook in Januarv, \Xi\K to sav in the Xorth 
Am^rirtin Rrrirw that Irving's lM)ok wjis a delight of readers, 
hr antiei|Kite<l the jmlgnient of posterity : but when he added 
that it waii, by its |)erf«*cti4in, the deH|mir of critics, he was for- 
ir^cful of a method of criti(*al res4*areh that is not prone to be 
daxf^il by the prestige of demigoils. 

In the interval Uaween the first and H4H*ond c<Iitions of the 
boi>k. Irving |>aid a visit to Palos ami the (H»nvrnt of La Ita- 
bi«la. aoti he got els«*where some new light in the |>a|x^rs of the 
lawMiit «if Columbus's heirs. The new tnlition which soon fol- 
k>«r«l profited by all these circunistamvs. 

Irving*ft occu|Mition of the field n*ntlert*d it both easy and 
gracious for Preswitt, when, t4»n years later (1887 ). he publisluHl 


his Ferdinand and Isabella^ to say that his predecessor had 
stripped the story of Columbus of the charm of novel- 
ty ; but he was not quite sure, however, m the privacy 
of his correspondence, that Ir\dng, by attempting to continue the 
course of Columbus's life in detail after the striking crisis of the 
discovery, had made so imposing a drama as he would have 
done by condensing the story of his later years. In this Pres- 
cott shared something of the spirit of Irving, in composing his- 
tory to be read as a pastime, rather than as a study of *com- 
pleted truth. Prescott's own treatment of the subject is scant, 
as he confined his detailed record to the actions incident to the 
inception and perfection of the enterprise of the Admiral, to 
the doings in Spain or at court. He was, at the same time, 
far more independent than Irving had been, in his views of the 
individual character round which so much revolves, and the 
reader is not wholly blinded to the unwholesome deceit and 
overweening selfishness of Columbus. 

Within twenty years Arthur Helps approached the subject 
Arthur from the point of view of one who was determined, as 
^*^P* he thought no one of the writers on the subject of the 

Spanish Conquest had been, to trace the origin of, and respon- 
sibility for, the devastating methods of Spanish colonial gov- 
ernment ; " not conquest only, but the result of conquest, the 
mo<le of colonial government which ultimately prevailed, the ex- 
tirpation of native races, the introduction of other races, the 
groxN-th of slavery, and the settlement of the encomiendaSy on 
which all Indian society depended." It is not to Helps, there- 
fore, that we are to look for any extended biography of Colum- 
bus ; and when he finds him in chains, sent back to Spain, he 
says of the prisoner, *' He did not know how many wretched 
beings would have to traverse those seas, in bonds much worse 
than his ; nor did he foresee, I trust, that some of his doings 
would furtlier all this coming misery." It does not appear from 
his footnotes tliat Helps depended upon other than the obvious 
authorities, though he says that he examined the Muiloz col- 
lection, then as now in the Koyal Academy of History at Ma- 

The last scholarly summary of Columbus's career previous to 
« r, „ the views incident to the criticism of Harrisse on the 

B. H. Major. . , ^^ 

Historic of 1571 was that which was given by R. H. 


Mijor. in the necond edition of his Select Letters of Columbus 

• I/iiKl«>n. 1870). 

Tbt*n- tuivi* lie(*n two treatments of the subject by Americans 
i:tlim the last twenty years, which are characteristic. The 
/,.'' tittt A*'A9ere9Ments of the So^alled Christopher Colum- 
'• I Xrw York, 1874), by Aaron Goodrich, mixes AanmOood. 
tiut iinrvasoning tnist and quenilous conct»it which is ^^ 
*■• ••ft«-n thntwn int4> the si*ah> when the merits of the discover- 
T^ (if the alk-^Hl Vinhuid are cHjntrasted with those of the 
inacinc*tl Indies. With a craze of ])etulancy, he irt not able to 
*»^ anything tliat cannot be twisted into defamation, and his 
'(•<»k i* ax abnunlly constant in derogation as the hallucinations 
4'f 1^ I>»rpies are in the other direction. 

W)H-n IIuU*rt Howe Ikincroft o|)enetl the stor}* of his Pacific 
>*.ati-% ill his llintory uf Central Amerira (San Fran- h. h. bm- 

* N>i, l^s2), lie rehearscMl the story of Columbus, but *'"^'* 

'! 1 n*»t attempt to follow it critically »x4*e|)t as he tracked the 

\*iDiiraI al«>n<; the cHKists of Hondunis, Nicaragua, and Costa 

lii-a. Tlii* writ4»r's rstimate of the character of Columbus c<m- 

\.\* a n-presentation of what the Admiral n»ally w:is, justcr 

^••-tii national pride, religious Hymimthy, or kindly adulation has 

•*'ull\ )ii*nnittt*«I. It is unfortunately, not altogi»ther (*haste in 

-'* litA-rirv pr(*M*ntation. His rlianu*t4*rizatit>n of Irving and 

IVi-^iitt in their i*ntIt>ayi>rH t4> draw the cliararter of Columbus 

U* m<*r«* nifrit in its insight than skill in its drafting. 

71h» brirf sk«*tch of the caret»r i»f Columbus, and the exami- 
i.A'.utu «if the eVi'Uts that culminat^^l in his maritime risks and 
••• ^« lopiufUts as it was inc*lu<bHl in the \tirnifirr ami Critiral 
// •♦..ri/ tit' Amrrira ( vid. ii., I^t^ton, iHSo), gavo 

- , Wiinor. 

::*•• pr«*<M*nt writer an (»p|>«>rt unity to study tni» soiin't»s 

ail i friMv the biblif»gr:iplii<*al tlin^ads that run tlinMtgli an ex* 

l#:. i»d aii«t divfr^^ititsl lit«*raturf, in a wav, it inav \h\ not 

• Ari.t-r pn*«'nti««i to tlir Knglish n»a«ler. If any one drsires 

t' «*iui|ia*»^ all the i*luc*idation*i ami guid(*s wliirli a 

v.--r«*iii{n «tii4l«*iit of till* ran*4'r and fauK* of ( oininlinH ni*i>> *4i\*- 

« i.l«l m\^h to (Nmsider, tlu* ap|mnitus tnun ifffrnMi to, 

hxA tlM* f«M»tnotes in IIarri"»»M»'H Chnstupln' Cithntih and in 

Li* othfr germane publications, would probably in«>*»t rssmtiallv 

a>rt«-u his labors. llarrisM.*, who has pivpannl, but not yet 


published, lists of the books devoted to Columbus exdusUsdy^ 
says th^t they number about six hundred titles. The literature 
which treats of him incidentally is of a vast extent. 

In concluding this summary of the cotnmentaries upon the 
life of Columbus, the thought comes back that his 
mates of carccr has been singularly subject to the gauging of 
opinionated chroniclers. The figure of the man, as he 
lives to-day in the mind of the general reader, in. whatever coun- 
try, comports in the main with the characterizations of Irving, De 
Lorgues, or Goodrich. These last two have entered upon their 
works with a determined purpose, the Frenchman of making a 
saint, and the American a scamp, of the great discoverer of 
America. They each, in their twists, pervert and emphasize 
every trait and every incident to favor their views. Their nar- 
ratives are each without any background of that mixture of in- 
congruity, inconsistency, and fatality from which no human be- 
ing is wholly free. Their books are absolutely worthless as 
historical records. That of Goodrich has probably done little 
to make proselytes. Tiiat of De Lorgues has infected a large 
body of tributary devotees of the Catholic Church. 

The work of Irving is much above any such level ; but it has 
done more harm because its charms are insidious. He recog- 
nized at least that human life is composite ; but he had as much 
of a predetermination as they, and his purpose was to create a 
hero. He glorified what was heroic, palliated what was un- 
heroic, and minimized the doubtful aspects of Columbus's char- 
acter. His book is, therefore, dangerously seductive to the 
popular sens^. The genuine Columbus evaporates under tBe 
warmth of the writer's genius, and we have nothing left but a 
refinement of his clay. The Life of Columbus was a sudden 
product of success, and it has kept its hold on the public very 
constantly ; but it has lost ground in these later years among 
scholarly inquirers. They have, by their collation of its narra- 
tive with the original sources, discovered its flaccid character. 
They have outgrown the witcheries of its graceful style. They 
have learned to put at their value the repetitionary changes of 
stock sentiment, which swell the body of the text, 8ometime8| 


Oai i»f tlie variety of testimony rcApectiug the ])erHoii of the 
liluk C\»luiubuii« it is not eaity to draw a picture that portimiuot 
hi* contemponirics would surely recognize. Likeness ^^<*»»*«^ 
ir hartr none that can be provtnl beyond a question the result 
of UT fitting, or even of any acc|uaintaiiee. If we were called 
uf^Hi u> picture him as he hUxmI on San Salvador* we might fig- 
3r«> a man of imprPHsive stature with lofty, not to say coiomb«u*a 
la^terr, liearing, his fac^e longer by something more i****- 
Uan itA breadth, his cheek bones high, his nose aipiiline, his 
^Trt 1 li];ht gray« his complexicm fair with f ri'ckles spotting a 
nkidj glow, bis hair once light, but then tume^l to gray. Mis 
t»Toritr garb seems to have been the frock of a Franciscan 
iwmk. Such a figure wouM not conflict with the descriptions 
«bich those who knew hinu and those wlio ha<l ([uestioned his 
iMortati?s« have transmitted t4> us, as we rea<l them in the pages 
waibnl to Ferdiiuind« his son : in those of the S|)anish his- 
toriaa, ( >viedo : of the priest Las Casas : and in the later re- 
ditu* of GfHiiara ami Benzoni* and of the official chronicler of 
tk-S|auiiih Indies, Antonio Herrera. Tlie oldest des<*ription 
••fiU is one maile in 1501. in the unauthorized version of the 
^Tst (it*<-ade uf IVter Martyr, emanating, verj' likely, from the 
tno«laU>r Trivigiano, who had then rei^ently come in contact 
«:th 1 olambiis. 

Turning from these descriptions t<> the pictures that have 
:*«n |Hit forth as likeness4*s, we find not a little difficulty in 
oojociling the two. There is nothing that unmistakably goes 
rock to the lifetime of Columbus except the Hgun* of St. 
< 'kn«t4»pher, which makes a viinictte in eoh>rs ou the 
nuppemomle. which was drawn in ir>0<X by one -of st. chriim. 
t '.Jqid bus's pilota, Juan de la Cosa, and is now pre- 
«^nnl in Madrid. It has lieen fondly clainietl that (\)sa trans- 
f«»rrNl the ffatun^ of his master to the* lineaments of the s;iint : 
^■ut tke assertion is wholly without prtNtf. 

Pa«>lu (fiovio, or, as U^tter known in the I^iitin form, Paulus 
.^*«iua. was ohl enough in WM ti» have, in later lifis j.^m.. c*i 
r^iirmlvnnl the thrill of ex|K'etation uliieh nui for ^^^ 
tbr BMMiit*nt thniugh |Kirts of Kui*o|h*, when t1i«* letter of (\>- 
i«iDbn.« tiescribing his voyage was publi^hrd in Italy, wli«*re 
Juviiu was tlH»n a S4*hoollM»y. He was but an infant, or ]H*r- 
hap* iH»t bom when ( olumbns left Italy. So the intenmt «)f 


l.-Tiu-. in ih» DinooTerer could hanlly have arisen from any 
<hpT UMX-Utionit than thow easily suggeiitive tu one who, like 
Junas. «Ba a Mudent of Kin own timea. Coliimbua had been 
iiMl («a yean when Juvinit, an a historian, attrauted the notice 
•i Psf* Leo X., and ent«re<l u|K>n such a career of prosjierity 

ikai be rouki biiihl a villa on l.aki- (ouio. ami ».1<>rii it with a 
.rtilrrr of imrtraitH of lh•l^^■ who lunl i(i:wh' hi'. :i^i- f:iiiii>ii-%. 
Thit hr in.liut.ll a lik.-n.-» of ('..liinilm^^ anions hi-< lit-rocit 
;.. -> .^^-n.. to U- no aoiiht. \Vh,-tlh-r th.- lik.-iM-.. wa- |>:iiiil.-<l 
■roi lift-, and by ytioin, or nu«li-l.d afl.i' an i.i.-al. nior.- ,ir 
„-. ^-.-.-nlant with iht- n-jH-rt^ of iIiom' who niii> h:ni- known 
:i^ I x-n'ie**-. ii- entirely beyond our kn<ml>-dyi-. A> :i lii>torian 


.Tovius professed the right to distort the truth for any purpose 
that suited him, and hiu couceptiona of the truth of portraitnre 
may quite as well have been equally loose. Just a year before 
his own death, Joviua gave a sketch of Columbus's career m h 
Elogia Virorum Illustrium, published at Florence iu loSly 
but it was not till twenty-four years later, in 157fi, that a. nei 
edition of the book gave wood-cuts of the portr^ts in the j 
lery of the Como villa, to illustrate the sketches, and that 'j 
Columbus appeared among them. This engraving, then, is ( 
oldest likeness of Columbus presenting any claims to considat 
tion. It found place also, within a year or two, in what i 
ported to be a collection of poi-traits from the Jovian galleij 
and the engraver of them was Tobias Stimmer, a Swiss desigi 
who stands in the biograpliical dictionaries of artists as bomB 
1534, and of course could not have assisted his skill by j 
knowledge of Columbus, on his own part. ThiB jtirture, 
which a large part of the very various likenesses called those of 
Columbus can be traced, is done in the bold, easy handling 
common in the wood-cuts of that day, and with a \n-(: 
skill that might well make one believe that it preservt'si a daj 
ing verisimilitude to the original picture. It represents a fu] 
face, shaven, curly-haired man, witli a thoughtful and sonic wlu 
sad countenance, his hands gathering about the waist a priei 
robe, of which the hood has fallen about his neck. Tf there-3 
any picture to be judged authentic, this is best entitWd to tlq 

Connection with the Como gallery is held to be so signifioi 
of the authenticity of any portrait of Columbus that it in clain 
for two other picture.i. which are near enough alike to have fa 
lowed the same prototy]ie, and which are not, except in 
very unlike the Jovian wood-cut. As co]>ies of the Como 
nal in features, thoy may easily have varied in ap|iarel. 
of these is a picture pi-esorved in the gallery at Florence, - 
well-iuoulded, intellectual head, full-faced, above a closely h 
toned tunic, or frock, seen withiu dra]>ei-y that falls off i 
Tin Fior. shoulders. It is not claimed to be the Como portr 
nire ijirturt. [j^jj. j^ iniiy liavc liccn [tainted from it, perhaps byn 
Christofano dell' Altissinio, some time Ijefore 1568. A copy 
of it was made tnv Thonia.s Jeffei-son, which, having hung for a 
while at Moiiti<'cllii, caine at last to Boston, and passed into 
the gallery of the ]Massachu!ielts Historical Society. 


trait from that of the owner of it, from whom it was bought 
_ y Grauada, in 1763. Representing, when brought ti 

joMuni. notice, a garmeut trimmed with 'fur, there has bwi 
disclosed upon it, and imderhiii'^ ihia lat<-r paint, an origil 


elose-fittiog tmiic, much like the Floi-enee picture ; while a 
ther removal of the superposed pigment lias revealed aniitw 
UoQ, supposed to authenticate it as Columbus, the disfiovere 
the New.- World, It is said that the Duke of Veragtu I| 
it to be tbe most authentic likeness of his ancestor. 

Another conspicuous portrait is that ^ven by De Bry in. 
db a,^ larger series of his Collection of Early Voyages. 
^'^"^ Bry claims that it was paiutwl by order of E 
Ferdinand, and that it was purloined from tbe offices of 
Coani'U of Uie Indies in Spain, and brought t*) tbe Netherlandit? 
and iu this way fell into the hands of that engraver and editor. 
It bears little resemblance to the pictures already mentioned ■, 
nor does it appear to conform to the desoriptioDa of Oa 


I aim) HlM>rtvr taoe. with a ptvfu- 
ing Wiiifntli an lij:lr. a[i};iJar ca|i. 
et (lublubed it, in l.*>'.*o, twcuty 

oiUrtit ajipa'iinnl.ADil pl*»«n jrcau^ «fUT 
m •Ki«. Nm oni< of tbc ^ji-iicnitMiii rlutt miut M 
known llw nrnvigunr cuuLi liwu liave kurTivm). 


and the picture bus no other voucher tbou the profeBeions of V 
engraver of it. 

These ai-e but a few of the many pictures that huve beea 
other pot- maile to pass, first and last, for Columbus, and th-- 
"*'*' only ones meriting seiions study for their i-liimB. Th- 

Aaierican publlt; was long taught to regard the efMgy of Cc 
Iambus as that of a bedizened courtier, because Presoott be 

UB bRV'H coLUUBire. 

]ected for an engraviiig to adorn his Ferdinand and Jaabella 
a picture of such a pei'son, which is ascribed to Parmigiano, 
and is preserved in the Museo Borbonico, at Naples. Its claims 
long ago ceased to be considered. The traveler in Cnba sees 
Hinn* '" *''^ Cathedral at Plavaita a monumental effigy, ol 
BoniuBEBi- ^Jiich there is no evidence of authenticity worthy o\ 
consideratioD. The traveler in Italy can see in Genoa, plai 
on the cabinet which was made to bold the uiamiscript t 


U i'olwDlNM, » boat hy Pwchieim. It haa the n^Ktin merit 
«< ksviiifr oo tcUtioa to Mijr of the allied portraits ; rnnMi'i 
bat tvpiwseDta the wnilptor'it oonoeptioD of the mao, ^"^ 


I bT the *cant deacriptioiiH of kini pvcn b> us b_v his von- 
If the rcanler deeirea to am- bow extvimive thv fifltl of raaouvh 


is, for one who can spend the time in tracing all the dues con< 
nected with all the representations which pass for Columbus, 
he can make a beginning, at least, under the guidance of the 
essay on the portraits which the present writer contributed to 
the Narrative and Critical History of America^ voL ii. 

When Columbus, in 1502, ordered a tenth of his income to 
be paid annually to the Bank of St. George, in Grenoa, for the 
purpose of reducing the tax upon corn, wine, and other piovis- 
ions, the generous act, if it had been carried out, would have 
entitled him to such a recognition as a public benefactor as the 
bank was accustomed to bestow. The main hall of the palace of 
this institution commemorates such patriotic efforts by showing 
a sitting statue for the largest benefactors ; a standing figure for 
lesser gifts, while still lower gradations of charitable help are 
indicated in busts, or in mere inscriptions on a mural tablet. 
It has been thought that posterity, curious to see the great Ad- 
miral as his contemporaries saw him, suffers with the state of 
Genoa, in not having such an effigy, by the neglect or inatten- 
tion which followed upon the announced purpose of Columbus. 
We certainly find there to-day no such visible proof of his 
munificence or aspect. Harrisse, while referring to this depriva- 
tion, takes occasion, in his Bank of St. George (p. 108), to say 
that he does not ^^ believe that the portrait of Columbus was 
ever drawn, carved, or painted from the life." He contends 
that portrait-painting was not common in Spain, in Columbus's 
day, and that we have no trace of the painters, whose work 
constitutes the beginning of the art, in any record, or authentic 
effigy, to show that the person of the Admiral was ever made 
the subject of the art. The same writer indicates that the in- 
terval during which Columbus was popular enough to be 
painted extended over only six weeks in April and May, 1498. 
He finds that much greater heroes, as the world then deter- 
mined, like Boabdil and Cordova, were not thus honored, and 
holds that the portraits of Ferdinand and Isabella, which edi- 
tions of Prescott have made familiar, are really &ncy {Hctnres 
of the close of the sixteenth century. 




No one has mastered so thoroughly as Harrisse the intiioacies 
of the Culumbas genealogy. A pride in the name of twbmm 
C^Jooibo has been shared by all who have borne it or ^^<>i<»^ 
kre had reUtionship with it, and there has been a not un- 
vorthy competition among many branches of the common stock 
to ertabliih the evidences of their descent in eounection, more 
ur IcM intimate, with the greatest name that has signalijBed the 
family history. 

This reduplication of families, as well as the constant recur- 
rmee of the same fore-names, particularly common in Italian 
families, has rendered it difficult to construct the genealogical 
tree of thi» Admiral, and has given ground for drafts of his 
pnli^ri^*^* acceptable to some, and disputed by other claimants 
of kiu<diip. 

There was a Gascon-French subject of Loui^ XI., Guillaume 
df C^aianove, sometimes calletl Coulomp, Coullon, Co- j^ rrmch 
1-ifU in the Italian accounts Colombo, and Latinized as <^<^*^^»*^ 
i \4uml>as, who is said to have coniniauded a fleet of seven sail, 
whi<*h« in (Xtober, 1474, captured two galleys Udonging to 
FVnlinao«l« king of Sicily. When Leibnitz published, for the 
tira time, some of the diplomatic correspoudentre whieh ensued, 
be interjected the fore>name Chrintophorus in the references to 
the C olumbos of this narrative. This waM in his ('tutvx Juris 
tJrmiiu9H DijJomnlimii^ published at Hannover in 1093. Leib- 
niu was toim undeceived by Nict)Ias lliovnanl, who explaiue<l 
that the coraair in question was Cruillauine <le Casanove, vice- 
^klmiral of France, and Leibnitx disavowetl the imputation upon 
the GctMMse navigator in a subsequent volume. Though there 
i« wjoe «lifference of opinion res|)e<*ting the identity of Casa- 
iH>ve and the capturer of the galleys, there can no longer Iw any 
d«^b€y in the light of pertinent investigations, that the French 


Colombos were of no immediate kin to the family of Greuoa and 

Savona, as is abundantly set forth by Harrisse in his Lea Co- 
lombo de France et d^ItcUie (Paris, 1874). Since the French 
CouUon, or Coulomp, was sometimes in the waters neighboring ^ 
to Genoa, it is not unlikely that some confusion may arise in _ 
separating the Italian from the French Colombos ; and it has 
been pointed out that a certain entry of wreckage in the registry 
of Genoa, which Spotomo associates with Christopher Columbus-:^ 
may more probably be connected with this (xascon navigator. 

Bossi, the earliest biographer in recent times, considers that^ 
a Colombo named in a letter to the Duke of Milan as being in 
a naval fight off Cyprus, between Genoese and Venetian vessels, 
in 1476, was the discoverer of the New World. ELarrisse, in 
his Lea Colombo^ has printed this letter, and from it it does not 
appear that the commander of the Genoese fleet is known by 
name, and that the only mention of a Colombo is that a fleet 
commanded by one of that name was somewhere encountered. 
There is no indication, however, that this commander was 
Christopher Columbus. The presumption is that he was the 
roving Casanove. 

Leibnitz was doubtless misled by the assertion of the ERa- 
torie of 1571, which allows that Christopher Columbus had 
sailed under the orders of an admiral of his name and family, 
and, particularly, was in that naval combat off Lisbon, when, his 
vessel getting on fire, he swam with the aid of an oar to the 
Portuguese shore. The doubtful character of this episode will 
be considered later ; but it is more to the purpose here that this 
same book, in citing a letter, of which we are supposed to have 
the complete text as preserved by Columbus himself, makes 
Columbus say that he was not the only admiral which his family 
had produced. This is a clear reference, it is supposed, to this 
vice-admiral of France. It is enough to say that the genuine 
text of this letter to the nui*se of Don Juan does not contain this 
controverted passage, and the defenders of the truth of the Hta- 
torie^ like D'Avezac, are forced to imagine there must have 
been another letter, not now known. 

Beside the elder admiral of France, the name of Colombo 

Junior belonged to another of these French sea-rovers 

er French in the fifteenth century, who has been held to be a 

nephew, or at least a relative, of the elder. He has • 
also sometimes been confounded with the Genoese Columbus. 


To dKermine the exact relationship between the Taiious 
Krfoeh and Italian Colombos and Coulons of the fit- 
tr^nth eentury would be hazardous. It is enough to 
«a\ thai no endenoe that stands a oiitieal test remains to con- 
uKt theM famous mariners with the line of Christopher Co- 
lumbus. The genealogical tables which Spotomo presents, 
iifioo which Caleb Cushing enlightened American readers at the 
time in the yorih American Review^ and in which the French 
familj is nuule to issue from an alleged great-grand- 
fmtlier of Christopher Columbus, are affirmed by Har- 
rui«e« with much reason, to have been made up not far from 
l&M^ to support the claims of Bernardo and Baldassare (Bal- 
thasar ) Colombo, as pretenders to the rights and titles of the 
dinruTerer of the New World. 

Krrdinand is made in his own name to say of his father, '' I 
think it bettft*r that all the honor be derived to us from his per- 
il « than to go about to iuquire whether his father was a mer- 
chaut or a man of quality, that kept his hawks and hounds.** 
< hher biugraphers, however, have pursued the inquiry dili- 

In one of the sections of his \xHik on Christopher Columhun 
*9»^i th^ It fink uf Saint (wennjt\ has Hhown coiunih«.'« 
hi»w the notarial rwonU of Savona and Cnnioa luive '*'***^ **** 
Kivn worked* to ilovelop the early hiHtory of the Admind*s 
fmmily from documentary' proofs. Thl>^io evidenc*eH art* distinct 
frncn the narratives of those who had known him, or who at a 
Utrr (lav hail tokl his story, as (lallo, the writer of the Hit*- 

m ft 

^'rl>, and Oviedo did. Keference has aln^adv IxM^n made to 
the pr^raltf»nce of ColomU) as a |>atronyniic in (lenoa and the 
•»*-i2hU»ring country at tlmt time. HarrisfM* in his (^hrit^tophe 
' J',mh has enumerate<l two hundnMl of this name in Li^uria 
alooe« in those days, who seem to have had no kinship to the 
family of the AdmiraL There appear to have In^en in (lenoa* 
BHfreov«*r« four Colombos, and in Li^iria, outside of Genoa, six 
'Hhrm who bore the name of (^hristoph«*r*s father, Doinenioo : 
bat the Mearehert have not vet found a single other Christoforo. 
facta show the discrimination whirh those who of late 
have been investigating tlie history of the Achnirars fam- 
3t have been obliged to exercise. There are sixty notarial :u*ts 

Grenoa. This is a parentage of the h 
different from that shown in the geni 
Napione in 1805 and later ; and Harr 
tarial acts which were given then as the 
line of descent cannot now be found, ] 
doubts of their authenticity. 

It was this Giovanni's son, Domenic< 
(where he left a brother, Ai 
as 1439, and perhaps earliei 
the wool-weaver's quarter, so called, : 
time he owned a house. Thence he c 
Savona, where various notarial acts i 
period as a Grenoese, resident in Savon 

The essential thing remaining to hi 
menico Colombo of these notarial act 
was the father of Christopher Columb 
must take the testimony of those wh 
lombos, as Oviedo and Gallo did ; at 
we learn that the father of Christop 
Domenico, who lived in Genoa, and hi 
tolomeo, and Giacomo. These, then 
and finding them every one answen 
family, the proof seems incontestable 
that at the end of the fifteenth centu 
for some years lived under the Spanisl 


|mri ii> J their trmde mm weaTen, as tbe notarial records show. 
% in his Life of Columbus^ speaking of the wool-card- 
of the time, calls it ^ a business now low, but then respect- 
able and almost noble,^ — an idealization quite of a kind with 
ihr »puit that pervades Lamartine's book, and a spirit in which 
i( has been a fashion to write of Columbus and other heroes. 
TW calling was doubtless, then as now, simply respectable. The 
father added some experience, it would seem, in keeping a house 
of c-nUfrtainment. The joint profit, however, of these two occupa- 
Di»as did not suffice to keep him free from debt, out of which 
hi* too Cliristopher is known to have helped him in some meas- 
une. IXimenico sold and bought small landed properties, but 
diii not pay for one of them at least. There were fifteen years 
of this precarious life passed in Savona, during which he lost 
hi* wife, when« putting his youngest son to an apprenticeship, 
hr rrtnmed in 1484« or perhaps a little earlier, to Genoa, to try 
other chances. His fortune here was no betti'r. Insolvency stiU 
followed him. When we lose sight of him, iu 14m, the old man 
may. it is hoped, have heard rumors of the transient prosperity 
of ht« Sim, and perhaps have read in the fresh little quartos of 
l*lajuick the marvelous tale of the great dLsoovery. He lived 
«•- know not how much longer, but pn>bably died before the 
winter of 1499-1500, when the heirs of Cornulo de Cuneo, who 
had never received due {Miyment for an estate which Domenioo 
had bought in Savona, got judgment against (Miristoplier and 
hi« brother I>iegu, the sons of Domenioo, then of iH>urse beyond 
rc*i*h in foreign lands. 

Within a few years the Marquis Marot^llo Staglieno, a leame<l 
antiqaarv in Genoa, who has sui*<*eechHi in throwinij: 
mach new light on the early life of Columbus from ihw«ib 
thr notarial records of that city, has itlentifiinl a* house 
in the Vice Dritto Ponticello, No. 37, as the site on which Do- 
■Mpfiiro Colombo lived during the younger years of Ciirist4>pher*s 
lifr. The municipality bought tliis estate in June, 1887, and 
placvd over its door an inscription nHN>rding the associations of 
thr «poi. Harrisse thinks it not unlikely that the great navi- 
gator was even bom here. The discovery of his father's owner- 
ship of the house seems to have be<*n ma<le by oan^f iilly tnioing 
hack the title of the huul to the time when I)onieiiii*o cmntnl 
it. This was rendered surer by tracing the tith's of the ad- 


joining estates back to the time of Nicolas Paravania and An- 
tonio Bondi, who, according to the notarial act of 1477, record- 
ing Domenico's wife's assent to the sale of the property, lived 
as Domenico's next neighbors. 

If Christopher Columbus was bom in this house, that event 
coiombiu ^^ooV place, as notarial records, brought to bear by the 
****"• Marquis Staglieno, make evident, between October 29, 

1446, and October 29, 1451 ; and if some degree of inference 
be allowed, Harrisse thinks he can narrow the range to the 
twelve months between March 15, 1446, and March 20, 1447. 
This is the period within which, by deduction from other state- 
ments, some of the modem authorities, like Munoz, Bossi, and 
Spotorno, among the Italians, D'Avezac among the French, and 
Major in England, have placed the event of Columbus's birth 
without the aid of attested documents. This conclusion has 
been reached by taking an avowal of Columbus that he had led 
twenty-three years a sailor's life at the time of his first voyage, 
and was fourteen years old when he began a seaman's career. 
The question which complicates the decision is : When did 
Columbus consider his sailor's life to have ended ? If in 1492, 
as Peschel contends, it would carry his birth back no farther 
than 1455-56, according as fractions are managed ; and Peschel 
accepts this date, because he believes the unconfirmed statement 
of Columbus in a letter of July 7, 1503, that he was twenty-eight 
when he entered the service of Spain in 1484. 

But if 1484 is accepted as the termination of that twenty- 
three years of sea life, as Munoz and the others already men- 
tioned say, then we get the result which most nearly accords 
with' the notarial records, and we can place the birth 


of Columbus somewhere in the years 1445—47, accord- 
ing as the fractions are considered. This again is confirmed by 
another of the varied statements of Columbus, that in 1501 it 
was forty years since, at fourteen, he first took to the sea. 

There has been one other deduction used, through which Na- 
varrete, Humboldt, Irving, Roselly de Lorgues, Napi- 
one, and others, who copy them, determine that his 
birth must have taken place, by a similar fractional allowance of 
margin, in 1435-37. This is based upon the explicit statement 
of Andres Bernaldez, in his book on the Catholic monarchs of 
Spain, that Columbus at his death was about seventy years old. 


So thetv is a twenty yean* range for those who may be influ- 
riKvd by one line of argument or another in determining the 
lUUf of the Admiral*!! birth. Many writers have discussed the 
ar^ments : but the weight of authority seems, on the whole, to 
rv<»t u{ion the records which are used by Harrisse. 

The mother of Columbus was Susanna, a daughter of Gia- 
t^mio de Fontanarossa, and Domenico married her in 

tilt- Bita^o country, a region lying east of Genoa. hnthmT' 
>he was certainly dead in 1489, and had, perhaps, 
•lied ai early as 1482, in Savona. Beside Christoforo, this alii- 
aiKY with IXNnenico Colombo produced four other children, who 
w«Te probably bom in one and the same house. They were 
i ffiovanni-Pellegrino, who, in 1501, had been dead ten years, and 
wan tmmarried : Bartolomeo, who was never married, and who 
will be encountered later as Bartholomew; and Giacomo, who 
wbrn he went to Si^un became known as Diego Colon, but 
who is called Jacobus in all Latin narratives. There was also 
a daughter, Bianchinetta, who married a cheesemonger named 
Bavarvllo, and had one child. 

Antonio, the brother of Domenico, seems to have had three 
-m^ Giovanni, Matteo, and Anii^hetto. They were HUuncir 
thu* ci>u4(in!i of the Admiral, and they were so far vo^- »»»J«^»*n»- 
n Leant <»f his fame in 149(> :is to combine in a det^laration bt^fore 
a n«>tanr that they united in sendini; onr of their nunilKT, (iio- 
r»nni« on a voyap* to Spain to vinit tht*ir famous kinsman, the 
Admiral of the Indies; their object liein;^. most probably, to 
pruht, if they could, by basking in bi.s favor. 

If the evidences thus set forth of Win family history be 
M«^|iCed, then* is no qm^tion that Columbus, as lie a^ta 
kim^lf always said, and finally in his will de(*lare<l. ^^"^ 
aoii as Ferdinand knew, although it is not aftirmed in the ////(. 
f«.ri^. fra« bom in lirnoa. Among the early writi*rs. if we except 
i iiiliotlfx de Carvajal, who claime<l him for Savona, then* mm'Uih 
t'> havf been little or no doubt he was )K)rn in (lenoa. 
I'rtrr Martvr and Las Casas af!inn it. IWrnald«*z iM^lievt^l it. 
lfiu«tiniani asuerts it. But wIk'u OvitMlo, not many years afttT 
< '<>lanbuA*s death, wnite, it was Un'ome so doubtful wlirre 
4 'niumbus was bi>m that ht* mentions Hvo or six towns which 
rlaimni the honor of lN«ing his birthplace. The claim ,.|^,„ ,,„ 
f*« Savona has alwavs remained, after (lenoa, that ^^"^ 
wbich has received the best nN*ogiiition. The ^niuuds of Hiich 


a belief, however, have been pretty well disproved in ELarrisse^s 
Christophe Colomb et Savone (Genoa, 1887), and it has been 
shown, as it would seem conclusively, that, prior to Domenico 
Colombo's settling in Savona in 1470-71, he had lived in 
Genoa, where his children, taking into account their known or 
computed ages, must have been bom. It seems useless to re- 
and other hcarsc the arguments which strenuous advocates have, 
places. ^^ ^jjg ijjQjg ^P another, offered in support of the pre- 

tensions of many other Italian towns and villages to have fur- 
nished the great discoverer to the world, — Plaisance, Cucoaro, 
Cogoleto, Pradello, Nervi, Albissola, Bogliasco, Cosseria, Finale, 
Oneglia, Quinto, Novare, Chiavari, Milan, Modena. The pre- 
tensions of some of them were so urgent that in 1812 the Acad- 
emy of History at Genoa thought it worth while to present the 
proofs as respects their city in a formal way. The claims of 
Cuccaro were used in support of a suit by Balthazar Colombo, 
to obtain possession of the Admiral's legal rights. The claim 
of Cogoleto seems to have been mixed up with the supposed 
birth of the corsairs, Colombos, in that town, who for a long 
while were confounded with the Admiral. There is left in 
favor of any of them, after their claims are critically examined, 
nothing but local pride and enthusiasm. 

The latest claimant for the honor is the town of Calvi, in Cor- 
sica, and this cause has been particularly embraced by the 
Frepch. So late as 1882, President Grevy, of the French Be- 
public, undertook to give a national sanction to these claims by 
approving the erection there of a statue of Columbus. The 
assumption is based upon a tradition that the great discoverer 
was a native of that place. The principal elucidator of that 
claim, the Abbe Mai'tin Casanova de Pioggiola, seems to have 
a comfortable notion that tradition is the strongest kind of his- 
torical proof, though it is not certain that he would think so 
with respect to the twenty and more other places on the Italian 
coast where similar traditions exist or are said to be current. 
Ilarrisse seems to have thought the claim worth refuting in his 
Christophe Colomb et La Corse (Paris, 1888), to say nothing 
of other examinations of the subject in the Revtie de Paris and 
the Revue Critique^ and of two very recent refutations, one by 
the Abbe Casabianca in his Le Berceau de Christophe Colomb 
et la Corse (Paris, 1889), and the last word of Harrisse in the 
Rertfo riisforh/ifr (1890, p. 182). 




The condition of knowledge respecting Columbus's early life 
a» Mich« when Presoutt wrote, that few would dispute his con- 
liuion that it is hopeless to unravel the entanglement of events, 
aMuciated with the opening of his career. The critical discern- 
im-nt of Harrisse and other recent investigators has since then 
docK* sooie thing to make the confusion even more apparent by 
an^t^tling convictions too hastily assumed. A bunch of be- 
« iklering statements, in despite of all that present scholarship 
•-aji do« is left to such experts as may be possessed in the future 
•>f more determinate knowledge. It may well be doubted if 
alMilute clarification of the reconl is ever to be possible. 

Tbf student naturally inquires of tiie cout4*m|>oraries of Co- 
lumbar as to the quality and extent of his early e<lu- RUMiura. 

• atjoo* and he derives most from Las Casas and the '**"'' 
//iBt,,rie of ir>71. It has of late been ascertained that the wool- 
r«>ciilirrft of (renoa establishe<l local sc*hools for the education of 
:hrir children, and the young Christopher may have had his 
«hare of their instruction* in addition to whatever he picked up 
at his trade, which continued, as long as he remained in Italy, 
that of his father. We know from the manuscripts whi(*h have 
«xime down to os that (. olumbus acquired the manual dexterity 
of a gnod penman ; and if some existing drawings are not a|M)c- 
r% ) JiaL he had a <left hand« too, in making a rtpirite<t sket4.*h with 
a few strokes. His drawing of ma|M, which we an* also told 
abonU imfdies that be had fulfilled Ptoleniy*s definition of that 
art uf the cosmographer which could n«pres4»nt the cartographir 

• lotlioea of ooantriea with supposable (*orret*tness. He could do 
:t with such skill that he practi(*<Hl it at one time, as is naid, 
f •r tlw gaining of a livelihiMNl. We know. truHtiii;; the Ilist*t^ 
r»^, Cliat he was for a brief periotl at the Tniversity of Pavia, 


perhaps not far from 1460, where he sought to understaod the 

^^ m;st«riea of cosmography, astrology, and geometry. 

Bossi has enumerated the professors in these depart- 


ments at that time, from whose tencliing Columbus may pos- 
sibly have profited. Haniese witb his aocastomed distniat, 



tlirov» great doubt on the whole nmrrmtiTe of bin uniTenity 

r&|>erteDceft, mud thinks 

TaviA at this time of- 

frivJ no {leculiar advan- 

ta^res for an aspiring sea- 

tiian. to be (*oiupared with 

th^ pni*tit*al instruction 

« Kirh Gtfmitt in its com- 

iD«n-LAl eminence could 

At Uk* .name time have 

• •ffvrv«l to any sea-smit- 

tru bi>v. It was at Ucnoa 
x\ thiH verr time (1461 ), 
;kat Itenincasa was pro- 
«iiicin|; hi^i famous sea- 

After bis poeuble* if 

t»4 pn»bable, Nojoum at 

I'aviau made transient, it 

ki!* U*en dugj^ested but 

ixkt provetU by the failing 

•'•rtuneM of his father, 

< un«t«ipher n*tumed to 

' ii-oogu and then after an 

uncertain inU*rval en- 

trrnl u n bis seafaring 

'-vwt. If what pasAes for his own rftatemcnt l)e taken he vras 

A* ihu turn of bis life not more than fourteen years 

"U. The attractions of the sea at that periml of the 

!^f>rnth <vntury were great for adventunnis youths. There was 

» *pkx* f»f piracy in even the sol)en*Ht ventures of ci>mmen*e. 

Tikp «hi|M iif om* Christian stat<> pn^yetl on another. Privut*: 

i'Ltun*» were buccaneerish, and the band of tht* CaUilonian and 

i ibr Miislem were turmnl agaiuHt all. The news which s|kn1 

:n«i <iDe end of the Metliteminean to the other wa^ of fi^bt 

^ plunder* here and everywhere. ( K'casionally it was niix(*d 

*itk rumors of the voyages beyond the Straits of Hereulf.s 

tUrb uikl of the Portuguese and their hazanU on the African 

'^"M towanis the equator. Not far from the time when (»ur 

jOQDg Genoese wool-comber may be supposed to have 


Com to 



embarked od some of these venturesome exploits of the gresk' 
inland sea, there might have come jumping from port to port, 

westerly aloug the Mediterranean shores, the story of 
aeery. om the dcath of tliat gieat maritime spirit of Portu^ 

Prince Henry, the Navigator, and of the latest fei 
of his captains in the great ocean of the west. 


It has been usual to afisoeiate the earliest maritime career 4 
Anjou'au- **"■■ dashing Genoese with an expedition fitted out i 
^**" Genoa by John of Anjou. Duke of Calabria, to i 
cover possession of the kingdom of Naples for his father, Duki 
Ren^, Count of Provence. This is kuowD to have been under- 
taken in 1453-61. The pride of Genoa encouraged the service 
of the attacking fleet, and many a citizen cast in his lot wi^ u 


tittt BAvml armmmeiit, uid emlMurked with his own sobeidiary 
cnattmiKL There is mention of a certain doughty captain, Co- 
loaho by name, at leading one part of this expeditionary force. 
Hi* vai very likely one of those French corsairs of that name, 
ali«ady mentioned, and likely to have been a man of importance 
in the Franoo-Genoeee train. He has, indeed, been sometimes 
miJe s kinsman of the wool-comber*8 son. There is little iikeii- 
ImwI ot his baring been our Christopher himself, then, as we 
nuT easily picture him, a red-haired youth, or in life's early 
l>rime« with a mddy complexion, — a type of the Italian which 
one uxlay is not without the chance of encountering in the 
A'^rtii of Italy, presenring, it may be, some of that northern 
UhnI which had produced the Vikings. 

The liUtorU of 1571 gives what purports to be a letter of 

< oiumbus describing some of the events of this campaign. It 

* V siidmsed to the Spanish monarchs in 1495. If Anjou was 

<^»niiecttfd with any service in which Columbus took part, it is 

<-AM' Ui make it manifest that it coidd not have happened later 

t^ 1461, because the reverses of that year drove the unfortu- 

tutr Ren^ into permanent retirement The rebuttal of this 

t^inmny depends largely upon the date of ColumbuH*s birth ; 

An«i if that is placed in 1446, as seems well establiHheii, Coluui- 

'ti** the Genoese mariner, (*ouid hardly have comniaiuletl a gal- 

K^ in it at fourteen ; ami it is still more inipn>bable if, as 

M'Aveme says, Columbus was in the ex|)edition when it set out 

in 14-'i9, since the boy (^hrintAipher was then but twelve. As 

HarriMi* puts it, the letter of Columbus i|uoUh1 in the //is- 

f'^riV b apocr^'phal, or the c*orrect date of C(»lumbu8*H birtli is 

»K 1446. 

It Li, however, not to be forgotten that Columbus himself 
te^titie^ t«> the tender age at which he In^gan his sea-8ervi(*e 
w)»'n, in 1501, he rtH*alled some t>f his early ex|>erienees ; but, 
uo fortunately, Columbus was c*hronically given to loostMiess of 
•Catrmrnt, and the testimony of his iNmtein|>orarit*A is oft4*n tlie 
bdt^r authority. In 1501, his mind, moreover, was verging on 
u napou Mbility. lie had a talent for <ieceit, an<l sometimes 
kaa*tMl of it« or at least counte«l it a merit. 

Much investigation has wonderfully oonfiniie<l the a<*4*uracy 
ol that earliest sketeh of his career oontaiuiHl in the (iiustiniani 
Pwltcr in 1516 ; and it is learned from that narrative that ( \>- 


iumbrDS baid «ttaiinfid an adult age •h e a ht fint viai to 
aji*d iMs vas ooe <if the stateoieotiB wUck tfe HiMorie at 1571 
ttonglit to diserfsdh. If die notarial reeardt at Savnna are eor- 
net in eaSing Coljimbos a wool-eamber in 1472. and ht was of 
the Sarona familT. and ham in 1446i. he was then twentj-€ix 
jean oI(L and of tiie aduk age tliai is rfaimwl hy Ae Palter 
and In' other earlv writers, who either knew or meutiooed him, 
when be began his wafaiing life. In that case he coold have 
had no part in tlM; Anjoo-Bene expedition* whose whole storr, 
even with the expositians of Harrisse and Max Bodinger, is 
fehrotidbd in nneertainties of time and jdaee. That after 1473 
he disappears from every notarial record that can be found in 
^ienoa shows, in IIarrisse*s ofnnion, that it was not till then 
that be txx/k to the sea as a profession. 

We cannot sav that the information which we haTe at this 
early »»eafariDg life of Columbus, whenever beginmng, is de- 
servia^ of much credit, and it is di£Bcok to plaee whateTer it 
ineludeh in chronol/^^cal order. 

W^r inav infer from one of his statements that he had, at 
Kome time, been at Seio observing the making of mastic. Cer- 
tain re[Kirts whif h most likely concern his namesakes, the French 
c'jrsain». are )»ometimes a.s.sociated with him as leading an attack 
on S|iani>A galleys somewhere in the service of Loois XI., or 
as rruiniu'^ near C\'j>nii>. 

.Si everj-thin;^ is misty about these early days ; but the imagi- 
nation of ^}me of his biographers g^ves us abundant precision 
for t\i*i flaily life of the school-lK)y, apprentice, cabin boy, man- 
ner, and cor-^air, even to the receiving of a wound which we 
know troublwl him in his later years. Such a story of details 
is the filling up of a scant outline with the colors of an un&itb' 
fii! J i inner. 



IV)LUXBU8, disappearing from Italy in 1473, is next foand in 
r«>rtu{^ and it is a natural inquiry why an active, 
iilrvnturtMu spirit, having tested the exhilaration of 
t^ !«tfa« »bottld have made his way to that out|K>Ht of maritime 
unbitioii, bordering on the great waters, that liad for many ages 
Attracted and puxxltfd the discoverer and (*osmographer. It is 
hartUy to be doubted that the fame of the Purtugu(*se voyaging 
uai npoQ the vasty deep, or following tlie western coast of Af- 
nca. bad fur some time been a not unusual topic of talk among 
tito- •camen of the Mediterranean. It may be only less probable 
that an int^frcourse of seafaring Mediti*rranean people with the 
Arabs of the Levant had brought rumors of voyages 
IB tbr ocean that washed the eastern shon*s of Afrira. onurpriM » 
»tori«rs from the ( )rient might well have indua*^! 

ti> speculate that such voyages were but the complements 
•jf tho«e of the Portuguese in their efffirts t4> w>lve the pn>blem 
*A thte circumnavigation of the great African continent. It is 
ttoc, tkrn« 4uq>rising that a doughty mariner like l.^oluuibiiis in 
life's prime, shoubl ha%*e desired t4> be in the thick of such dis- 
ro«A>oiMk and to no other Euro|>ean region could he ha%'e turned 
aik a waaderer with the same satisfaction as to Portug:il. 

Ijei OS see how the great maritime cptestions stoiMl in Portu- 
gal ia 1473, an«l from what antet^edents thev had arisen. 

Portuguese, at this time, ha«l the reputation of being the 
expert seamen in Knro|ie, or at leant they divid«*d p^,, 
:t wxtii the Catalans ami Majon^an.^. Their fame 

and at a later day was re]K»at4*tl by A<*<>sta. These hardy 
had pnsheil boldly out. as early a^ we have any record-, 
At^> tht- enticing and yet forbidding Sea of Darkness. |p 

»4 often {lerhaps willingly out of sight of land : but '^^ 
DuC inffwineotly gave them the ex)M*rieu<*e of 

tM«M ntt Urn 

Ltlantic cartography. 

There is no occasion to make it evident that 
to Cana- *^® Wcst found bj the Phoenicians, 
"' Islands of Sertorius, and the Hesperide 

le Canaries of later times, brought to light aft 
iries of oblivion ; but these islands stand in the 
anuto at the beginning of the fourteenth centi 
lly visited by the Spaniards and others for a 
ad more before the Norman, Jean de B^th< 
eginning of the fifteenth century (1402), settled 
E them. Here his kinspeople ruled, till finally 
E sovereignty by Spain and Portugal ended ii 
pain being established, with compensating excl 
*ortugal on the African coast. 

But it was by Genoese in the service of Por 
le Genoese ^^ whosc cxploits may uot havc been u 
PortugaL Jumbus, that the most important disco 
lands had been made. 

It was in the early part of the fourteenth c 
Madeira group had been discovered, 
tian portolano of 1351, preserved at 
amistakably laid down and properly named, 
IS been considered, for several reasons, the wo' 
id as probably recording the voyage by the G< 
>r the Portuguese king, — at least Major hold 

^ 1 rm^ 



■n«lcr Cieiioi*iie comnuinden. We find tbeHe ialancla also in the 
l*atalan tua|i of 1373, anil in that of Pizigani of the 
mD« peritNi ( 1367, 1373). 

It waA in the reign of Edward III. of England that one Kob- 

4 ^Wm* -huagm^^x^ U 


» i*^^ 


^Pruoi llA|ur'i /•nii'-r ll^nry ] 

*n Marhin, flving from England to av(»id ptirHiiit for stealing 
i vifr, aci-tdvutally reac*hetl the island nf Madcini. it.j«.n 
•l»Tv dl%aftt«fr overtook M:u*hin*M ooniitany. hut soiiu* *•*'•"»■ 
! Li« or»*fr reached Africa in a l>oat and were niadi* <*a|>tiv<'s l»y 
'^ Moitr^. In 1410, the S|uinianls sent an ex|HMUtioii to n*- 
^^na I'hrijitian captivt*!! held by th«*s4* Hsinie M<»ors, and, while 
''Hu^Bg thrm away« the S]uinii«h ship wa- (>ven*<»ine by a Por- 
toj s ^ cie navigator, Zareo, and among his prisoneni w:ia one 

;he story, and though romance and anachronie 
sure its truth, the main circumstances are fairlj 
'his discovery was the beginning of the revelatic 
igators of Prince Henry were to make. A fe^ 
25) he dispatched colonists to occupy the two 

among them was a gentleman of the hoi 
» fun- tolomeo Perestrello, whose name, in a dc 

shall again encounter when, near the doe 
, we follow Columbus himself to this same iai 
b is conjectured that the position of the Azores ^ 

on a map which, brought to Portugal fro 

1428, instigated Prince Henry to order 1 
scover those islands. That they are laid dc 
la's Catalan map of 1439 is held to indicate th< 
t of the prince's purpose, probably in 1482, tl 
ity years to bring the entire group within the 1 

he weU-known map of Andrea Bianco in 14S 
y, in the Biblioteca Marciana at Venice, rec 
^^^ extent of supposition at that date respet 
-studded waste of the Atlantic. Between this 
od of the arrival of Columbus in Portugal, thu 

names of the map makers of the Atlantii 
"^"^ Valsequa (1439), Leardo (1448, 1462, 1 


Tlina il wu that (town to a period a very little later thi 
the middla of the fifteenth ceututy the Portuguese had been a 

il>l iu the U-tter 

ler and the goal of the merchant. Everything 
ought to be on a larger scale than in Europ 
3re abundant, pearls were rarer, spices wei 
)re nobler, animals were statelier. Everythi 
[)re lordly. He had been fed there so luxuri< 
lieved to have dwindled in character. Euro 
active intelligence, the inheritor of Greek ax 
id its typical man belonged naturally with 
rnals of the East. There was a fitness in br 
an and the better nature into such relatic 
ould sustain and enjoy the pther. 
The earliest historical record of the peoples 
with China goes back, according to 
ond century before Christ. Three hu: 
I find the first trace of Roman intercourse (a 
dia China had some trade by sea as early s 
ry, and with Babylonia possibly in the fifth 
jre Christian Nestorian missionaries there 
^hth century, and some of their teachings 
ere by Western travelers in the thirteenth an< 
ries. The communication of Ceylon with C 
the thirteenth century. 

It was in the twelfth century, under the Mon 
China became first generally known i 
the name of Cathay, and then for i 


TrliNi« uIm continued down to the days of Columbus, and when 
the fsreat discoverer came on the scene it was to find the public 
UiiuA «icrapied with the hopes of reaching these Eastern realms 
h\ way of the south. The experimental and accidental voy- 
a^in;:^ of the Portuguese on the Atlantic were held to be but 
)>rx-Iiminary to a steadier progression down the coast of Africa. 
Whether the ancients had succeeded in circumnavigating 
\ f n«-a is a question never likely to be definitely set- 

^i# AfriOD 

:ic^i« and opposing views, as weighed by Bunbury in rmtt«MMi 
hi* //ijifory of Ancirnt (ivography^ are too evenly 
la.u;uM*t^ to allow either side readily to make conquest of judi- 
ri:il mindn. It is certain that Hi]>])arehus had denieil the possi- 
bility of iu and luul supposed the Indian Ocean a land-bound 
«'a, Afrii*a extending at the south so as to connect witli a south- 
rtw pndongation of eastern Asia. This view had l)ecn adopted 
b\ I'tidemy. whose opinions were dominating at this time the 
\\'f«u»ni mind. Nevertheless, that Africa ended in a southern 
«^A|if iK4*ems to have been conceived of by those who ^te AfrkM 
diMibied the authority of Ptolemy early enough for ^^*<^ 
.*^anutu« in 1306, to |M>rtray such a cape in his ])lani8]>here. If 
>juiut4» nndly knew of its exist4*nce the source of liis knowledge 
i« .1 ^ubjtH't for curious s|HH«ulation. Not unlikely an African 
«-a|* may have been snmiisetl by the Venetian sailors, who, 
fn-i|a4*nting the Me<Iiterranean coasts of Asia Minor, came in 
r>-Dtact with the Aralm. Those last may have ohorisheil the 
tnulitiou!^ of maritime explorers on the east coast of Africa, 
«h«i may have already discovered the great southern ca|)e, per- 
ha|»« without passing it. 

Navarrete records that as early as 1393 a com|)aiiy had been 
!-»rm*-«I in Andalusia and Biscay for pn>moting dis- 
«<«>f«Tio d4»wn the coast of Africa. It was an effort r<Mi4«ii». 
t'» Mn*un* in the end such a route* to Asia as mi<;ht 
* TiaLIe th«* |>eopl«* of the IWrian jNMiinsula to shan* with those 
• •f tb«' Italian the trade with the K:ist, which th«' lattiT had 
Lifi;; ci>niliM"ted wholly «>r in ]iart ov(*rI:in4l fnim tho I^evant. 
TK-- |Mirt of Barcelona hail ind«*e<l a shan* in thi*^ opulent coni- 
iij«^n*«* : but its priMluet for S|Kiin was insignifirant in couipari- 
^m «ith that for It^dv. 

Tl»«- ;niidiug spirit in this new habit of exploration was that 
of the royal family of Portugsd who l>ei*anu* famous evt*n- 


sea and sky, and nothing eke. The great ocean was an untried 
waste for cartography. A few straggling beliefs in islands 
lying westward had come down from the ancients, and the fan- 
BCarino Siu tastic notions of floating islands and steady lands, 
nuto, 1306. QpQQ which the imagination of^ the Middle Ages 
thrived, were still rife, when we find in the map of Marino 
Sanuto, in 1306, what may well be considered the beginning of 
Atlantic cartog^phy. 

There is no occasion to make it evident that the Islands of 
The Cmuip *^® West found by the Phoenicians, the Fortunate 
'**^ Islands of Sertorius, and the Hesperides of Pliny wei'e 

the Canaries of later times, brought to light after thirteen cen- 
turies of oblivion ; but these islands stand in the planisphere of 
Sanuto at the beginning of the fourteenth century, to be casu- 
ally visited by the Spaniards and others for a hundred years 
and more before the Norman, Jean de B^thencourt, in the 
beginning of the fifteenth century (1402), settled himself on one 
of them. Here his kinspeople ruled, tiU finally the rival claims 
of sovereignty by Spain and Portugal ended in the rights of 
Spain being established, with compensating exclusive rights to 
Portugal on the African coast. 

But it was by Genoese in the service of Portugal, the fame 
The Genoese ^^ whosc cxploits may uot havc bccu unknown to Co- 
in Portugal, lumbus, that the most important discoveries of ocean 
islands had been made. 

It was in the early part of the fourteenth century that the 
Madeira ffroup had been discovered. In the Lauren- 
tian portolano of 1351, preserved at Florence, it is 
unmistakably laid down and properly named, and that atlas 
has been considered, for several reasons, the work of Genoese^ 
and as probably recording the voyage by the Genoese Pezagna 
for the Portuguese king, — at least Major holds that to be de- 
monstrable. The real right of the Portuguese to these islands. 
rests, however, on their rediscovery by Prince Henry's captains 
at a still later period, in 1418-20, when Madeira, seen as a 
cloud in the horizon from Porto Santo, was approached in a 
boat from the smaller island. 

It is also from the Laurentian portolano of 1351 that we 
know how, at some anterior time, the greater group 

^' of the Azores had been found by Portuguese vessels 


It wu joHt at the t-nd of the thirteenth ctmtury (^1295) that 
tlv Art' dt Xarrijar of Kaymond Lully, or Lullius, i^j],', j^ 
pve Bkrinvni s handbook, whk'h, so far as is made "a^"^'- 
iti|«reBt, waa not HiiiwrsetliHl by a better even in the time of 

Aaothi'r nautical text-book at this time was a treatise by 
John Holywood, a Yorkabtre man, who needii to be a _ 
Utili- dmrii.>d n|i when we think of him as the lAtin- 
ivd SaCTobusni. W'n Sphrni Mundi wan not put into type till 

mitim Ib ib> N*Uoul Utew) ■) 

H"i joat before Columbun's arrival in l'<trtii}pil. — a work 
■hirli ia mainly }Hira|»liraM-<l fnini I'toleniy'N AhiuiijrM. It 
■uoor of the baxikii which, by law. tht' roy»l co-tino^n^iiihcr of 
*f«iiu at a later day. wa« (lirt-cl^l to )'X[Miiind in his conriM** of 

The h»4Utoue wan known in wt'Htt-in aml^i'irtliiTii Kurojie uh 
•wU a» ili« rk-venth ivntiiry. iimi for twn or thrtf ti-i.*i 
"otarie* there ai* found in IxHikit (M-i-n7,ioii:il wU-r- **" 

\Vi- an* in mneb ilmibt, liowi'vvr, an to 


Morales, who had heard, as was reported, of the experiences of 
Machin. Zarco, a little later, being sent by Prince Henry of 
Porto Santo Portugal to the coast of Ghiinea, was driven out to sea, 
^^j]!^!"^ and discovered the island of Porto Santo ; and subse- 
ered. quently, under the prompting of Morales, he rediscov- 

ered Madeira, then uninhabited. This was in 1418 or 1419, 
and though there are some divergences in the different forms 
of the story, and though romance and anachronism somewhat 
obscure its truth, the main circumstances are fairly discernible. 
This discovery was the beginning of the revelations which the 
navigators of Prince Henry were to make. A few years later 
(1425) he dispatched colonists to occupy the two islands, and 
among them was a gentleman of the household. Bar- 
streuo fun- tolomeo Pcrestrello, whose name, in a descendant, we 


shall again encounter when, near the close of the cen- 
tury, we follow Columbus himself to this same island of Porto 

It is conjectured that the position of the Azores was laid down 

on a map which, brought to Portugal from Venice in 
^ 1428, instigated Prince Henry to order his seamen to 

rediscover those islands. That they are laid down on Val- 
sequa's Catalan map of 1439 is held to indicate the accomplish- 
ment of the prince's purpose, probably in 1432, though it took 
twenty years to bring the entire group within the knowledge of 
the Portuguese. 

The well-known map of Andrea Bianco in 1436, preserved 
Blanco's ^^ ^^ Bibliotcca Mareiana at Venice, records also the 
map, 1436. extcnt of suppositiou at that date respecting the isl- 
and-studded waste of the Atlantic. Between this date and the 
period of the arrival of Columbus in Portugal, the best known 

names of the map makers of the Atlantic are those of 
other nu^pe. y^j^^^^^ (1439), Lcardo (1448, 1452, 1458), Pareto 

(1455), and Fra Mauro (1459). This last there will be occa- 
sion to mention later. 

In 1452, Pedro de Valasco, in sailing about Fayal westerly, 
seeing and following a flight of birds, had discovered 
the island of Flores. From what Columbus says in 
the journal of his first voyage, forty years later, this tracking of 
the flight of birds was not an unusual way, in these early ex- 
ploring days, of finding new islands. 



hi* journal. Of ooune tbe practiced Hcaman made allowances 
f»r drift in the ocean currenU, and met with more or leaa intel- 
ligMKc the varioiu deterrent elements in beating to windward. 

llnaUddt, with his keen insight into all such problems oon- 
tvmi&g their relations to oceanii- discoveries, tells as -ni, ^ 
iu hi* <*cxm(Mi bow he has made the history of the log ■°"'''°<- 
a aubject of special investigation in the sixth volume of his 


A/qntrf, t riff'/Hf iff Vllintnirr tie In firfi/rtifliif, whiili. unfiir 
lunib.Jy. the world has novur seen ; but hf gives. u|i]i«rfiitly. the 
•^vOt* in his later f '•/xmon. 

Ill* perliaps suqirising that thi- Miilitfrriin«iii )m-..i>Ii's hud 
^firnvivMl a methiHl. nonifwlinl i-ltini->v iis it w;i.». which liail 
i— b in u<e by tliv Koiiiniii in tlit- time of the rf)>iibli<-. Tlioiigh 
tir habit of tliruwing the log i* «till. in ••or day. k*-] it upon 
■■>aii -iiramerK. I find that fX|>fri>'nivd nMimiandirs ijuite us 
■'llinsly depend on the n-jxirt "f lU.-ir iii^ir»tT'* at I" th<' 
""•lUf (if revolutions which the wIhtI or -i-n-w 1i;h iiiaib' in 
^ i«ent}--foar boars. In this tla-y were niitiii[«at.Hl by these 



knowledge of later years be looked upon as the remotest out- 
post of the Old World. 

There was, as they thought, a much larger cosmographical 
The African problem lying to the south, — a route to India by a 

route to * 1 t A ? • 

India. supposable African cape. 

For centuries the Orient had been the dream of the philoso- 
pher and the goal of the merchant. Everything in the East was 
thought to be on a larger scale than in Europe, — metals were 
more abundant, pearls were rarer, spices were richer, plants 
were nobler, animals were statelier. Everything but man was 
more lordly. He had been fed there so luxuriously that he was 
believed to have dwindled in character. Europe was the world 
of active intelligence, the inheritor of Greek and Roman power, 
and its typical man belonged naturally with the grander ex- 
ternals of the East. There was a fitness in bringing the better 
man and the better nature into such relations that the one 
should sustain and enjoy the pther. 

The earliest historical record of the peoples of Western Asia 
with China goes back, according to Yule, to the sec- 
ond century before Christ. Three hundred years later 
we find the first trace of Roman intercourse (a. d. 166). With 
India China had some trade by sea as early as the fourth cen- 
tury, and with Babylonia possibly in the fifth century. There 
were Christian Nestorian missionaries there as early as the 
eighth century, and some of their teachings had been found 
there by Western travelers in the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies. The communication of Ceylon with China was revived 
in the thirteenth century. 

It was in the twelfth century, under the Mongol dynasty, that 

China became first generally known in Europe, under 

the name of Cathay, and then for the first time the 

Western nations received travelers' stories of the kingdom of 

the great Khan. Two Franciscans, one an Italian, Piano Car- 

pini, the other a Fleming, Rubruquis, sent on missions for the 

Church, returned to Europe respectively in 1247 and 1255. It 

was not, however, till Marco Polo returned from his visit to 

Kublai Khan, in the latter part of the thirteenth cen- 

RTarco Polo. i. i . i ji -r-» 

tury, that u new enlargement of the ideas of Europe 
respecting the far Orient took place. The influence of his mar- 


cbroiiicler explains, of some arrangements of cog-wheels and 
I'hiiiw carrte«l on the poop. 

>iu-h were in brief the elements of seamanship in which 

PhntY Henry tlu* Navigator caused his sailors to be 

;n«tnictMl, and which more or less governed the in* Bmrj*» 

*tniin«rDtalitieai employed in his career of discovery. 

11* »a!» a man who, as his motto tells us, wished, and was able, 

:•• ilo ykA\. He was shallowed with few infirmities of spirit 

iir jiiintil with thi* ])lui*k of his half-English blood — for he was 

:iir .:randHiin of John of (iaunt — a training for endurance de- 

hit^i in hi^ i«ountr}'*s prolonge<l contests with the Moor. He 

«x* xhv <itaple and lofty exemplar of this great age of discovery. 

Iir masi nxirt* so than Columbus, and rendered the adventitious 

arvrr of the (lenoese |MMisible. He kn(*w how to manage men, 

and «tuck devotedly to his work. He respected his hel|)ers too 

■urh to dmg them with deceit, and there is a straightforward 

koorvty of purpose in his endeavors. He was a trainer of men, 

ukii they grew couragiNjus under his instruction. To sail into 

tbr ftap|MMe«l burning zime lieyond Cajw Boja<lor, and to face the 

il tintniction of life which was belie vetl to bo inevitable, required 

^ I ciHinge quite as <*onspicuous as to rleavc the floating venlure 

i4 ul thr Sargasso Sea, <mi a wi*stern passage. It uuist be oon- 

ir^^tA that he sharetl with (\>lumbus those pro(*liviti(*s which 

-:> iIh- instigators of Afri<*an slav(*ry so easily sli]))>e4l into 

HMltr. Thev each believed there was a merit, if a heathen's 

"••ul be at stake, in not letting couuniseration get the better of 


• • 
It va« not till 1434 that Prim*!* Henry *s captains finally ])assed 

^ a|>e Ri>jaiIor. It was a stn*nuous ami daring effort 

!z^ the fai^e of conee4le«l danger, and under the im])ul:H. *^i> 

"Hlir l*riDc*e*s earnest urging. (lil Kaimes n*turuu(f:. * 

•■-•« this accomplished a(*t a hen» in the eyt.*»o>.Ji%> mastei. 

'I^i It rvf>r Iwen fiassed liefon*? Not ap|MirchfK: iti any way to 

«tf(rt th«- importan«*e of this Portuguese ent<2r]>riscs Wr (*an go 

^k indectl, to the ex|N»dition (»f Hanno tbe ( 'ar^liaginian, and 

ft tbr rommentaries of Carl Miiller and Vnicn de St. Martin 

^*^ that navigator outside the Pillars c»f lleiculrs. and follow 

kia MNitherly possibly to Ca|K* Verde or its'vicijiiiy.: and this, 

rf Major** argument are to lie accepti-il. is the unly antece<luiit 

*Wiire heyoiid Cape Bojad or, thoug h there have h^n claims m^i 

<^Vc Public 

• - '- . 

Cv. B.j« 


tually as Prince Henry the Navigator, and whose biography 
has been laid before the English reader within twenty 
Henry, the years, abundantly elucidated by the careful hand of 
Richard H. Major. The Prince had assisted Eang 
Jo9o in the attack on the Moors at Ceuta, in 1415, and this 
success had opened to the Prince the prospect of possessing the 
Ghiinea coast, and of ultimately finding and passing the antici- 
pated cape at the southern end of Africa. 

This was the mission to which the Prince early in the fif- 
teenth century gave himself. His ships began to crawl down 
the western Barbary coast, and each season added to the ex- 
cite boj». ^^^ o^ their explorations, but Cape Bojador for a 
^^' while blocked their way, just as it had stayed other 

hardy adventurers even before the birth of Henry. " We may 
wonder," says Helps, ^^ that he never took personal command 
of any of his expeditions, but he may have thought that he 
served the cause better by remaining at home, and forming a 
centre whence the electric energy of enterprise was communi- 
cated to many discoverers and then again collected from them." 

Meanwhile, Prince Henry had received from his father the 
government of Algaroe, and he selected the secluded promon- 
tory of Sagres, jutting into the sea at the southwest- 
em extremity of Portugal, as his home, going here in 
1418, or possibly somewhat later. Whether he so organized his 
efforts as to establish here a school of navigation is in dispute, 
but it is probably merely a question of what constitutes a 
school. There seems no doubt that he built an observatory 
and drew about him skillful men in the nautical arts, including 
a somewhat famous Majorcan, Jayme. He and his staff of 
workers took seamanship as they found it, with its cylindrical 
charts, and so developed it that it became in the hands of the 
Portuguese the evidence of the highest skill then attainable. 

Seamanship as then practiced has become an interesting study. 
Art of see- Under the guidance of Humboldt, in his remarkable 
inaiwhip. work, the Examen Critique^ in which he couples a 
consideration of the nautical astronomy with the needs of this 
age of discovery, we find an easy path among the intricacies of 
the art. These complications have, in special aspects, been 
further elucidated by Navarrete, Margry, and a recent German 
writer. Professor Ernst Mayer. 


oniU wrile iotolligently of wbat he aaw, was iuducecl by Prince 
Kenrr t» roiiduct a d«w vxpedition, which whh letl to ctduo^n. 
tiv < iunliia : wi that Kiin>|)eaii8 saw for thv firat time '**''- 
■}» n>ii4t4-ll3ti<iii of the South<>rn (.'nus. In the following year, 
•till jatriHiiaetl by I'rincv II<>nry, who TittL^U out one of his 
TVHcU. I'aiUnuMto dtHtwvred the Cape Venle Inlands, or at 
kaix \tt- narrative would indicate that he did. By c^paViidi. 
Biai|an*)>a of iWuiueiibt, however. Major ban made it ^^""^ 
[«rtty cle&r that Cadaniostu arruj^tetl to himself a glory which 
'trt-mpil til another, iuid tluit the true discoverer of the Ca]>e 
Vi>nje Inlands was Diogo Gomez, in 14t>0. It waa on tluM sec- 
■«1 toyage tliat Cadaiuo«to jHused Cape Roxo, and reached 
te Kio (it«n«le. 

la Witt, Prim* llenrv nent, by unii-r of bis iiepbt-w an 
'**'^iin>* Alfonso v., the iita|w of his cniit^tiiiH to r,* hw». 
**>iiT, to hare tbem eombinetl in a large ma]>[ie- ■>*'*■ '*^' 


the prevalence of its use in navigation. If we are to believe 
some writers on the subject, it was known to the Norsemen as 
early as the seventh century. Its use in the Levant, derived, 
doubtless, from the peoples navigating the Indian Ocean, goes 
back to an antiquity not easily to be limited. 

By the year 1200, a knowledge of the magnetic needle, coming 
Jl,^^^^c from China through the Arabs, had become common 
^'^^^'^^ enough in Europe to be mentioned in literature, and 
in another century its use did not escape record by the chroni- 
clers of maritime progress. In the fourteenth century, the ad* 
venturous spirit of the Catalans and the Normans stretched tho 
scope of their observations from the Hebrides on the north to 
the west coast of tropical Africa on the south, and to the west>- 
ward, two fifths across the Atlantic to the neighborhood of tkc 
Azores, — voyages made safely under the direction of tli.c 

There was not much difficulty in computing latitude either \>y 
the altitude of the polar star or by using tables of the 
tionsfor sun's dccliuation, which the astronomers of the time 
were equal to calculating. The astrolabe used for 
gauging the altitude was a simple instrument, which had been 
long in use among the Mediterranean seamen, and had been de- 
scribed by Raymond Lulliiis in the latter part of the thirteenth 
century. Before Columbus's time it had been somewhat im- 
The proved by Johannes Miiller of Konigsberg, who be- 

astroiabe. came better known from the Latin form of his native 
town as Regiomontanus, He had, perhaps, the best reputation 
in his day as a nautical asti'onomer, and Humboldt has explained 
the importance of his labors in the help which he afforded in an 
age of discovery. 

It is quite certain that the navigators of Prince Henry, and 
Dead even Coliunbus, practiced no artificial method for as- 

reckoniug. ccrtaiuiug the speed of their ships. With vessels of 
the model of those days, no great rapidity was possible, and the 
utmost a shi]) coidd do under favorable circumstances was not 
usually beyond four miles an hour. The hourglass gave them 
the time, and afforded the multiple according as the eye ad- 
justed the a])parent number of miles which the ship was making 
hour by hour. This was the method by which Columbus, in 
1492, calculated the distances, which he recorded day by day in 


.^•riliao wliit-b Iw luu) no grratly 

iocDrreil iu hu vDler* ^| 

■^ hMl fatAllv . uil>ctrnt«^ his mbite. Ht» donUi ww iiot ■ 

-luuitnii'* «a>, uu utrM-ura- 


■.Ui uo DIM-- DoUil ; hi* lift- 

rt^^fi^ ■ 

.- ,.fi.tjt.-:rd io the «;hu(il at ^^ 

uoatlijp wbicb lu- but en- '^hMI 
ri> Frinoe'a L-ntkiwtuo) m ibB 

^ng^^K ^^1 

mr^Kt^L ^^1 

■ urtief (k»l tlien-wwagrv.1t '<^^^| 

^K«^^^^^F ^^^^H 

;!wn: |»iint uf Africa hittl ^^|H 

' .. UD(nnt:^l W &U bu foUuw- flSn 


in Mjiiir" f,'avfi it i-n-- r*^p 

I^^IhC^^^^^k ^^^^H 

ic« HI hi* ui«|> by BU iDtlica- ^ap 

JjfLjj' >^A ''*%^F^]^^^^| 

•-. tkat aa Indiwi jimk from •'K^ 


' Km! lad nmudod tlic 4.-«|^h) ^I^ 

'.StW Mil in 14U0. in ihi< US 

^'^W» 1 

:;4« Map tbe cjutrrl) iri-u<l ^^H 

JreoMt Im5(iik1 <.'»1h^ V.-nlo ^^H 

i»i lO J^^Kk* ^^^H 

Iwpilitj alMWU. but it Is AJR 

■■tr-y^ t0f^ ^Kmi ^^^^B 

■ iim nlj a* th<' ncrrtlxTii .jMB 



'(•aCoMnl. Tlw toon- tuiitb. ^^H 

Iff^^^KT!^^! '^^^^1 

-■■ jMcto «• amply (orv»d into '^HH 

^H ^^^^g^^S ^^^^H 

<t^ ■« Mil kmI till imt tb« '^O 

^^n ^^^v^B""^^^^! 

VitUm m few voan «(tcr WBt 


i.™,-.d«th-tb.«gb « 

^B^k^^KIR ^^^^H 

-«* it asriwr — Uh vxplors- Bl 

^^Hk r^^^vl ^1 

o U btoi |»J»d IO Si- ^ 

^^^^VJ ^^bfr H 

iK^— ■■■^^ 1 

>!>. WWn U» nnnid« <>r 

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II-(MlC<»l»>n brndoil 

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> !«», U w» umd tbu db- •'»'v« •» ™«« "»»»» " "■" ■ 

-m dooU b. p<i.M . hu- "~ ->-••'— '-J 1 

<»< ki(w (utivr »illi uiniullr : 1 

umI br 1474, when the ■ 

■WM opind. K«™^ 0<m9, -ho b«l ul™ '•• ^_^ ■ 

>il llnal; foiad thr goU dnt ntion of Lo Mini. ■ 

■li^ mduat rar U> «itas Uadi. 


«vv«»A.««A B^Mv vuc»v CCVMA C»UV& tnsOfXIO lUOUl 

KTSfV*^^*-*** »/MV VAJC»V gVMA OUVl in?! 



It haft bt*en held by Navarrete, Irving, and other writers of 
til. .'Mor «i«*ho<il that Cohimbus tirHt arrive<l in Portu- ly^BothkB 
■;m 111 147U : and hin iHrniing ha8 commonly been iu>n- ■^*■'• 
tkntt^l with a luival battle near Lisbon, in which he escaped 
fn>m :i burning iihip by swimming to land with the aid of an 
•ar. It in easily provetl, however, that notarial entries in Italy 
«h"« him ti» liave been in that country on August 7, 1473. We 
ibi\. iiidt-tnU by some stretch of inference, allow the 
•'A ihXi" t4> lie sustained, by supposing that he really 
«i« <loiuiciled in LislMm as early as 1470, but made oc*casional 
^^iS t«i his uM»therland for the next three or four years. 

Thr naval battle, in its details, is borrowed by the Ilhtorie 
"M'-Tlfrom the /frrwm Venitittntm ah Vrhe Ctmdita g„pp„,^ 
■I ^^aiN lli.un. This author makes Christopher C\Jum- "•'*>»«««»' 
• >i«*»n of the younger mrsair C\»lomlM>, who eoinmanded in 
*> tijht, which c?ould not have hap|K*ned either in 1470, the 
'•Ar usually given, or in 1473-74, the time In-tter deti>rmined 
**H'.>ltiuibiu**s arrival in Portug:il, siiuv this particular action 
> ktiiivn to have taken plac*e on August 22, 1485. Those who 
•i'fmil the /fiMturir^ like D'Avezae, claim that its account sim- 
\^y oinfounds the battle of 14H.5 with an earlier one, and timt 
Ukr %xory of the oar must be acxvpt^Ml an an incident of this su|>- 
{••^* anterior fight The ai*tion in HXh Untk place when the 
'>rjrli t*«ir<iir, (^asaneuve or (\>lonilN), intcn^eptiHl some richly 
**J*-a Venetian galleys between Lislnm and Cai>e St. Vini^ent. 
H:»t«in' makes no menticm of anv earlit*r action of similar im- 
I'^ which i^ould have biH»n the <Hvasic»n of the esi*a|)e by swim- 
^'*H : and to sustain the Ilij^titrir by sup]M>sing such is a sim- 
\^* |t^rha|>s allowable, hyiiothesis. 

kavdon lirown, in the introduction to his volumes of the 
^'^rnjitr uf State Papers in *he Archives of Vtnirt'^ has con- 



C. Dt-... 


up for the Genoese, the Catalans, and the Dieppese. That the 

^ map of Marino Sanuto in 1306, and 

the so-called Laurentian portolano of 
1351, both of which establish a vague 
southerly limit to Africa, rather ^ve 
expression to a theory than chronicle 
the experience of navigators is the 
opinion of Major. It is of course pos- / 
sible that some indefinite knowledge of 
oriental tracking of the eastern coast 
of Africa, and developing its terminal 
shape southerly, may have passed, as 
already intimated, with other nautical 
knowledge, by the Red Sea to the Med- 
iterranean peoples. To attempt to set- 
tle the question of any circumnaviga- 
tion of Africa before the days of Diaz 
and Da Gama, by the evidence of ear- 
lier maps, makes us confront very closely geographical theories 
on the one hand, and on the other a possible actual knowledge 
filtered through the Arabs. All this renders it imprudent to 
assume any tone of certainty in the matter. 

The captains of Prince Henry now began, season by season, 
to make a steady advance. The Pope had granted to the Portu- 
guese monarchy the exclusive right to discovered lands on this 
unexplored route to India, and had enjoined all others not to in- 

In 1441 the Prince's ships passed beyond Cape Blanco, and 

Cape Blanco ^^ succcediiig ycars they still pushed on little by little, 

^ , • vaS8ed,i44i.. j^yingjng hoiue ill 1442 some negroes for slaves, the 

• \ {*-/*first wfiiclu'wfere seen in Europe, as Helps supposes, though 
• ./":\'*\this"i8 a m^t^r^bf some doubt. 

Cape Veixie iWl been reached by Diniz Dyaz (Fernandez) 
in 1445, a^d the discovery that the coast beyond had 

Cape Verde 

reached, a general easterly trend did much to encourage the 
Portuguese, with the illusory hope that the way to 
India was at. last qpened. They had by this time passed be- 
yond the cD\|litriejf of the Moors, and were coasting along a 
*'•'•.•!••* 'oojiytjj'y iiiliai>iti?(J by negroes. 
' /.// ; In 14o5,HKo Venetian Cadamosto, a man who proved that he 

•• fc 

•• • 


It Mcms not unlikely that he had not been long in the coiin- 
trr vhen the incident occurred at Listen which led to hirt 
mirriipf« which it thus recorded in the I/iHtorie. 

Ihuin^ his customary attendance u|x>n divine worship in the 

CoDrHit of All Saints, his devotion was observed by HUmw- 

oor of the pensioners of the monastery, who sought '**'*' 

him with such expressions of affection that he easily yielded to 

htf charms. This woman, Felipa Moi\iz by name, is said to 

kir<« been a daughter, by his wife Cateriua Visconti, of Bar- 

dJiiaieo Perestrello, a gentleman of Italian origin, who is asso- 

ostcvl with the culoniiation of Madeira and Porto Santo. From 

anything which Columbus himHclf says and is preserved to us, 

we know nothing more than that he desired in his will that 

BaMcs »houkl be said for the reix>se of her soul ; for she was 

tkrn b>ng dead, and, as Diego tells us, was buried in Lisbon. 

We Icara her name for the first time from Diego's will, in 1509, 

sad this is absolutelv all the documentan' evidence which we 

ksre cooceming her. Oviedo and the writers who wrote be- 

fort* the publication of the If intone had only said that Colum- 

ba« had married in Portugal, without further ])artieulars. 

But the //iWoriV, with Las C'asas following; it, does not wholly 
vkU^ix our curiosity, neither does Ovieilo, later, nor TiieP-r*- 
(fomani aiHl Renzoni, who copy from (.)vie<lo. There •*''**'*• 
kn*t^ a question of the identity of this liartohmieo Perestrello, 
sm«»a^ thn*e of the name of three suecM'tnlinp; (generations, 
rs'tiirwlierv about 1420, or later, the eUlent f>f this line was niatle 
iht tin«t p>vemor of Porto Sant^i, after the island h:ul been dis- 
.ovrrvd by one of the expeditions which had been down the 
Airit-an ctAikt. It is of him the story goes tliat, Uiking some 
rabbits thitlier, their progeny so (piickly |>ossesse4l the island 
that its settlers deserted it ! Such genealo;;ioal inf«)rniation as 
e%n be at<«|uirvd of this earli(*Ht Perestn*ll«» is a<rainst the su]>- 
(■i»itM« of his lieing the father of Felipa Motli/, but rather 
:stoiH^tr« that bv a MH*ond wife, Isiibel MoAiz by name, he had 
tte M^:«»nd Rartulomeo, who in turn l»ecanie the* fath<*r (»f our 
F'^lilia Miifiix. The testimony of Las Casas s4H*ins to fav«)r this 
Tv«. If thin is the Ilartolomeo who, havin<; attainml his ma- 
turity, was asiiigned to the eaptain<*y «»f Porti) Sant4» in 1478, 
si r^Hild hanlly be that a daughter w(»uld have been old enough 
to mam* in H74~75. 


xni followed by Oriedo, couples with it the belief that it was 
iniiin^ the papers of his dead father-in-law, Perestrel- ivrMtnoo*! 
i . tiut Coliunbus found documents and maps which ^^ 
I'Mcopud him to the coni*eption of a western i)asHage to Asia. 
lo tiuu caM% this may perhai>s have been the motive which in- 
ddcvii him to draw from Paolo ToscaneUi that famous letter, 
•hich IS usually held to have had an important influence on the 
t^'mi of Columbus. 

Thp fact of such relationship of Columbus with Perestrello 
i* nlh*«i in i|uestion, and so is another incident often f^^ ^ ^ 
rvlitrd by the biographers of Columbus. This irt that ;^uJ[^ 
la oU teaman who had returned from an adventur- >>»■*• >»<>">^ 
t«» voyap* westward had found shelter in the house of (^olum- 
boK and had died there, but not before he had di.solose<l to him 
1 <li«cM>Terr be had made of land to the west. This stor\' is not 
:*'ltl in any writer that is now known before Gomara (1552), 
aod we mre wamcnl by Benzoni that in (lomara^s hands this 
pckx Kory was simply an invention ^^ to diminish the immortal 
iAxatr of Christopher Columbus, as there were many who could 
^< rmiure that a foreigner and Italian should have acquired 
«it mui^h lMmi>r and so much glory, not only f«)r the S|)anish 
k:n;:«ltKu, but alno for the other nations of the world.** 

It i« certain, h«>wever, tlmt under the impulse of the young 
an of printing men*H mindn had at this time l>econi(* more alive 
tiiAn thi*y hail been for c«*nturies to the search for cosuio^raph- 
>»-a1 li-'Ki*. The old geographet-s, just at this time, wciv one by 
c*- tiniling their way into print, mainly in Italy, while the in- 
-^n^nipit- of that country with Portug:d was f]uick«*ned by the 
Attr^'titHis of the Portuguese dis(*overies. While C(»lunibus was 
aill in Italy, the great popularity of Pom|M)nius Mela In^gan 
«:th the tirnt edition in Latin, which was printed at 
^CtLsn in 147U followtnl mum by other editions in Mri«, 
\'*-nicr. The De Situ Orftitt of Stralni had aln*a<lv 
':»^n given to the world in I^tin as early a^ 14t){^ and < In ring 
:nr next few yearn this tc*xt w:is S4>venil times reprinttnl at Rome 
xr«ii Wnice. The teaihing of the spherieity of the earth in the 
^•tn*fH>mical |HN*m of Manilins long a favorit«* with 
:;* tutrtilcH c»f the Middle Ages, \%ho n'lx'ated it in s^ihmi-. ' 

• t 1 • 1 • X* 1 It--lt||i>. 

t-^ir laborv«l script, apfieared in ty|>e at >nri'nilM*rg at 

Ui^ *aiiie time. Tlu* Polyhii^tor of S»linn?« tlid not long delay 


This, then, was the condition of Portuguese seamanship 
of its exploits when Columbus, some time, probably, in ] 
reached Portugal. He found that country so content witl 
rich product of the Guinea coast that it was some years 
before the Portuguese began to push still farther to the sc 
The desire to extend the Christian faith to heathen, oftei 
the lips of the discoverers of the fifteenth century, was nev< 
powerful but that gold and pearls made them forget it. 


thr FlorpDtino very likely thought he was communicating with 
A Purtupiefie, when he wrote to Columbus. 

This letter hiui been known since 1571 in the Italian text as 
pvv^n in the //«Wori>, which, as it turns out, was inexact and 
o\«-rUtlen with additions. At least such is the inference wh(?n 
««- 4Mm|iare tliis Italian text with a Latin text, supposed to be 
\\^ original tongue of the letter, which has been discovered of 
Ut« yean in the handwriting of Columbus himself, on the fly- 
Waf of an /Kneas Sylvius (1477), cmce Wlonging to Columbus, 
xoA Mill pni«erve«l in the Biblioteca Colombina at Seville. 
The lettt-r which is given in the Hl^torir is ac<*ompanied by an 
ft&u-*4*ri|it« which says that the copy hail l>ecn sent to Colum- 
bus at his re<|tiest» and that it liad been originally addresse<l to 
Martines« stmie time ^Mx'fore the wars of Castile.** How much 
ntrr than thu* date June 25, 1474, this copy was si*nt to Coluni- 
^<i% and when it was receivinl bv him, thert* is no sun* means 
of drtrmining, and it may yet be in itself one of the factoi-s 
for liiniting the range of months during which Columbus must 
hare arrivetl in Portugal. 

The extravagances of the letter of Toscanelli, in liis opulent 
<i^-*^pti<inH of a marvelous Asiatic region, W(>re 
^aft-ly nia«l*- \n that age without incurring the charge Tui..ii<..r 
of rrednlitv. Travelers couhl tell talcs tht-n that w««n» 
a* «e«-iir^* from deUH*tion as the revealed art*ana of the ZuHi 
Lkvr bev-n in our own da vs. Two hun«lnNl towns, whose marble 
f'ritlgr^ %|ianne«l a single river, and whos4* (*oiiuncrce couhl in* 
riU' the I'upidity of the world, was a tale easily t4> stir numer- 
•tf-i* rin-l«^ of listeners in the maritime towns of the Mediterra- 
r^^n. wherever wandering mongers of marvels eame and went. 
Tl>-rv were such traveler* wh«>se n^ciUils Tos4*anelli had read 
&x>*l other* whose tales he ha4l heani fn>m th«*ir own lips, anc' 
ti«c-«r la«t were pretty sure to augment the wondt^rs of the eldei 

('•dimibu« ha«I felt this influeni*e with the rest, and the talcs 
»•< O'lfhing of their vividness in coming to him fresliene<l. as it 
«rrp« h\ the carious mind of the Fl4»n*ntine phvsi«*ian. The 
&Ap «hii-h arrompanied Toscanelli^s Ictti-r. and which depiotiMl 
hi* Dnfions of the Asiatic cNKist lying ovrr against that t>f Spain. 
:• i««a t^* us, but various attempts Live b«M*n made to rrM<»re 
it. a* is done in the sketch annexed. It will l»e a pnM*ious 


nected Columbus with this naval combat, but, as he later ac- 
knowledged to Harrisse, solely on the authority of the Historie. 
Irving has rejected the story. There seems no occasion to 
doubt its inconsistencies and anachronisms, and, once discarded, 
we are thrown back upon the notarial evidence in Italy, 
rirai in ' bv which wc mav venture to accept the date of 1473- 

1473-1474. •/ •^ X 

74 as that of the entrance of Columbus into PortugaL 
Irving, though he discards the associated incidents, accepts the 
earlier date. Nevertheless, the date of 1473-74 is not taken 
without some hazard. As it has been of late ascertained that 
when Columbus left Portugal it was not for good, as was sup- 
posed, so it may yet be discovered that it was from some earlier 
^venture that the buoyancy of an oar took him to the land. 
This coming of an Italian to Portugal to throw in his lot 

with a foreign people leads the considerate observer to 
nwritime reflect On the strange vicissitudes which caused Italy 

discoTeren. i* • i i • • 

to furnish to the western nations so many conspicuous 
leaders in the great explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, without profiting in the slightest degree through terri- 
torial return. Cadamosto and Cabot, the Venetians, Columbus, 
the Genoese, Vespucius and Verrazano, the Florentines, are, on 
the whole, the most important of the great captains of dis- 
covery in this virgin age of maritime exploration through the 
dark waters of the Atlantic ; and yet Spain and Portugal, 
France and England, were those who profited by their genius 
and labors. 

It is a singular fact that, during the years which Columbus 
spent m Portugal, there is not a single act of his life that can 
be credited with an exact date, and few can be placed beyond 
cavil by undisputed documentary evidence. 

It is the usual story, given by his earliest Italian biographers, 
Occupation Gallo and his copiers, that Columbus had found his 
in Portugal. b^Q^her Bartholomew already domiciled in Portugal, 
and earning a living by making charts and selling books, and 
that Christopher naturally fell, for a while, into similar occupa- 
tions. He was not, we are also told, unmindful of his father's 
distresses in Italy, when he disposed of his small earnings. We 
likewise know the names of a few of his fellow Genoese settled 
in Lisbon in traffic, because he speaks of their kindnesses to 
him, and the help which they had given him (1482) in what 
would appear to have been commercial ventures. 


monad, if ever recovered, worthy of study as a reflex, in more 

<^*ti^-i^ nrpmentation than is found in the text of the letter, of 

tAr ideas which one of the most learned cosmographers of his 

i\\ haii imbibed from mingled demonstrations of science and 

It ift !««id that in our own day, in the flrst stages of a belief 
.i tb«* praeticability of an Atlantic* telegraphic cable, ^im 
: « x« ^leriimsdy claimed that the vast stretch of its ex- 

.«i«in nmld lie broken by a hadfway station on Jaccpiet Island, 

•«■ tif thcieie relies of the Middle Ages, which has disappeared 

<ii imr ocean chartn onlv in rect*nt years. 

Ju«t in the name way all the beliefs which men luid had in 
til*- inland of Antillia, and in the existence of many 
Afr*tht-r viAionarv bit of land, came to the asnistance of 

;• ' 

• ». 

the«>rvtieal discoverers in planning the chances of a dea- 
]*m^ Toyagt* far out into a sea of gorgons and chimeras dire. 
Ti4Mranelli's map sought to dinnrt the course of any one who 
iirt-il tu make the [lasHagis in a way that, in case of disaster to 
hv^ «hi|M, a secure liarbor (*ould be found in Antillia, and in 
*ik*h cyther havenn as no hu*k of islands would supply. 

Krnlinand elainietl to have found in his father's pa)M»rs some 
»'!.&:•- mc-otA whirh he liad drawn from Aristotle of C:irth:i<;inian 
i^^Afrf"^ to Antillia, on the strength of which the* Pt>rtuguese 
t^ laid that island down in their charts in the latitude (»f Lis- 
iM'ti, a« one o(*cupie4l by their [H^ople in 714. when Spain was 
'>^<»«^Uf ml by the McMirs. Even Si) recently as tlic time of Prince 
il*-nnk it hail been visited by P«>rtu<^uesi» ships, if records were 
v< \^- tiidicTe«L It also stantis in the Hianeo map of 14*30. 

Tliv-re are few more curious investigations than tho:»e which 
'^ •O'^m these fantastic and fabuh»us ishuuls of the Sea 
.jif l^arkne^s. They arc oimnwttHl witli views which MAii.u..f 
vrrpan innentan«*t* m [Kirt from thi* classic tunes, witli 
::;T'*l«f«i notions of the alKxles «»f the McssctI and <»f demoniacal 
»;>:nt4. Infiart tliey wert? the aerial cn*ation of |>opular mythol- 
•.-:*^, p>ing liack to a ri*nu»tcness of which it is iiii|M>ssil)K' to 
iT^nr the iM-ginuing, and which got a variahlc cdlor frt>ni the 
:«»pQlar fancies of suf*oee«Iing geiienitions. Thi* \vht>li* subject 
.« i-qrii'uJy without the fiehl «»f p'o^^raphy, thoui^h entering' into 
^1 fturTe%*a of medisfval knowl«*dgc of the earth, and (li'|NMi(liiig 
rrrj largely for its elucidation on the maps of the fourteenth 


The first Bartolomeo, if he was the father-in-law of Colum. 
bus, seems to have died in 1457, and was succeeded in 1458, in 
command of the island of Porto Santo, by another son-in-law, 
Pedro Correa da Cunha, who 'married a daughter of his first 
marriage, — or at least that is one version of this genealogical 
complication, — and who was later succeeded in 1473 by the 
second Bartolomeo. 

The Count Bernardo Pallastrelli, a modem member of the 
family, has of late years, in his II Suocero c la Moglie di Cris- 
tqforo Colombo (2d ed., Piacenza, 1876), attempted to identify 
the kindred of the wife of Columbus. He has examined the 
views of Harrisse, who is on the whole inclined to believe that 
the wife of Columbus was a daughter of one Vasco Gill Mofiiz, 
whose sister had married the Perestrello of the Historic story. 
The successive wills of Diego Columbus, it may be observed, 
call her in one (1509) Philippa Mofiiz, and in the other (1523) 
Philippa Muiiiz, without the addition of Perestrello. The gen- 
ealogical table of the count's monograph, on the other hand, 
makes Felipa to be the child of Isabella Mofiiz, who was the 
second wife of Bartolomeo Pallastrelli, the son of Felipo, who 
came to Portugal some time after 1371, from Plaisance, in Italy. 
Bartolomeo had been one of the household of Prince Henry, 
and had been charged by him with founding a colony at Porto 
Santo, in 1425, over which island he was long afterward (1446) 
made governor. We must leave it as a question involved in 
much doubt. 

The issue of this marriage was one son, Diego, but there is 
no distinct evidence as to the date of his birtli. Sun- 
son Diego dry incidents go to show that it was somewhere be- 
tween 1475 and 1479. Columbus^s marriage to Dofia 
Felipa had probably taken place at Lisbon, and not before 
1474 at the earliest, a date not difficult to reconcile with the 
year (1473-74) now held to be that of his arrival in Portu- 
gal. It is supposed that it was while Columbus was living at 
Porto Santo, where his wife had some property, that Diego was 
born, though Harrisse doubts if any evidence can be adduced 
to support such a statement beyond a sort of conjecture on Las 
Casas's part, derived from something he thought he remem- 
bered Diego to have told him. 

The story of Columbus's marriage, as given in the Hiatorit 



to follow. A Latin version of Ptolemy had existed since 1409, 
but it was later than the rest in appearing in print-, and bears 
the date of 1475. These were the newer issues of the Italian 
and German presses, which were attracting the notice of the 
learned in this coimtry of the new activities when Columbus 
came among them, and they were having their palpable effect. 

Just when we know not, but some time earlier than this, Al- 
ToMuieiu*t ion&o V. of Portugal had sought, through the medium 
theory. ^f ^^ mouk Femaudo Martinez (Femam Martins), 
to know precisely what was meant by the bruit of Toscanelli's 
theory of a westward way to India. To an inquiry thus vouched 
Toscanelli had replied to Fernando Martinez (June 26, 1474), 
some time before a similar inquiry addressed to Toscanelli 
reached Florence, from Columbus himself, and through the 
agency of an aged Florentine merchant settled in Lisbon. It 
seems probable that no knowledge of Martinez's cori'espon- 
dence with Toscanelli had come to the notice of Columbus ; and 
that the message which the Genoese sent to the Florentine was 
due simply to the same current rumors of Toscanelli's views 
which had atti*acted the attention of the king. So in replying 
His letter to ^ Columbus Toscanclli simply shortened his task by 
Coimnbiu. inclosiiig, with a brief introduction, a copy of the let- 
ter, which he says he had sent " some days before " to Mar- 
tinez. This letter outlined a plan of western discovery ; but it 
is difficult to establish beyond doubt the exact position which 
the letter of Toscanelli should hold in the growth of Colum- 
bus's views. If Columbus reached Portugal as late as 1473-74, 
as seems likely, it is rendered less certain that Columbus had 
grasped his idea anterior to the spread of Toscanelli's theory. 
In any event, the letter of the Florentine physician would 
strengthen the growing notions of the Genoese. 

As Toscanelli was at this time a man of seventy-seven, and 
as a belief in the sphericity of the earth was then not unpreva- 
lent, and as the theory of a westward way to the East was a 
necessary concomitant of such views in the minds of thinking 
men, it can hardly be denied that the latent faith in a westward 
passage only needed a vigilant mind to develop the theory, and 
an adventurous spirit to prove its correctness. The develop- 
ment had been found in Toscanelli and the proof was waiting 
for Columbus, — both Italians ; but Humboldt points out how 



.fcj (.'olumlnm himself to tlw Asiatio 
hia ac-«)iiaintanct- with t)t« mnrirttlouH 
'«r unv NHft'lj' Ik> iiMUin«d. The 
cf t«xt« of the MilioHe followiug \x\K>tx hin lirM 
and nptiD tba iiubMtiiutot ravutioti iit 1307, way out, 
hira oummI it, to l>c widely Iohiwd in variuun uituiu- 

tr»— ■- «%k>^ M it<_ ; 

KitpK Bbcbm* ba it to lAtin or luliui. Nor is it likelr that 
ColoBifaaa oooU baw raad tlie oarliMt edition which vnu put in 
typa. for H «•• in Gprinun in 1-I7T : bat thvra ia tbe inl«r«iiLing 
piwflJIilj that thia wark nf tbo Narauborg prew nay have 
hMS loMWD tu Martin IV'haira, a Nur«aib«rgvr th«n in Luboo, 
m4 Ckaly MMMgll to have bc«n a biniilinr of Columhti*. Th« 
bet that iki* {• in the Bibligteiai ('•■luinbina at St- villc a «opy 
W thi 0t«t l«tb printed edition (l-tSA) with notiih wbk-h w«ro 
ki be ia Colnmbiui** haiHl writing, iiiav lie taken aa avidpooi;, 
IIkK at ka«t in the latur y«an nf bj* >A»Ay tb« inapirattun wbioh 
llaroo [^Ja eoakl wvU liare bc<>n to him was not waaliog ; and 
iba Mhj mvf ••mk be true wi told ia Nanmt«, that Columbiu 


and fifteenth centories, whose mythical traces are not beyond 
recognition in some of the best maps which have instructed a 
generation still living. 

To place the island of the Irish St Brandan — whose coming 
St. BnuB- there with his monks is spoken of as taking place in 
^'^ the sixth century — in the catalogue of insular enti- 

ties is to place geography in such a marvelous guise as would 
have satisfied the monk Philoponus and the rest of the credu* 
lous fictionmongers who hang about the skirts of the historic 
field* But the belief in it long prevailed, and the apparition 
sometimes came to sailors' eyes as late as the last century. 

The great island of Antillia, or the Seven Cities, already re- 
^^^ ferred to, was recog^, so far as we know, for the 
the seren first time iu the Weimar map of 1424, and is known 


in legends as the resort of some Spanish bishops, 
flying from the victorious Moors, in the eighth century. It 
never quite died out from the recognition of curious minds, and 
was even thought to have been seen by the Portuguese, not far 
from the time when Columbus was born. Peter Martyr also, 
after Columbus had returned from his first voyage, had a fancy 
that what the Admiral ha<l discovered was really the great isl- 
and of Antillia, and its attendant groups of smaller isles, and 
the fancy was perpetuated when Wytfliet and Ortelius popular- 
ized the name of Antilles for the West Indian Archipelago. 

Another fleeting insular vision of this pseudo-geographical 
Brazil realm was a smaller body of floating land, very incon- 

^***"*** stant in position, which is always given some form of 

the name that, in later times, got a constant shape in the word 
Brazil. We can trace it back into the portolanos of the middle 
of the fourteenth century ; and it had not disappeared as a sur- 
vival twenty or thirty years ago in the admiralty charts of Great 
Britain. The English were sending out expeditions from Bris- 
tol in search of it even while Columbus was seeking counte- 
nance for his western schemes ; and Cabot, at a little later day, 
was instrumental in other searches. 

Foremost among the travelers who had excited the interest 

TravRierHin ^^ ToscanclU, and whose names he possibly brought 
the Orient, f^^. ^j^^ ^^.g^ ^jj^^ ^^ ^j^^ attention of Columbus, were 

Marco Polo, Sir John Mandeville, and Nicolas de Conti. 

It is a question to be resolved only by critical study as to 


knu; rnjoyetl a reputatiou as a student of terrestrial and ccles- 
uaI pbeuumcua. He had received, in 1403, the dedica- tomuwui** 
»a •!! hy KegioiuontaniiM of his treatise on the quadra- **•****• ****^ 
tun- of the circle, lie was, as has been said, an old man of 
«p%mty.M*Ten when Columbus opened his corres])ondence witli 
iini. It was not his fate to live long enough to see his physical 
i>«4 nulMtantiated l>v Diai and Columbus, for he died in 

I D two of the contemporary writers, Uartholomew Columbus 
• rnpilitrd with havini; incited his brother Christopher 
%• thf* views which he developed regarding a western coutm »Hh 
;:ip« and these two were Antonio Gallo and Gius- 

L&uui« the ccimmontator of the Psalms. It has been of late 
Aio trailed by II. (mUhe, in his Ltonanlo da Vinci (IWlin, 
1**T4 I. that it was at this time, too, when that eminent artist con- 
•iortrd a rurres|)ondentw with Columbus about a western way to 
Aua. Hut there is little need of imrticularizing other advo- 
'Tatf-s of a belief which had within the range of creclible history 
i>-Ter ceased to have exix>nent8. The coufeption was in no re- 
•|«^^ the merit of C^olumbus, except as he gras]KHl a tradition, 
w*::«*h iiCbtTs ditl not, an«I it is strangi*, that Xavarn*t(* in cpioting 
tikr t«-«tini*»ny of Fenlinand and IsaU^lIa, of Aufj^int 8, 1497, U> 
ihir n>"<lit of the discover}* of Coluniluis, as liis own pro]>er 
««'rk« ilm-H not see that it was the venturesome, aii«l as was 
tbrn tiMMi^^ht f<M)lhardy, di*€Hl to pnive the c*on<*eption which 
tiM«r m«>nan-hs 4*ommendeil, and not the (*onc«*ption itst^lf. 

We learn from the llintorit* tliut its writer had found among 
'.:.- pafMTi of (.\»lumbus tlie evidence of the ;;n»uiidM ('«,|u,„ih,. 
.f Li« briief in the western {mssa^e, as under vanin<c J^^lJ^rftL- 
ntpn-i^ionA it had lieen formulated in his mind. These *»"*"'*»''• 
*rak*on« divide easily into three grou|>s : First, those based on 
i^urti<»nA drawn friMu w*ientitic n»si»arc*li, and as expn*ssi^l in 
tiip brliffrt of IHolemv, Marinus, St rain ». and IMinv ; se<M>nd, 
r>r«« «hieh tlk* authoritv of eniin«*nt writers had rendennl 


«n;;fatier. qufiting as such the wt»rks f»f Aristotle, Seneea, 
'MfTkhf*. IMinv, Sdinus, Marco Pol«>, Mandeville, Pierre d'Aillv, 
iftd Tu«caneUi : and thini, the stori«*s of siiiIoi-h as to laii«ls 
%ii^\ ttMlirati4»ns of lands westerlv. 


Frofu these Tiem-s, instigated or nintiniunl by sueli opinions, 
< -Jombtui gradually arranged his opinion^ in n«it one of which 


what was the language in which Marco Polo first dictated, in 
a Genoese prison in 1298, the orieinal narrative of 

Mmo Polo, , . ■ . i^ ., m. - - 1 j 

his expenences in Cathay. Ibe inquiry has engaged 

[From Yulo'l Calhay, Tol. L] 

the attention of iill bis editors, and has invited the critical si 
gacity of D'Avezac. There seems little doubt that it vas wri 
ten down in French, 


Feniinaiid, and which is now preserved in Seville, the passage is 
MxiR<d bv tht* si»n*A hand, while in a marginal note he lias at- 
u-^«^l the fact that its prophecy of a western passage had been 
m^X*- gtmd by his father in 1492. Though the opinion was o{>- 
]«j*eil by St. Chrysostoui in the fourth ctMitury, it was taught by 
M. Aupistine and Isidore in the fifth. C.^osnias in tlie sixth een- 
tary «aui unable to understand how, if the earth was 
\ «{»hrre, thtMc at the anti{K)des could see Christ at 
bi* ciiniing. That settleil the question in his mind. The Vencr- 
sLiit* IW«le, however, in the eighth century, was not constrainiHl 
\'\ Any Mit*h arguments, and taught the spherical theory. Jour- 
liaia. a uioilfm French authoritv, htos found distinct evidence 
tiut all through the Middle Agi>s tlie belief in the western way 
«a.« krpc alive by the study of Aristotle; and we know how the 
AniM per|ietuated the teachings of that philosopher, which in 
rum «t-re {lereolaUHl through the Levant to Medit^'rranean peo- 
f-ir^. It i.4 a striking fact that at a time when S|)ain was beud- 
.;jj all her em*rgies to drive the Moor from the IlnTian })enin- 
• that nnintr}' was also engage<l in pursuing those discoveries 
^^^Z the western wav to India which were almost a direct result 
'A the Arab prt^^ervation of the cosmogniphioal learning of 
Ar-.«t'iclt« aiHl Ptolemv. A U'lief in an earth-ball iiad tlu* tt^s- 
• akiftn\ «if Dante in the twelfth centurv, and it was the well- 
<iLa<*«n faith «>f Alli^rtus Magnus, Roger li:i(M»n, and ii^.n,i. ai. 
it^ ««-h<BiiInifn. in the thirttH*nth. It continued to be I,T,V."p,^" 
^^i.i by the philosophers, who kept alivr thest* mon» ***a*">- 
r«r^nt name*, and came to Columbus lKH.'aus4' of the use of 
V«ftin»n which Pierre dWillv ha«I made. 

Th^ lielief in the sphericity <»f the earth carriisl with it of 
!v<v^itT another, — that the east was to Im.* found in the west. 
^-ilv-rfttitioo, ignorance* and fear might magnify the obstacles 
to a {laiktage through that dn*ar Sea of l>arkncss, but in Colum- 
'*o«'« timt*, in some learni*<l minds at least, there wa^ no dis- 
:rTi*t ai» ^> the aeoompiishment of surh a voyage iK'Vimd the 
-!iao^^ of olMtai*les in the wav. 

It L% true that in this int4«rval ttf ver\' manv renturies there 
L»l brrn lapses into unlielitrf. There were loni: |M*riiMls, indeetl, 
vbrii DO one dared to teac'h tht* d(K*trini*. Whenever and 
vbefrver the Epicureans supplant4*d the Pvthag«»n*ans, tlx* U*. 
^l fell with the disciples of Pythagonis. There had lieen. dur- 


had a copy of this famous book at his side daring his first iroy« 
age, in 1492. 

At the time when Humboldt doubted the knowledge of Co- 
lumbus in respect to Marco Polo, this treasure of the Colombina 
was not known, and these later developments have shown how 
such a question was not to be settled as Humboldt supposed, by 
the fact that Columbus quoted iGneas Sylvius upon Cipango, 
and did not quote Marco Polo. 

Neither does Columbus refer to the journey and strange sto- 
Sir John ^^^ ^^ ^^^ Johu Mandcvillc, whose recitals came to a 
Manderme. generation which was beginning to forget the stories 
of Marco Polo, and which, by fostering a passion for the mar- 
velous, had readily become open to the English knight's bewil- 
dering fancies. The same negation of evidence, however, that 
satisfied Humboldt as respects Marco Polo will hardly suffice 
to establish Columbus's ignorance of the marvels which did more, 
perhaps, than the narratives of any other traveler to awaken 
Europe to the wonders of the Orient. Bemaldez, in fact, tells 
us that Columbus was a reader of Mandeville, whose recital 
was first printed in French at Lyons in 1480, within a few 
years after Columbus's arrival in Portugal. 

It was to Florence, in Toscanelli's time, not far from 1420, 
Nicoio di ^^^^ Nicolo di Conti, a Venetian, came, after his long 
conti. sojourn of a quarter of a century in the far East. In 

(^onti's new marvels, the Florentine scholar saw a rejuvenation 
of the wonders of Marco Polo. It was from Conti, doubtless, 
that ToscaneUi got some of that confidence in a western voyage 
which, in his epistle to Columbus, he speaks of as derived from 
a returned traveler. 

Pope Eugene IV., not far from the time of the birth of Co- 
lumbus, compelled Conti to relate his experiences to Poggio 
Bracciolini. This scribe made what he could out of the mon^ 
strous tales, and translated the stories into Latin. In this con- 
dition Columbus may have known the narrative at a later day. 
The information which Conti gave was eagerly availed of by 
the oosmographers of the time, and Colonel Yule, the modem 
English writer on ancient Cathay, thinks that Fra Mauro got 
for his map more from Conti than that traveler ventured to 
disclose to Poggio. 

ToscaneUi, at the time of writing this letter to Columbus, had 


i«ars liffore Colombus, the inheritor of much of this conserva- 
Uoo «M the BLahop of Cambray, that Pierre d*Ailly whose 
Im^t^fi Mundi (1410) was so often on the liim of p^,,^ 
i «iluuihua« and out of which it is more tluin likely that /jtjji' * 
( oiunibus drauk of the knowledge of AriMtotle, Strabo, -^""^^ 
and Srnecm, and to a dejp'ee greatiT perha{M than he was aware 
••t hr uiok tbenct* the wisdom of Koger Ilacon. It was through 
\u^' OpuM Maju* K ViAl ) of this English philosopher 
iiiAi iir9(em Euro|M found accessible the stories of the ctmr»t)pm» 
" »iivrr walls and golden towers ** of Quinsay as de- 
«iftriU*«l by Kubruquis, the wandering missionar}% who in the 
u^irt*-t-uth century excited the cupidity of the Mediterranean 
DM-rrbants by his accounts of the inexhaustible tn^asures of east- 
rrxi Aikia* and which the reader of to-day may find in the col- 
>^ tiuo» of Samuel Purchas. 

Pierrv d*Ailly*s position in regard to cosniographical knowl- 
r>i«;f «a* hardly a dominant one. He seems to know nothing 
• •f Marco Polo« Bacon*s contemiM>rar}% and he never spi'aks of 
\ At hay. even when he urges the views which he has borrowetl 
fp'm Roger Bacon, of tlie exUmsion of Asia towards Western 

Any a(*«|uaintanee with the /i/i^/f/o Mu/uli during tlios<.* days 
"i Tolumbus in P«»rtugal i*anie probably thnMi;:h r«*|MU*t, though 
:»*»«ibly lie may have met with nianus4*ripts of thr work : for it 
«x« wic till after he had giuit* t4> S]Kiin that I>*AiIly c<iiilil have 
i^f-n rrad in any printetl edition, tlit* first \h*\u*i issiifd in 141H). 

Thr theory of the rotundity of tht* earth carri«Hl with it one 
«*'tM«^*ti4»n« whirh in tlie time of Coliiinbus was sure 
••••Drr or later to be seiied U{ion. If. ^oing west, the ami crmuu. 
•h:}> aank with thedet'livity of the earth's mntoiir, how 
«A« vht* going t4> mount such an t*l«*vation (»n Iht n*turn voy- 
ac ' — a dtmbt not m> unn*;iMinabl4* in an iv^v \%lii(*li had lianlly 
^is"T^ than tin* vaguest notion of the laws «»f «;ravitation, tliou<;h 
^•uir, likf VfMpucius, wen* nf)t without a eiTtain prf^'imre of 

Hv the middle of the thini renturv U-fore Chri**t, Erato*- 

m m 

itmtk*^. ai'o-pting sphericity, luul by aMr<»noniii*al nu-thiMls Mtid- 
irj tli«* ext4*nt of tlie earth's t*iix*innfi*r«*n(v. and. ar- ^„^ .., .;., 
<%jrding ^» tlie interpn*Uition of his n^suhs by ni«Ml«*rn *^*'* 
irhrJarR, hr canir surpriMiigly nt*ar to tlif actual <«i/«\ wh«*n he 


did he prove to be right, except as regards the sphericity of the 
earth ; and the last was a belief which had been the common 
property of learned men, and at intervals occupying even the 
popular mind, from a very early date. 

The conception among the Greeks of a plane earth, which 
Sphericity ^^^ taught in the Homeric and Hesiodic poems, be- 
of the earth, g^j^ ^ gj^^ place to a crude notion of a spherical form 

at a period that no one can definitely determine, though we fimi 
it taught by the Pythagoreans in ItsCly in the sixth century be- 
fore Christ. The spherical view and its demonstration passed 
down through long generations of Greeks, under the sanction of 
Plato and their other highest thinkers. In the fourth century 
before Christ, Aristotle and others, by watching the moon's 
shadow in an eclipse, and by observing the rising and setting 
of the heavenly bodies in different latitudes, had proved the 
roundness of the earth to their satisfaction ; Eratosthenes first 
measured a degree of latitude in the third century ; Hipparchus, 
in the second century, was the earliest to establish geogi-aph- 
ical positions ; and in the second century of the Christian era 
Ptolemy had formulated for succeeding times the sr^n- 
■ion of the eral scope of the transmitted belief. During all these 

belief in it. , ^ , , , • f i 

centuries it was perhaps rather a possession of the 
learned. We infer from Aristotle that the view was a novelty 
in his time ; but in the third century befoi:e Christ it began to 
engage popular attention in the poem of Aratus, and at about 
200 B. c. Crates is said to have given palpable manifestation 
of the theory in a globe, ten feet in diameter, which he con- 
structed. ,.v 

The belief passed to Italy and the Latins, and was sung by 
Hyginus and Manilius in the time of Augustus. We find it 
also in the minds of Pliny, Cicero, Virgil, and Ovid. So the 
belief became the heirloom of the learned throughout the clas- 
sic times, and it was directly coupled in the minds of Aristotle. 
Eratosthenes, Strabo, Seneca, and others with a conviction^ 
more or less pronounced, of an easy western voyage from Spaia 
to India. 

No one of the ancient expressions of this belief seems to have 
soneca's clung inorc in the memory of Columbus than that io 
Medea. ^j^^ Jjeifca of Scucca ; and it is an interesting con- 
firmation that in a copy of the book which belonged to his son 



rinrancUi rnluced the globe to a circumference of nbout 
l«'"Mi niiW, luMiiif; sbout 6,000 miles; and tbc un- j.^c^.^m'* 

r»-ite«l uorui, lying west of Lisbon, was about one ""' 
ikirti of this (liittanti-. In other words, the known world 
•» u]>inl about 'J40 of the 360 de};rees constituting the equato- 
raX It-ti^b. Few of the various coin|nitatious of tliin time gave 
lorli si^nt ilimenNious to the unknown pro{>ortiun of the line. 

1 M l<a»n globe, which was made ten or twelve year* later than 
T-^-atielli*s time, was equally scant. Ilehaini, who figured out 

■> r-biions of the known to the unknown cin'Mit. durinp the 
'iniin>T Iffitre i'liliimbuH !t.ailttl on bi« firit voyap\ nilnce<l 
»iut »a4 known to not much more than a thinl of llu- wbi>I<>. 
'■' <t3> thf fnthi'iii. tiin. with nn e»sv n-liiiiicc on their gi-miine- 

"v t.. n-U'T to tlu- vi-ioiis of K^dms in sii].|N>rt of .1 U-li.-f in 
•i- ■iinll i«iH —a Hixtli — "f the siirfatv of the ^'lolic wvenil 

1 rj,r ■■t-an. 

liH }.n.l<lem lay in < ■ohiniIm-*'-i mind thii-* : he !i.wi.t.-.l the 
'.•..•'■t\ (if ih«> divi-tion of tin- einiinifi-n-nei' nf tin- v.— ..i 
-"".li into twi-ntvfour lioiir>, at it o'lm- ih>wn '■■""■'■"• 
': 111 MariiHM of Tvn-. wbi-n thi" noei'iit :)'-lnini>niiT NU])p<isiil 
;Km {ri>m the enntfrn vi-r-j- of .\«i:i tn l1n' wi-terii extn-iiiitv <if 


<1« llterv was a ti)Ki<-v of tifli'<-ii ImiirH. The di-" 

erv ..f 


i«laiKl« which was supposed to fringe the coast of China. 
It wa.4 a common belief , moreover, that somewhere in ^.i^i^ 
thi« ToiJ lav the great island of Cipango, — the goal '■'■■x^ 
of (*«»Iumbus'« voyagi*. Sometimes nearer and sometimes far- 
thrr it lav from the Asiatic coast. Pinzon saw in 
k**m<* in 1491 a map which carrieil it well away from 
tlut dOAt : and if one could find somewhere in the English 
&rrhiv«Hi the S(*a-chart with which Bartholomew Columbus 
etif<»r\^nl Uic views of his brother, to gain the sup]>ort of the 
Kn;:li<ih king, it is suppose<I that it would reveal a somewhat 
rmilar lorati<»n <if the eovcttnl island. Here, then, was a space, 
l&nr^r or smaller, as men differently believe<I, interjacent ahmg 
till* kn«>wn tone between the aM»ert:iined extreme east in Asia 
i&«l tlftc ai*oepteil miMt listant west at Cape St. Vin(*ent in 
>iain. as waii thought in Stral><>*s time, or at the Canaries, as 

• r* f^4uprvhended in the days of I^toleniy. What there was in 
Uii* unknown H|)ace between S]>ain and Cathay was the problem 
vbit'h liolkeil the philosophers quite as much as that other 
utvYftainty. which coneernecl what might ]>ossibly be found in 
ti^ iMuithcm hemisplk^re, could one dart* to enter the torrid 
£v':>t« i>f the supposeil e<|uatorial (M*ean, or in the nortlicrn 

* 4*t«^« (N»nld out* venture to sail bevond the Arrtir Cir4*lc. 
Tb>-«*- «'uri«>u«« tpiestsof the in(|uisitive and learntMl minds tit' the 
•■arly t'l-nturii'* of the Cliristian era wen* th«* |»n»to- S|aiii-h»n.i 
Mjii- of till* actual exph>rations whifh it wa*; ;;ivtii I.j'[i"!^**' 
:r. tfM- tiftet-nth (vnturk' ^» the Spaniards and Portu- ***^"" 
ji>-«*- n«N.|M*iaiv«dy tti undertake. The eouinieivial rivalry which 
rtfi in tin- |ia««t kept (lenoa and Venire watchful of each other's 
ipjisnta;:!* had liv their niaritinit* ventures in the Atlantic 
;a*«^l to thcM* two |H*ninsular nations, antl Kngland ^las not 
'•n^ Iv'hind them in starting in her ra4*e for niaritinie supreni- 

It «a4 in human nature that theH«* unkni>wn re«;ioiis should 
*^«x)aif tho<^* eitlu*r of enehantiiient or dismay, aeeordin;; t«> 
>r^.nal proclivities. It is Uiit n«Tes'*ary to M^k far f«»r any 
r»-*-»n for thi». An unknoi»n slrrtt'h <if uat^TN wa^ ju**t the 
:'.A««- ffir the resorts of th«* (n»ri:ons ami t<» find tli** ^^ ... 
i'ftUntlik of the Blest, and to nnrtun* otlu-r rirati«»iiH nf *'»'^'"" 
'i*^ liu-rary and spiritual inMinrts. -MM-kim: to '/iw a h:iI»itation 
t • ixty'u^. It is e<|ually in human nature that \%liat the intellect 


exceeded the truth by perhaps a twelfth part. The calculations 
of Eratosthenes commended themselves to Hipparchus, Strabo, 
and Pliny. A centuiy later than Eratosthenes, a new calcula- 
tion, made by Posidonius of Rhodes, reduced the magnitude to a 
globe of about four fifths its proper size. It was palpably cer- 
tain to the observant philosophers, from the beginning of their 
observations on the size of the earth, that the portion known to 
commerce and curiosity was but a small part of what might yet 
be known. The unknown, however, is always a terror. Going 
north from temperate Europe increased the cold, going south 
augmented the heat ; and it was no bold thought for the natu- 
ralist to conclude that a north existed in which the cold was 
unbearable, and a south in which the heat was too great for life. 
Views like these stayed the impulse for exploration even down 
to the century of Columbus, and magnified the horrors which so 
long balked the exploration of the Portuguese on the African 
coast. There hail been intervals, however, when men in the 
Indian Ocean had dared to pass the equator. 

Therefore it was before the age of Columbus that, east and 
Unknown ^^^^^ aloug the temperate belt, men's minds groped to 
regiona. ^^^^ ^^^ couditioHs bcyoud the range of known habi- 
table regions. Strabo, in the first century before Christ, made 
straboand *'^^^ habitable zone stretch over 120 degrees, or a third 
uie^iz'^oT* of the cireimiference of the eai*th. The correspond- 
the earth. jj^^ extension of Marinus of Tyre in the second cen- 
tury after Christ stretched over 225 degrees. This geographer 
did not define the land's border on the ocean at the east, but it 
was not unusual with the cosniographers who followed him to 
carry the farthest limits of Asia to what is actually the merid- 
ian of the Sandwich Islands. On the west Marinus pushed the 
Fortunate Islands (Canaries) two degrees and a half beyond 
Cape Finisterre, failing to comprehend their real position, which 
for the westernmost, Ferro, is something like nine degrees be-- 
youd the farther limits of the main land. 

The belt of the known world running in the direction of the 
Ptolemy's cquator was, in the conception of Ptolemy, the con- 
view. temporary of Marinus, about seventy-nine degrees 

wide, sixteen of those being south of the equatorial line. This 
was a contraction from the previous estimate of Marinus, who 
had made it over eighty-seven det^rees. 


WV deal with a different problem when we pass from these 
tLn*ntr!» and imaginings of western lands to such rec- 
ord« x-^ raist of what seem like attempts in the earliest acMooUM 
aav% to attain by actual exploration the secret of this 
;nit*rjacent void. The Ph<pnieians had passed the 
Mniu of Gibraltar and found Gades (Cadiz), and very likely 
^*t« niptetl to course the Atlantic, about 1100 years before the 
\ irtii of l*hrist. Perhaps tliey went to Cornwall for tui. It 
ibay have been by no means impossible for them to have passeil 
uii'ini; the Axon^s and even to have reachetl the American 
.•amU and main, as a statement in Diodorus Siculus has been 
.: t'TprettJ to signify. Then five hundreil years later c*rti»ftii4. 
« r tiii»n* we observe the Carthaginians pursuing their *"' 
^iiriitun^UA way outside the I^illars of Hercules, going down 
:.> Afrii^an ctuist under Ilanno to tr}' the ei|uatorial horrors, or 
ru:iiiin^ westerly under Hamilko to wonder at the Sargasso sea. 
lattT. the Phofuicians seem to have made some lodgment in 
: ■• >Luid!» off the coasts of northwestern Afri(*a. The Komans 
■:. tiif fourth i*entury before Christ pushed their way 
« ut int*» thf Atlantic under I^vtheas and Kuthvniencs, 
::.r i.iir daring t4> go as far as Thule — whatever that was — in 
*.v tiiirth. ah<l the other to Senegal in the south. It \va> in the 
m:..- ivntury that Ibmie had the strange sight of some unknown 

•rUirian^^, of a nwv not recogniziible, who were taken npoii tlic 
•.i r>- of the German Oivan, when* thev luul lK*»*n ea^t awav. 
!^:« r writers have imagimnl — for no stronger word can In* 
u<«d — that these weinl beings wen* North Auieriran Indians, 

* r:kttHrr more pndiably Eskimos. AlMuit the s:inie tiui*\ Ser- 
' r ti«. a Kimian <N>nimaiidtT in S|>;iin, learniMl, as alreatly men- 
: ■'/•••L of Mmie H;ihibriouH islan«ls lying wot ward from Africa, 
xiA z.^\%* Iloran* an op|MYrtnnity, in the evil «layn <if the civil 
• kr. ?.> |»ii*tiin* tlH*m as a n'fugc. 

W}m n tkn* Ib>manK nded thf world, (*oinnii*ret» lo^t nuicli of 
!.*' (ioxanl an*! ent4*rpriM* which had cariitT iu'^tii^ated intrr- 
t.At.'iial rivalrv. Tlie inten*Ht in the wr^iti-rn iktiui >nb«>ided 
fiM-rely ttiieinilative concern: and wild fancy wan liron;;ht 
|iUy in depicting its horrors, itn dfrnon^ and shoaU, with 
v> interuiingling of sky and watvr. 

It i« bv no means eerUiin tliat C<»linnlm^ knew anvthini: «)f 
t>.:« aoeirat lore of tlu* early Me«lit4*rran«'an |N-o|»h*. Then* is 




the Azores had pushed the known limit a single hour farther 
towards the setting sun, making sixteen hours, or two thirds of 
the circumference of 360 degrees. There were left eight hours, 
or one hundred and twenty degrees, to represent the space be- 
tween the Azores and Asia. This calculation in reality brought 
the Asiatic coast forward to the meridian of California, obliter- 
ating the width of the Pacific at that latitude, and reducing by 
so much the size of the globe as Columbus measured it, on the 
assumption that Marinus was correct. This, however, he de- 
nied. If the Hlstorie reportt Columbus exactly, he contended 
that the testimony of Marco Polo and Mandeville carried the 
verge of Asia so far east that the land distance was more than 
fifteen hours across ; and by as much as this increased the dis« 
tance, by so much more was the Asiatic shore pushed nearer 
the coasts of Europe. '^We can thus determine," he says, 
*' that India is even neighboring to Spain and Africa." 

The calculation of course depended on what was the length 
Length of a ^^ * dcgrcc, and on this point there was some difiFer- 
degree. ^^^^ ^£ opinion. Toscanclli had so reduced a degree's 
length that China was brought forward on his planisphere till 
its coast line cut the meridian of the present Newfoundland. 

We can well imagine how this undue contraction of the 
size of the globe, as the belief lay in the mind of Columbus, and 
as he expressed it later (July 7, 1503), did much to push him 
forward, and was a helpful illusion in inducing others to ven- 
ture upon the voyage with him. The courage required to sail 
out of some Iberian port due west a hundred and twenty de- 
crees in order to strike the reffions about the great 

Quinsay. ... 

Chinese city of Quinsay, or Kanfu, Hangtscheufu, and 
Kingszu, as it has been later called, was more easily summoned 
than if the actual distance of two hundred and thirty-one 
degrees had been recognized, or even the two hundred and four 
degrees necessary in reality to reach Cipango, or Japan. The 
views of Toscanelli, as we have seen, reduced the duration of 
risk westward to so small a figure as fifty-two degrees. So it 
had not been an unusual belief, more or less prominent for 
many generations, that with a fair wind it required no great run 
westward to reacli Cathav, if one dared to undertake it. If 
there were no insurmountable obstacles in the Sea of Darkness, 
it would not be difficult to reach earlier that multitude of 


«t'«-kii<Ji off a laiid far ocean ward, — an exploit supposed to be 
<r4nint»iiioraUHl in the island of Stokafixia, which stands far 
ft«a% u> the westward in the Bianco map of 1430. AH these 
ule« of the early visits of the Basipies to what imaginative 
iiitn«U have sup|X)9ed parts of the American coasts xi» 
(irn%c much of their |)erennia] charm fn>m associations ^**i***^ 
«ith a remarkable people. There is indetnl nothing improbable 
::; a hartlv daring which could have borne the Bas(|ues to the 
V* wfoiindland fthoros at almost any date earlier than the time 
••t r<»lumbits. 

Frui'tiKMu, writing as late as 151K), claimed that a Portuguese 
xari^^ator, Jufto Vaz Cortereal, had sailed to the c<m1- nemtwmd' 
Sk^i t-aai«t of Newfoundland as early as 1464, but Bar- ^£|]^ 
T*iw vit^ms to be the only writer of recent times who **^*^- 
ka« brlieved the tale, and Biddle and Ilarrisse find no evidence 
u»Mi%tain it. 

There is a statement record«*<l by Columbus, if we may trust 
tht- Mwiunt of the IHntnnr^ that a sailor at Santa 
M^rta had ^dd him how, being driven westerly in a poMitobe 

io\ap* to Ireland, he luul seen land, which he then 
tb-'ti;:ht to Ih? Tartary. Some similar ex|H»rien<*es wt'n» also 
'.• »*1 tti Culumbus bv Pieter de Vdasco, of (laliriu; and this 
-k»«l. aci'vtniing t^i the account, would siH^m to liavi* Inh'U the 
«aair ««>uglit at a hiter day by the (^ortereals ( 1 oOO ). 

It i*» n«>t rasv to deal historicallv with lonu-licM traditions. 

• ft ^ 

TLr furbi^iers of transmittcHl lore eanily niakt* it re- i>„u„«, 
H<-t vihat they bring to it. To find illustratiouH in \^^:^^' 
AU\ iDquirb' is not so difficult if you ^Awt wluit you '"^ 
«i«h. ami discard all else, and the n*sult of this discriminating 
aorrv^tkm ofu*n looks verj* plausible, llistorioal truth is n*:u*htHl 
h\ lolanring everything, and not by assimilating that wliicli 
rAftily mit<i« Almost all these dis4*ussi(ius of prt'-(\>hiuibian Vi»v- 
sr*n;:« t«> Anifrica siffonl ilhist nit ions of tliis |M»rvcrt4Hl ni(*th(Ml. 
L«rnt« in which tliere is no inhi*r«*nt untruth an* not I(>ft with 
th>- natural drfense of probability, but an* pmvrd by dod not ions 
ATiii infrn"nci*s which c«iuld just as wtOI In* applitMl Xo prove 
Aaav thingn else, and an* ind«*e4l api^licd in a ii*>w wav bv 
r^rrr Drw Upstart in such iii«|uirirs. The >tory of eai>)i dis. 
*^^rm before Columbus has been uphrld by tlic st«M'k intiuia- 
UHti of wlut»-bemnle«l men. wliosi» adv<*ut is s<inu*iiow nivst<*ri- 


has habilitated in this way the fears, desires, and superstitions 
of men in due time turn to their own use. It was 6asy, under 
the stress of all this complexity of belief and anticipation, for 
this supposable interjacent oceanic void to teem in men's im- 
aginations with regions of almost every imaginable character ; 
and when, in the days of the Roman republic, the Canaries were 
reached, there was no doubt but the ancient Islands of the Blest 
had been found, only in turn to pass out of cognizance, and 
once more to fall into the abyss of the Unknown. 

There are, however, three legends which have come down to 
story of ^^ from the classic times, which the discovery of 
Atiantia. America revived with new interest in the speculative 
excursions of the curiously learned, and it is one of the proofs 
of the narrow range of Columbus's acquaintance with original 
classic writers that these legends were not pressed by him in 
support of his views. The most persistent of these in present- 
ing a question for the physical geographer is the story of Atlan- 
tis, traced to a tale told by Plato of a tradition of an island in 
the Atlantic which eight thousand years ago had existed in the 
west, opposite the Pillars of Hercules ; and which , in a great 
inundation, had sunken beneath the sea, leaving in mid ocean 
large mud shoals to impede navigation and add to the terrors of 
a vast unknown deep. There have been those since the time of 
Goniara who have believed that the land which Columbus 
found dry and inhabited was a resurrected Atlantis, and geog- 
raphers even of the seventeenth century have mapped out its 
])rovinces within the usual outline of the American continents. 
Others have held, and some still hold, that the Atlantic islands 
are but peaks of this submerged continent. There is no evi- 
dence to show that these fancies of the philosopher ever dis- 
turbed even the most erratic moments of Columbus, nor could 
he have pored over the printed Latin of Plato, if it came in his 
way, till its first edition appeared in 1483, during his stay in 
Land of the Portugal. Ncitlicr do we find that he makes any ref- 
Meropes. ercuccs to that other creation, the land of the Meropes, 
as figured in the passages cited by ^Ti^lian some seven hundred 
years after Theoponipus had conjured up the vision in the 
fourth century before Christ. P^qually ignorant was Columbus, 
saturuian '^^ would appear, of the great Saturaian continent, 
continent, lying fivc (lays west from Britain, which makes a 
storv in Plutarch's Month, 


Ut» at that time than any de{)endence u}M>n the unsuspected fact 
:hii it «a« the oceanic currents, rather, which inijielled these 
iTii^ntonr objects. It required the experiences of Utter Spanish 
ba%i;:at«»r» along the Bahama ChauneU and those of the French 
mad Koglish farther north u}M>n the Banks of New- q^, 
f'^uiilhiiMl, before it became clear tliat the currents ^^^^^^ 
( thr Atlantic, grazing the Cape of Goo<l Hope and whirling 
.& tht* liulf of Mexii*o, sprayed in a curling fringe in the 
\^h Atlantic. This in a measure became patent to Sir 
Hjiuphivy liilbert sixty or seventy years after the death of 
i "iuniltusi. 

If it-irncv had then been equal to the microscopic tanks which 
It thi» da}' it im{N)M*s on itself, the question of western lands 
tuizhl have bct*n studiinl with an interest lM*vond what attached 
' ' thr trunks of tnt^, carvctl tindiers, edible nuts, and seeds of 
ilirii plants, which the* (iulf Stream is still bringing to the 
•in'Tv^of Kuro|N>. It might have found in the dust settling 
i>*tk ih^ throngs of men in tlie Old World, the sliells of animal- 
r-Jtr*, difffring from those known to the obsiTving eye in 
Kurv»pr, which, indeetl, had bei*n carried in the up|M'r currents 
-f lir from tlM> l»anks of the Orinoco. 

<h>iY in I\»rtug:il, (\ilunibus was brought in closi* contact 
«:th that t*ager spirit of exphiratiou which hatl Mir- 

1 r 1» • 11 11' Inrtiirii.r..f 

^•1*^1 the exampu* of I'nmv Jlcnry and his naviga- ivtiuku. .r 
l^A» I. asas was wi*ll inioniuMl, thfsi* lortii- u|«ii cuiuui- 

j^^edL^nivt^rieft wen* not without groat iiitlut'nri* u|M)n 
■l*- <ffD4H-^**s receptive mind, lie was now where he could 
^ir th«r fn*«h sti>ries of thfir extruding a(H|uaintan4*e with the 
Afriran iita^^t. His wife's sister, by the accepted aeeoinit>*, li:id 
.uTit^l Pe«ln> ('om*a, a navi«:utor not withtmt fame in those 
U}K anil a c«im|ianion in maritime iiH|tiirv u|hiu whrnn Cohini- 
''I* «>oulil naturally de|H*nd, — unless, as llarrissi* de(*ides, he 
«M no iuivigat<»r at all. Columbus was al^t at hand to observe 
the- growing skill in th«' arts of navigatiou whieh gave th** 
P"rttt]n>e«H* titeir prei*niint*n(*e. He had not U*en l(»ng in lA^- 
!•« «h«-ii Kegiomontantis g:ive a new |M)Wi>r in asti-(»- ^ .,. ^, 
tki«ii«-al ralt«ulations of ]M>siti«»ns at mn-i by piiblishiii;; 2.\'M^' 
ku Ayj/.rM#rri#/rn, for the interval fitiui 141'* to I.')Or,, *-"'"• 
Qr"<n which (\ilumbus was vet to driN'iid in hin eventful vn\a;:e. 


little or nothing in the early maps of the fifteenth century to 
indicate that such knowledge was current among those 
ofrachaariy who made or contributed to the making of such of 
these maps as have come down to us. The work- of 
some of the more famous chart makers Columbus could hardly 
have failed to see, or heard discussed in the maritime circles of 
Maps xvth Portugal ; and indeed it was to his own countrymen, 
**"** Marino Sanuto, Pizignani, Bianco, and Fra Mauro, 

that Portuguese navigators were most indebted for the broad 
cartographical treatment of their own discoveries. At the same 
time there was no dearth of legends of the venturesome Genoese, 
with fortunes not always, reassuring. There was a story, for 
G«no«»Toy- instaucc, of some of these latter people, who in 1291 
■*^ ^*^^' had sailed west from the Pillars of Hercules and had 
never returned. Such was a legend that might not have 
escaped Columbus's attention even in his own country, associ- 
ating with it the names of the luckless Tedisio Doria and Ugoliuo ^ 
Vivaldi in their efforts to find a western way to India. Har — 
risse, however, who has gone over all the evidence of such ? 
purpose, fails to be satisfied. 

These stories of ocean hazards hung naturally about the sea — 
ports of Portugal. 

Galvano tells us of such a tale concerning a Portuguese ship^ 
driven west, in 1447, to an island with seven cities, 
where its sailors found the people speaking Portuguese, 
who said they had deserted their country on the death of King 
Roderigo. This is the legend of Antillia, already referred to. 
Columbus recalled, when afterwards at the Canaries on his 
first voyage, how it was during his sojourn in Portugal 
that some one from Madeira presented to the Portu- 
guese king a petition for a vessel to go in quest of land, occa- 
sionally seen to the westward from that island. Similar stories 
were not unknown to him of like apparitions being familiar in 
the Azores. A story which he had also heard of one Antonio 
Leme having seen three islands one hundred leagues west of the 
Azores had been set down to a credulous eye, which had been 
deceived by floatinjr fields of veijetation. 

There was no obstacle in the ])assing of similar reports around 
the Bay of Biscay from the coasts of the Basques, and the story 
might be heard of Jean de Eehaide, who had found stores of 



oosly discovered to have left traces amoag the aborigines of 
every section of the coast. 

There was auother class of evidence which, as the Htstorie in- 
forms as, served some purpose iu bringing conviction 
wstterniud to the miud of Columbus. Such were the phenomenal 
washing ashore ou European coasts of uukuown pines 
and other trees, sculptured logs, huge bamboos, whose joint:* 
could be made into vessels to bold nine bottles of' wine, and dead 


[From RwIub'i AmMi«t Jlor*alt.\ 

bodies with strange, broad faces. Even canoes, with living men 
in them of wonderful aspects, had at times been reported as 
thrown upon the Atlantic islauds. Such events had not been 
uuuoticed ever since tlie Canaries and the Azores bad been in- 
habited by a continental race, and conjectures had been rife long 
before the time of Columbus that westerly winds had brought 
these estrays from a distant land, — a belief more comprehensi. 



TiiCRF. lis in the mincln of some inquirers into the early di»- 
nivfnr of America, no more pivotal incident attaching 
kt (h« cart'er of Columbus than an alleged voyage Mppumi u> 
auilt* to the vicinity of what is supposed to have been bejrood i»- 
Irrlami, in the assigned year of 1477. The incident 
I* mmKin4it*<l with the confusion that belongs to everj'thing 
il«-|ri)iU*ot on Columbus*8 own statements, or on what is put 
forth an such. 

Our chief knowledge of his voyage is in the doubtful Italian 
MKi'-ring of the I/intorir of 1671, where, citing a memoir by 
< ••lumlMiA himself on the five liabitable xones, the translator or 
^UjiCrr of that book makes th«^ Aihniral say that ** in Febru- 
^T). 1477, be sailed a hundn*d blagues b<*yond the island Tile. 
•>ii« h lifA umler the seventy-third panillel, and not under the 
*:it\ tliini« as some sav.** The <mlv evidence that he saw 
Ttk in sailing beyond it, is in what he further says« that he 
«^« able to ascertain that the tide n>si* and fell twentv-six 
*i:h>iiii«, which observation necessitati^s the ttceing of mnne land, 
«K»tlifr Tile or not. 

TVn- i^ no land at all in the northern Atlantic umh'r 73'. 
l-^Uml stn*t4*hes from 64^ to 07'' : tian Maven is too 

* 1 1 h** fill irty It - 

•lull for ( \ilumbus*s further description of the island, <-H.«iii thr 
^1 i* at 7P, and Spitxlx»rgen is at 70 \ What Co- 
.i«lHi« ^ays of tlu* FIngliHh of KriHt4>l tniding at this island 
fmau to Iceland : and it is easy, if one will, t4» imagine a niis- 
prist of the figures, an error of calculation, a carelessness of 
•Utrmrnt, or even tlie disapiwarance, through some cataclysm, 
*d thr ishuid, as has been suggestinl. 

Ilamboldt in his Conmog quoti^s (^olunibus as s:iying of this 
vora|>v DTAr Thule that ** the sea was not at tluit time coveretl 
vith irr,** and be credits that statement to the same Tratathf 



The most famouH of the pupils of this German mathematician 
was himself in Lisbon during the years of Columbus's sojourn. 
We have no distinct evidence that Martin Behaim, 
a Nuremberger, passed any courtesies with the Gen- 
oese adventurer, but it is not improbable that he did. His 





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l)08ition was one that would attract Columbus, who might never 
have been sought by Behaim. The Nuremberger's standing 
was, indetnl, such as to gain the attention of the Court, and he 
was thought not unworthy to be joineil ^-ith the two royal physi- 
oiaiis, Roderigo ami Josef, on a commission to improve the as- 
trohibe. Their perfected results mark an epoch in the art of 
seamanship in that agt\ 


J^ la* Cimco Zona* IlabiiaUes of Columbus, and urges in 
procrf thml Finn Mmgnosen bmd found in ancient historical 
waim that in February, 1477, ice had not set in on the south- 
fra coast of that island. 

Speaking of ^ Tile,*' the same narrative adds that ^^ it is 
mrt of the western verge of Ptolemy [that is, IHole- 
BT*§ vorld map], and larger than England/* This 
iprcaiiiin of its siae could point only to Iceland, of all islands 
is the northern seas. 

There are elements in the stor>', however, not easily reconoil- 
aUe with what might be expected of an experienced mariner ; 
aad if the story is true in its main purpose, there is little more 
ia the details than the careless inexactness, which characterizes 
1 pood many of the well-authenticated asseverations of Colum- 

Again the narrative says, ^* It is true that Ptolemy*s Thide 
» where that geographer placeil it, but that it is now called 
FriUancle/* Does this mean that the Zeni story had been a 
Miner of common talk forty years after the voyage to their 
Fri*laiid had Iteen mail*', and eighty-four years bt^fore a Liter 
wiaa of tlu* family publiitbed the remarkable Darnitive in 
Vrtuc«», in l/Vti^ ? It is |N)HsibIe that the m:iker of tin' Ilisforit' 
M 1571. in the way in which it was given tci tin* xiH./^ni. 
vorkL, hatl int4»riM)latt*<l this reference* to the Frishmd •""•*•***• 
*4 tbr Zrni t«i help susUiin the ereilit of his own or the other 
^•■ik: tbiKtgli, lieing found in Casas, it is not probable. 

A voyage undertaken by ( ohnnbiis t4> siieh hi;^h latitudes is 
rrfrlerrd in all reH|)e<*t.H doubtful, to say tht* least, from the fact 
that in 141^ (%ilumbus detailetl for the eves of hi*> soverei<rn^ 
shp aDOJual ailvantagi^ of the harlMirs of the new islands whieh 
W* had dismvered, and adilt^l that he was entitled to express 
•vrk an opinion, because his exploration had ext44)d«Ml from 
^inaett on tlie south to FIngland on the north. It wan an <KH*a- 
mam when h«* desired t4» make his ae<|uaint:in<-<> S4*4*ni as wide as 
d» fvtii wouki warrant, and yet lit* d(M*s not profess to havi* 
farther north than England. A hundred Iea;;ues, mon*- 
\ beyond Iceland might well ha%'e carri^nl him t4> the up)M'r 
tfiMwImod coast, but he niak«*s no mention of other lami \h'\U)X 
ta tboae high latitudt^s. 
TliTk mod Icelami an* made diifen^nt islantlH in the I^4»leniy 



It was a new sensation when news came that at last the Pni 
ouiaM tugueae had crossed the equator, in pushing along the 
oout, 1182, African coast. In January, 1482, they had said their 
first mass on the Guinea coast, and the castle of Sau Joi^e 6 

Mina was soon built under the new impulse to ec 
trZbtd^" prise which cante with the accession of JoSo II. 

1484 tliey reachiHl the Congo, under thtt guidauce ( 
Diogo Cam, and Martin l^haini was of his company. 


These voyages were not without strong allui-cments to thi 
Genoese sailor. He is thought to havu been a participant iaj 
some of the later cruises. The Historic claims that he begi 
to reaijon, from his new experiences, that if land could be diB 
covered to the south there was much the sauie chance of likcrj 
discoveries in the west. But there were experiencea of otberfl 
kinds which, in the interim, if we believe the story, lie uodefrf 
went in the north. 


vert, mad ImuI sighted land which had been supposed to be Tar- 
unr, which at a later day was thought to be die Baccalaos of 
tiir Cortereala. 

The island of Bresil had been floating about the Atlantic, 
■Misllj in the latitude of Ireland, since the days when 
kIk naker of the Catalan planisphere, in 1375, placed Bmu! ^ 

it in that sea, and current stories of its existence re- 

Milled, at a later day (1480), in the sending from Bristol of an 

eipcdition of search, as has already been said. 

Finn Magnusen among the Scandinavian writers, and De 
(\»ta ami oCher» amonc Americans, have thou&rbt it 

Did ColoBi- 

pMbabltf that Columbus landed at Hualfiord, in Ice- bMiuidoo 
had. Columbus, however, does not give sufficient 
(mund for any such inference. He says be went beyond Thule, 
oiic to it, whatever Thule was, and we only know by bis obser- 
«at)<ios on the tides, that he approached dry land. 

I^aing, in his introduction to the Ileim^krinyla^ says conti- 
lirndy that C\»lumbus ^* came to Ii*eland from Bristol, in 1477, 
oo purpose to gain nautical information/* — an inference merely, 
— ** antl must have heard of the written acvounts of 
!^ Norse dLvcoveries retx>rde*l in " th«* ( 'fnfex FlaOp- ■«• » i»- 
v'lMiii. Laing says again that as Bishop Magnus is 
ki>j«n Ui ha%v bet»n in h^eland in the spring of 1477, *' it is 
fCTMmied C<ilumbuH umst ha%'«* met ami conv(*rsiHl with him ** ! 

A grvat deal turns on this purely imaginary (*<mversation, 
t^A the iMHMibilities of \Xs scope. 

The listening Columbus might, indet'd. have heard of Irish 
»i*Dlu and their followers, wh<» had U*en found in Tbeyucwia 
Irrlaad by the first Norse visitors, six hundred years '***■*■ 
brfure« if perchance the traditions of them hail lMH.*n preserved, 
sad these may even have included tht* somewhat vague stories 
•f visita to a countrv somewhere* which thi^v calleil Irelauil the 
Ureal. Poiuiibly« too, there wi*re stories t4»ld at the firesides of 
t^ adventurer of a st^a-rover, (tunnbioni bv name, who had 
Urfi driven westerly from Iceland and liad seen a r.nrUH> 
«raa47e land, which after some years was visite<l by ^^^ 
Erie the Ked ; and there might have lieen wondn>us stiiries told 
•f this same laml« which Eric luul (*all«*<l (irei^nland. 
ia order to lure settlern, when* there is MUiie re:i.*M»n to 
brliete vet earlier wanderers hail found a home. Tliere iiii^lit 



of 1486, which, if it does not prove that Iceland was not then 
Thyie and ^^^ Same as Thyle in the mind of geographers, shows 
'^'^^ that geographical confusion still prevailed at the north. 
It may be further remarked that Mufioz and others have 
found no time in Columbus's career to which this voyage to the 
north could so easily pertain as to a period anterior to his going 
to Portugal, and consequently some years before the 1477 of 
the Historie. 

A voyage to Iceland was certainly no new thing. The Eng- 
TheBngUah ^^ traded there, and a large commerce was main- 
inioeiand. taiucd with it by Bristol, and had been for many 
years. A story grew up at a later day, and found expression in 
Gomara and Wytfliet, that in 1476, the year before this alleged 
voyage of Columbus, a Danish expedition, under the command 
of the Pole Kolno, or Skolno, had found in these 
northern regions an entrance to the straits of Anian, 
which figure so constantly in later maps, and which opened a 
passage to the Indies ; but there seems to be no reason to be- 
lieve that it had any definite foimdation, and it could hardly 
have been known to Columbus. It is also easy to conjecture 
that Columbus had been impelled to join some English trading 
vessel from Bristol, through mere nautical curiosity, and even 
been urged by reports which may have reached him of the north- 
The zeni ®^^ cxplorations of the Zeni, long before the accounts 
were printed. But if he knew anything, he either 
treasured it up as a proof of his theories, not yet to be divulged, 
— why is not clear, — or, what is vastly more probable, it never 
occurred to him to associate any of these dim regions with the 
coasts of Marco Polo's Cathay. 

There was no lack of stories, even at this time, of venture- 
some voyages west along the latitude of England and to the 
northwest, and of these tales Columbus may possibly have heard. 
Such was the story which had been obscurely recorded, that 
Madoc, a Welsh chieftain, in the later years of the 
twelfth century had carried a colony westerly. Nor 
can it be positively asserted that the Estotiland and Drogeo 
of the Zeni narrative, then lying in the cabinet of an Italian 
family unknown, had ever come to his knowledge. 

There are stories in the Historie of reports which had 
reached him, that mariners sailing for Ireland had been driven 


Innlms** life that ve find, on a Portuguese chart of 1503, a 
fHiniiDcr of the truth, and this only transiently^ though the cou- 
er|4iuQ of the marinens upon which this map was based, prob- 
My associated Greenland with the Asiatic main, as um^^pm 
Knr«*h certainly did, by a bold effort to reconcile the ^ ^^^ 
Nt»r«e traditions with the new views of his time, when he pro- 
«it>ced the first engraved map of the discoveries of Columbus 
And Cabot in the Koman Ptolemy of 1508. 

It is thus beyond dispute that if Columbus entertained any 
% if v« a» to the geographical relations of Greenland, which had 
brr-n practically lost to Europe since communication with it 
<«A«ed« earlier in the fifteenth centur}', they were simply those 
uf a peninsula of nortliem £uro|)e, which could have no connec- 
!».« with any country lying beyond the Atlantic ; for it was not 
nil after iiis death that any gen«*ral conception of it associated 
with the Asiatic main aroMc. It is quite certain, however, that 
a* thr ciineeption U^gan to pre%'ail, after the disco%'ery of the 
Niuth Sea by Kallioa, in 1513, that an interjai*ent new 
vorhl hail really been fcmud, th«'re was a teudeucy* as a i«rt f»f 
•kyvn in tht* map of Thome (^1^)27), representing our- 
rmc r'wmA in Spain, and in thosi* of Finanis ( 1531), ZiegW 
itS32K Men-ator (15:^), and Ikinlone ( 1528-1547), to relo- 
ritr the position of Ctret^nland to a |M*ninsular (^>nncH*ti(>n with 

There in a curious instance of the evolution of the correct 
lira in the IHolemy of 1525, and n^fH^atcd in the same plate as 
Oiv^l in the editions of 1535 and 1*VI5. Th<* map w]Ui original^ 
rtij^TavfHl t4i show ^^ Gronlamlia ** as a Kuro)>ean |M*niusula, but 
ft|>f«uvutly, at a later stage, the wonl (rronlandia wiui out in the 
ntiToer beiiide the sket(*h of an elephant, and farther west, as if 
v» tmiicate its transoceanic ami Asiatic sittiation, though there 
vas DO attempt to draw in a coast line. 

Ijatrr in the centur}' there was a strife of opinion U^tween tlie 
C»«>piiphers of the north, as n»pres4»nted in the Olaus l^^^f,^^. 
Magna* map of 15t>7, who disconmvtiHl the eouutry ""• '**•■ 
'"noi Kuropr, and those of the south, who still united (t reen* 
•am! with Srmodinavia, as was don<* in the Zeno map t>f 1558. 
IW this time, however, the southern g«M>graphers hati U'^^^un to 
ii«bl« and after 1540 we find I^brailor ancl (iriMMiland put in 
proaimity in many of their ma|w : and in this tlie (slitorn 


possibly have been shown to Columbus an old manuscript chron- 
icle of the kings of Norway, which they called the HeimS" 
HfifM- htingla^ and which had been written by Snorre Star- 
*^^'^- lason in the thirteenth century ; and if he had turned 
the leaves with any curiosity, he could have read, or have had 
translated for him, accounts of the Norse colonization of Green- 
land in the ninth century. Where, then, was this Greenland ? 
Could it possibly have had any connection with that Cathay of 
Marco Polo, so real in the vision of Columbus, and which was 
supposed to lie above India in the higher latitudes ? As a stu- 
dent of contemporary cartography, Columbus would have an- 
Poritionof swered such a question readily, had it been suggested; 
Greenland. £qj, }jg ^Quld havc kuowu that Greenland had been 
represented in all the maps, since it was first recognized at all, 
as merely an extended peninsula of Scandinavia, made by a 
southward twist to enfold a northern sea, in which Iceland lay. 
One certainly cannot venture to say how far Columbus may 
have had an acquaintance with the cartographical repertories, 
more or less well stocked, as they doubtless were, in the great 
commercial centres of maritime Europe, but the knowledge 
which we to-day have in detail could hardly have been other- 
wise than a common possession among students of geography 

then. We comprehend now how, as far back as 1427, 
be a part of a map of Claudius Clavus showed Greenland as this 

peninsular adjunct to the northwest of Europe, — a 
view enforced also in a map of 1447, in the Pitti palace, and 
in one which Nordenskiold recently found in a Codex of Ptol- 
emy at Warsaw, dated in 1467. A few years later, and cer- 
tainly before Columbus could have gone on this voyage, we find 
a map which it is more probable he could have known, and that 
is the engraved one of Nicholas Donis, drawn presumably in 
1471, and later included in the edition of Ptolemy published 
at Ulm in 1482. The same European connection is here main- 
tained. Again it is represented in the map of Henricus Mar- 
tellus (1489-90), in a way that produced a succession of 
maps, which till long after the death of Columbus continued to 
make this Norse colony a territorial appendage of Scandinavian 
Europe, betraying not the slightest symptom of a belief that 
Eric the Ked had strayed beyond the circ^le of European con- 
nections. It is only when we get down to the later years of Co» 



tboaglita wbieb poMeaaed him, in seeking a wm; to Indi» over 
■(^miiut SpUD. 

Bnitle the SL-ant hiatoiio record mpecting Vinluid whioh 
has been oited from the Ileimakringln, it is further 0^,^^ 
|w— JTiln tbftt Columbus ta%y have seen that aeries of "^^ 
atgaa which had cone down in oral shape to the twelfth oeD> 
urn. At this period put into writing, two hundred yean after 

ihc creots of the Vinland voyages, there are none of the mann- 
«mpt M^ies of these HAf^as now t'xiittiiig which go back of the 
faartcmlh cvntury. This rendering of tl)» old lUipiH into script 
nmte at a time when, in atlditiuii tu tliv infyitaMo tranitfomia- 
tiiBS of long oral tmtlition. thciv waN Hii]N-m<liliil the roman- 
tag; >pirit then rife in tlie north, and wliii-li h:tit (^>uie to tln-ni 
fraa the soutb of Kun>|ie. Tin- r^'-tiilt of (hirt lilciiiling of con- 
facd tsadiUun with the rouuuK-ing of the jwriod of the writtt-n 

aiioea to writing, and the most experi* 

on Grreenland, Henrik Rink, has alio 

of the sagas except for their general i 

Less than a hundred years before t 

(j^,^^ bus to Thule, there had beei 

^^^■'^'^rBMb. ^jjg gj^pjy gagas, and this i 

only authority which we have for ai 
voyages. It is possible that the mai 
one copy of several or many which c 
early period, not preceding, however, 
writing was introduced. This particu 
ered in an Icelandic monastery in the 
there is no evidence of its being know 
possible that copies may have been in 
landers at the time of Columbus's sup 
and he may have heard of it, or hav. 
him. The collection is recognized b; 
being the most confused and iucong 
and it is out of such romancing, tradit 
citals that the story of the Norse voj 
i^( if it is made at all. The t 

^^'""^ teen winters after the settl 
Leif went to Norway, and in the next 
These are the data from which the ye^ 
duced as that of the beginning of tl 
principal events are to ho tmoMl in fl 


mf^ any knowledge of the ■tory, thinks thmt when the 
Crown wms contesting with the heirs of the Admiral his rights 
of diaoovery, the citing of these northern experiences of Co- 
faiinbus would have been in the Crown's favor« if there had been 
any oonci*ption at that time that the Norse discoveries, even if 
known to general Europe, had any relation to the geographical 
|injliienu then under discussion. Similar views have been ex- 
prv««i.*<i by Wheaton and Prescott, and there is no evidence that 
ap to the time of Columbus an acquaintance ^ith the Vinland 
•liiry hail ever entered into the IxHly of historical knowledge 
poAsessed by Europeans in general. The scant references in 
the manuscripts of Adam of Bremen (a. d. 1073), of Ordericus 
Vitalis (A. D. 1140), and of Saxo Grammaticus (a. D. 1200), 
wrne not likely to be widely coiupn^hendetU even if they were 
at all known, and a dorte scrutiny of the literature of p^nff. 
ihe subjei*t diM^H not seeui to indicate tliat there was £[1*!^**^** 
anr comiiclerable means of pro|Nigntinj; a knowlcil^ **"*** 
of ibt- sagas U*fore Peringskiold printed them in 1697, two 
handrtti vearM after the time of CohinibuH. Thin editor inserted 
them in an «Mlitiou of the Ifehnskringla and coni*eaU*d the 
pat«-hwork. Huh deception caus4Ml it afterwanls to l>e sup 
|«M-«i tliat thf acvinuits in the Iltlmskr'unjlti had lHM?n intcrr- 
fB>LiU-<ii by Hiimt* latiT reviwr of the* ohnniirle ; but the truth 
n-^nnlin^ Pfrinf^'ikhUirs ai'tion wn.H ultini:it4')y known. 

I^^^in:;, tht*n« th«Mr invosti}^ti<m on a nurnitiw (M>nf(*sso<lly 
ri*nfu^-«I and unauth«*ntic, nuNleni writ<*rrt Ii:iV4> iMinj^ht to det(*r- 
mine with pnH*i4ion the fa«*t (»f Nonu^ visitn to British America, 
Ami t«> idt*ntify the localitii*M. The f:u*t that ev<*ry invc*Htij|;:itor 
nn<U pNk'^raphiral corres|iondeniV4 wh(*n> he likes, and «|uite 
!riib-pi''niipntly of all others, in testimony of itM'lf to the i*onfused 
'^liOilition of th«^ ston'. The soil of the Unit^nl SUit^'s and Nova 
S^*iia ciinti;nionH to the Atlantic may now safi*Iv lie said to 
have lnN^n <*xaniin«Hl by i*om|H*t4'nt critics snfliri«>ntly to aflinn 
that no ari'liaiiliiirioal traiv of the pn»s«»nce of the Xonu* here 
\% tiinrvmibli*. Am to iiurh a forbidilin;; f*oast as that of I^bra- 
<lor, then* has lieen as yi*t no such familiarity with it by trained 
Arvhjeolo^Ats as to render it reasonably (*i*rt;iin tlmt some tnu-e 
may not lie fiKind there* and on this acn-ount (ieorge ptouuii 
lUncroft allows the |M>Hsibility that the Norse may ^'^ 
have reachrd that coant. There remains, then, no evid«>ni-e 


of the Ptolemy of 1561 agreed, when they altered their reen- 
graved map — as the plate shows — in a way to disconnect 
Greenland from Scandinavia. 

It is not necessary to trace the cartographical history of 
Greenland to a later day. It is manifest that it was long after 
Columbus's death when the question was raised of its having 
any other connection than with Europe, and Columbus could 
have learned in Iceland nothing to suggest to him that the land 
of Eric the Red had any connection with the western shores of 
Asia, of which he was dreaming. 

If any of the learned men in Iceland had referred Columbus 
Diicoveiy of ^^^ morc to the Heimskringla^ it would have been to 
viniand. ^^ brief cutry which it shows in the records as the 
leading Norse historian made it, of the story of the discovery of 
Vinland. There he would have read, " Leif also found* Vinland 
the Good," and he could have read nothing more. There was 
nothing in this to excite the most vivid imagination as to pkce 
or direction. 

It was not till a time long after the period of Columbus that, 
so far as we know, any cartographical records of the 
vian Tiewa discovcrics assoclatcd with the Vinland voyages were 
made in the north; and not till the discoveries of 
Columbus and his successors were a common inheritance in 
Europe did some of the northern geographers, in 1570, under- 
take to reconcile the tales of the sagas with the new beliefs. 
The testimony of these later maps is presumably the transmitted 
view then held in the north from the interpretation of the 
Norse sagas in the light of later knowledge. This testimony is 
that the " America " of the Spaniards, including Terra Florida 
and the " Albania " of the English, was a territory south of the 
stephaniiia's Norsc rcgiou aud beyond a separating water, very 
map, 1570. Yikoiy that of Davis' Straits. The map of Sigurd 
Stephanius of this date (1570) puts Vinland north of the 
Straits of Belle Isle, and makes it end at the south in a " wild 
sea," which separates it [B of map] from " America." Torfaeus 
quotes Torlacius as saying that this map of Stephanius's was 
drawn from ancient Icelandic records. If this cartographical 
record has its apparent vahie, it is not likely that Columbus 
could have seen in it anything more than a manifestation of 
that vague boreal region which was far remote from the 



It in a nther striking fact, as IlarriMse piit« it, that we can* 
»•€ \Aace with an exact date any event in ( *olunibiis*s cuiumbua** 
«:lr fn»m Aupist 7, 1473, when a clcH*unient shows hiiu ||!X"47^ 
tii have been in Savona, Italy, till he receivwl at C or- '*^' 
S'»kicu S|iain, fnmi the tn^asiirer of the Catholic siivereigns, his 
hr»i p^tuity on May o, 14H7, as is shown by the entry in the 
^■•k^ **jpven this ilay 3,000 luaravtHlis,** aUnit #18, "to Crii- 
i**tial L*ol«»iu4i, a stranger.** The events of tiiis |H*ritKl of about 
^*urt4t-n years were tho^M* which made |Missible his later career. 
Tt»' incidtfnts i^onnectetl witii this timr have lieconie the shuttle- 
<- k« whirh Iiave lieen driven backward and forwartl in their 
t;nin«il«»gical lieariiigs, by all who liave undert:ikcn tt> study 
t.v dt-uiiU of this |>art of Columbus's life. It is n«*arly :is true 
-^ m a3 it was wh<*ii Pn*sc*<»tt wrotr, that ** tlir diM*rc|mncies 
knA>*o;; tlic* earli«*Ht authorities arc such as t4> n*nd(T ho|>eless 
kTiy atti«ni|tt to s«*ttU* with |>nH*iHion th«* chn>uol(»*;y of Colum- 
'^n % iiiovem«'ntH |in*vit»us t4i his first voya;:«*.** 

Tkf motives which intluctnl him to abaiid(»u P<»rtugaK where 
:^ hail marrie«l, and whi*n* ho had ai>i):in*iitlv found 
&4 a littlt* to rH4*on«*ile him to iiis oxile, an* nc»t ob- f<Tkift«ii« 
«-9rr oot-s as detaileil in the onlinarv ai*i*«>unts of Ids 
.:f«-. All th«*?«e narratives an* in tlir main iKLsetL tin»t, on the 
//♦ •/'/n> i 1571 ) : s«*condly, on the ^n-at histori«*al work ,,„,, 
'ti Jittiu de liarros, |)ert4iiuin|; t«» thr dis4*4iv»*ri«'s nf ^(**|!^,^* 
tar Portuguese in th«- Ka>t Indirs, fir^t iiuldi-hc<l in ^»-»-*" 
1V*:2, an<i still Indiling |inil»:ibly thr li>fti«*<«t ]>c>*«ition in the his- 
tfjrical liifrature of that 4H>untrv : and, iiuallv. on the livrs of 
J'«#> II., thi*n monan*h of Portugal, by Kuv d«' I'ina and l>v 
VMr«jficeU«Mi. The latt«*r iMirniwiu); in tlir main fnmi th«' for* 
mrr. was ex(*lusively u<i«il by Irviu;;. I^a^ Chinas a|»|>anMitly 
i«prBric«l on RamM an widl a^^ «»n tin* Hintnrir, It is necea- 


preservation has thrown, even among the Scandinavians them- 
selves, a shade of doubt, more or less intense at times, which 
envelops the saga record with much that is indistinguishable 
from myth, leaving little but the general drift of the story to be 
held of the nature of a historic record. The Icelandic editor 
of Egel's saga, published at Keikjavik in 1856, acknowledges 
this unavoidable reflex of the times when the sagas were re- 
duced to writing, and the most experienced of the recent writers 
on Greenland, Henrik Rink, has allowed the untrustworthiness 
of the sagas except for their general scope. 

Less than a hundred years before the alleged visit of Colum- 
codex ^^^ ^ Thule, there had been a compilation of some of 

*'^***^y'°**^ the early sagas, and this Codex Flatoyensis is the 
only authority which we have for any details of the Yinland 
voyages. It is possible that the manuscript now known is but 
one copy of several or many which may have been made at an 
early period, not preceding, however, the twelfth century, when 
writing was introduced. This particular manuscript was disoov- 
ered in an Icelandic monastery in the seventeenth century, and 
there is no evidence of its being known before. Of course it is 
possible that copies may have been in the hands of learned Ice- 
landers at the time of Columbus's supposed voyage to the north, 
and he may have heard of it, or have had parts of it read to 
him. The collection is recognized by Scandinavian writers as 
being the most confused and incongruous of similar records; 
and it is out of such romancing, traditionary, and conflicting re- 
citals that the story of the Norse voyages to Vinland is made, 
Leif if it is made at all. The sagas say that it was six- 

^^'^***"' teen winters after the settlement of Greenland that 
Leif went to Norway, and in the next year he sailed to Vinland. 
These are the data from which the year a. d. 1000 has been de- 
duced as that of the beginning of the Vinland voyages. The 
principal events are to be traced in the saga of Eric the Red, 
which, in the judgment of Rask, a leading Norse authority, is 
^^ somewhat fabulous, written long after the event, and taken 
from tradition." 

Such, then, was the record which, if it ever came to the no- 
tice of Columbus, was little suited to make upon him any 
impression to be associated in his mind with the Asia of his 
dreams. Humboldt, discussing the chances of Columbus's gain- 


<iiiln4ei|tiviitly anutlipr refcn^nco to a royal coiim-il, in wliicli 
iho -uhjii'C wuM cILsciirtsed in tii^iiuu-nts, of which that historiau 
pr>-!M.Tvrfi Mime rv|HirtH. This ditk'iiHsiou went farther tlian wan 
|vrlia|M intviiiK*il, Hiiice CazadiUa prtH^eeduil to discouragu all 
Att«-ui|>tH at expli>i'atioii even hy the African route, an iiuperil- 
\TiZ till* naftsty of the stite, l>eeaiis4> of the money whicli was 
r^-<|iiin-(l ; ami Ihh*uiiho it kept at Uxy great a ilistanee for an 

• iii«*rp*nev a i^oiisiderable force in Hhips aiul men. In fact the 
lirift of tlif «leb:ite Heem.s to have ignonnl the main pn>jeet*« as 

• •f littlr moment ami as t(K> visionary, anil the energy of the 
UMir wa-* (vnterecl in a rallying s|>eeeh made by tlie Count of 
VilLi K«*al. who eiideavoriHl to save the interests of Africau 
i-i}ii*iration. The etmnt's s|)eiH.*h t|uite aeeomplished its |nir-> 
|»"M-. if Wf can trust the n*|N>rts, since it reassured t!ie ratlier 
•ir* 'pin;; energies of the king, and induced some active meas- 
ure <« t«i i>*acli the extn*mity of Africa. 

In Aii^u<«t« 148G, Ikirtholomew I)i:iz« the most eminent of a 
!::)•• «if r*irtnguese navigat4>rs, had demrt4*d on the 
.\ ptute, witli twn cons<»rtH. As h«> ncared tiK* r«ii%.i)«|{f, 
Latiimlt- i»f the IiK>kcd-fi»r ('a|Ns he was driven S4»uth, 
A'. A t*in'*il a\%av fn>m the laud, liv a stiirni. \Vhi*n he was 

• .i''I*-d t«> rv'turn on his track he struck thf cna^t, rcallv to th«) 

■ i*! A:inl «»f the trui* ca|H', thi»u;;h he did n«it at thi' time know 
.! Thi". wa-^ in May, llx7. Ili'^ civw U'ln^j unwilling to pii>- 
-•-•l farthi*r. Ill* tinallv tunn^^l w«*sti>rlv, and in dui* time <lis- 

■ ..r»il wliat hf had dtinc. Tlic lir«*t pa--;!::!* of tlic ('a|K' was 
:.-. i'. maili* wliilc sailing west, ju-l :i«<, pii<*<*ilily. the |.^^.,|^ 
:-^rin«'r* ••£ tin* Indian M'as may have di»in\ In Hi-- *^ **"" 

»:i»Ut he was li;ii'k in Lislmn with tli«> exhilarating lu'ws, and 
: »j.<» pnilulily conveyed to < *<»Iuui1mih. wjni was tlifii in Spain, 

• ;. iii« brother KirtlndDiin'W, tiif eiMii|>:iiiii>n of I)ia/ in this 

•-••litful vi»\agi*, as l^is ( 'asas diseuviTnl liv an eiitrv made bv 
■ * • • • . 

{■^rtholiimew hiniM^lf in a foi»v of D'AiJK"?* Immift Mu/it/l, 

T;..rtv \i-arH lN*fi»rf. a- we havf -i-i-n, Fra Maum hail pn«- 

^^..r^-^l the ('a|H* in his map, but it was now m 1h> ]iut on the 

•a^rls as a ge« (graphical iliscovery : and by 141M), or tliere- 

at»jutM« ttUiH-tttlini; I'tutuguesi* navig:itors had pushctl up the 

ra»t c^ua*t of Africa to a |H>int shown in a ma]> pn*s4'rved in the 

British Must'um, but not far enough to i*ouiu*et with what W2ts 

MippcMi^ with some ivrtainty to Im> the limit reach««l during 


leyond a strong probability that the Norse from Greenland 
crossed Davis' Straits and followed south the American coast. 
That indisputable archaeological proofs may yet be found to 
establish the fact of their southern course and sojourn is cer- 
tainly possible. Meanwhile we must be content that there is no 
testimony satisfactory to a careful historical student, that this 
course and such sojourn ever took place. A belief in it must 
i*est on the probabilities of the case. 

Many writei*s upon the Norseman discovery would do well to 
remember the advice of Ampere to present as doubtful what is 
true, sooner than to give as true what is doubtful. 

^^ Ignorance," says Mufioz, in speaking of the treacherous 
grounds of unsupported narrative, '^is generally accompanied 
by vanity and temerity." 

It is an obvious and alluring supposition that this story 
Did coium- should have been presented to Columbus, whatever the 
SSbmS!^**' effect may have been on his mind. Lowell in a poem 
pardonably pictures him as saying : — '- 


'* I brooded on the wise Atheuian's tale 
Of happy Atlantis ; and heard Bjome*s keel 
Crunch the gray pebbles of the Vinland shore, 
For I believed the poets." 

But the belief is only a proposition. Rafn and other ex- 
treme advocates of the Norse discovery have made as much as 
they could of the supposition of Columbus's cognizance of the 
Norse voyages. Laing seems confident that this contact must 
have happened. The question, however, must remain unsettled ; 
and whether Columbus landed in Iceland or not, and whether 
the bruit of the Norse expeditions struck his ears elsewhere or 
not, the fact of his never mentioning them, when he summoned 
every supposable evidence to induce acceptance of his views, 
seems to be enough to show at least that to a mind possessed as 
his was of the scheme of finding India by the west the stories 
of such northern wandering offered no suggestion applicable to 
his purpose. It is, moreover, inconceivable that Columbus 
should have taken a course southwest from the Canaries, if he 
had been prompted in any way by tidings of land in the north- 


Gmmm actually o£Fected the passage of the Cape. This oon- 
limation had doubtless come through soiue mission- 
aries of the Portucniese kini;, who iu 141)0 sent such bIi 

? /I . ««K«riit 

a (Mtaitive message from Cairo. 

Uut whili* the new exertions along the African coast, thus 
inaftlvcrtcntly instigated by Coluuibus, were making, what was 
l«^*uming of his own westward scheme ? 

The stor}' goes that it was by the advice of Cazadilla that the 
iN.rtugucsv king lent himself to an unworthy device. n»p^ii- 
ThL-* >»a.«* a project to test the views of Columbus, and STmTmp*. 
|>n»tit by them without {laying him his prii'e. An out- um^M 
lim- uf his intended voyage had been secured from ^o**"**«^ 
bim in the investigation already mentioned. A caravel, under 
{irt-u-n^ of a voyage to the Ca|>e de Verde Islands, was now 
ii>pau-hed to search for the Cipango of Marco Polo, in tlie 
{■.tuition >%hich l\>lumbus hail given it in his chart. The nier- 
rriiar}' craft started out, and buffeted with head sesis and angn- 
«itKl« long enough to emasculate wluit little courage the crew 
}«-«<^r^8KHl. Without the prop of conviction they deserted their 
^''jr]MMf and retunietl. Once in port, they began to berate the 
(ffT-n<«'M* for his foollianly si*heme. In this way they sought to 
I'.DdicaU* thi'ir own timidity. Tliis discloseil to Cohimbus the 
*.r.*k «»hi«-h had l»ct*n played u|Mm him. Such is the stiiry as 
:>>• //i,%O0rir t4*Ils it, and which lias U^en adtipUnl by Hcrrera 
lud irtbcrH. 

At thi^ |)oint there is too much uii(*ertaiiity respecting the 
^•«rim-iitA of l*olumbus for even his (*redulous bioe- 
riii«hf-n» to till out tlie tale. It si*eiiiH to Im* acreetl imvmPot. 

. tugBl, 140C 

-wiiAt in the latter {isirt of 1484 he left Portugal with 
1 w<«-nr«*y which was hiipimimhI to l»e iiiHressary to esc*a{)e the 
i.j^.uxM-<- of the government spies. Then* is lieside M»me rea- 
«>-n ft>r believing that it was also well for liim to shun arrest 
' T «ifbt*«, which had Ih^mi iiicurriHl in tli«* tlistractions of his 

ThrR* is no other authority than Kumusio for lielieving with 
Mauof that C oIumbiiK hail alrexuly laid his pn>ject 0„|,p.«^ 
kdorr tlie g«ivemment of (ieiioa by letter, and that lie (V!i!,muuui 
»■« wi-nt to nt-nforce it in jKsrson. That jHiwer was *^***^ 
«4yIt prvMeil witli misfortunes at thiii time, and is said t4> have 


sary to reconcile their statements, as well as it can be done, to 
get even an inductive view of the events concerned. 

The treatment of the subject by Irving would make it cer- 
tain that it was a new confidence in the ability to make long 
voyages, inspired by the improvements of the astrolabe as di- 
rected by Behaim, that first gave Columbus the assurance to 
ask for royal patronage of the maritime scheme which had 
been developing in his mind. 

Just what constituted the acquaintance of Columbus with 
coiumbiu Behaim is not clearly established. Herrera speaks 
and Behaim. ^f ^\^q^ j^g f ricnds. Humboldt thiuks some intimacy 
between them may have existed, but finds no decisive proof of 
it. Behaim had spent much of his life in Lisbon and in the 
Azores, and there are some striking correspondences in their 
careers, if we accept the usual accounts. They were bom and 
died in the same year. Each lived for a while on an Atlantic 
island, the Nuremberger at Fayal, and the Genoese at Porto 
Santo ; and each married the daughter of the governor of his 
respective island. They pursued their nautical studies at the 
same time in Lisbon, and the same physicians who reported 
to the Portuguese king upon Columbus's scheme of westward 
sailing were engaged with Behaim in perfecting the sea astro- 

The account of the audience with the king which we find in 
the Historic is to the effect that Columbus finally 
and the king succcedcd iu induciug Joao to believe in the practical 
bility of a western passage to Asia ; but that the 
monarch could not be brought to assent to all the titular and 
pecuniary rewards which Columbus contended for as emolu- 
ments of success, and that a commission, to whom the monarch 
referred the project, pronounced the views of Columbus simply 
chimerical. Barros represents that the advances of Columbus 
were altogether too arrogant and fantastic ever to have gained 
the consideration of the king, who easily disposed of the Gen- 
oese's pretentious importunities by throwing the burden of de- 
nial upon a commission. This body consisted of the two physi- 
cians of the royal household, already mentioned, Roderigo and 
Josef, to whom was added Cazadilla, the Bishop of Ceuta. 

Vasconcellos's addition to this story, which he derived almost 
entirely from Kuy de Pina, Kesende, and Barros, is that there 


actually effected the passage of the Cape. This oou- 
had doubtless come through Home luission- 
of the Portuguese king, who in 1490 sent such miiidoDariM 
1 c«^itive message from Cairo. 

but mhik- the new exertions along the African coast, thus 
2k:-.rrt«*ntly instigated by Columbus, were making, what was 
j^^<i.iixiZ i>f hLi own westward scheme? 

T:.v «tory giies that it was by the advice of Cazadilla tliat the 
': "-^^xHTs^' king lent himself to an unworthy device. Tiwroitu- 
7--- m X* a prujei't to test the views of Columbus, and JUJ^'^^i^ 
:r ::: i.\ tlieni without paying him his prii'e. An out- ?uIi.^Jalf 
-ji- I hi!* intended voyage had been secured from ^'"i"™**"* 
^.r. 13 the investigation already mentioned. A curavoK under 

'^>z.'^ **{ a voyage to the Ca)>e de Venle Islands, was now 
:>•: xu iiv^l to search for the Cipango of Marc*o Polo, in the 
>-.::"& which Columbus had given it in his chart. The me r- 
^-.xr; i-raft !ttarti*d out, and buffete^l with head si'us and ancn-v 
V .-^.- wri;^ vmiiigh t4i emasculate what little eoura^^e the erew 
. — — »-il. Without the prop of convii-tion they desertoil their 

-•— .- jkiid n-tunietl. Once in jKirt. they be<;an io berate the 

-■ • ^- i*,r hi*) fu«>llianly scheme. In this way they siuii^Iit to 

- : . Ai» tlit'ir i>wn timidity. Tliis disclosed t«» Ci»liiiiil)ii'<i the 

.'. m. w '.:>-h ha«l )»een playetl u|><>n him. Such is tlif >u*i\ as 

:.r // ^r..ri» U'\\> it, and which has In-eii ad«»|»t«-d l>y Ui'irera 

\! :2ii- |H»iiit there ii* t4H» murh uiu-crtaiiity ri's|>ectin«; the 
nt^ of Columbus for even lii-^ rri'(liiloii<* bio*^- 

•11 1 1 1 I 1 *"l»»n'*'»»' 

>• iM till out the talf. It M'l'iiiN lo W aj^reetl in*.- r-r- 
. ritr- latter jwrt i»f MM hf Itt! 1 ortu;:al witli 
•^ \ which was Kii|ipiiMMl tn In- tirce>**ary to cM'a]H* the 
.. ^- iif the ;;overiinii*iit '•pii"*. Flirn' i-^ Ijc^ide Miuit» ira- 
r bfiit'viii;; tliat it \\:i^ :il-ii ui-ll fnr liiin to slinii aiTC'^t 
V't«, which had 1m rn im-Mi rtil in tin- di^ractions of his 


I ^^rv 14 no other :iuili>>i iT\ tli:iii K:iniM<«iii fur iN'lii-vini; \^ith 
- x that 1 iilinn'oii- li.i.'l iilnady l:iiil lii** |in»je«'t ji.i|.|--**i 
c#»^ tin- ;;i*%iTnnii lit ^A litima by !e!ti-r. and that he i'*i!i,n».u. i., 
^ wwui to n*«-nf«'i»«' it in |icrHf»n. That jMjwer was •••''•^ 
"'•It pre«>^«*d ^itli nii«>f<irtnneH at tlii!% time, ami is said to have 

UHis i.K.i\Ks runrinAL mi: sr.nx. 

'. ami aftiT liuviii<; f:illi-ii into :i niiti it 
Diikf iif M.iiitiH-usiiT ill IkV'i. A r.-c(-ni i 
ilii- n-.tor»tii>u "iii<HltTiii/i-<l. whiii-waslii-il. 
■Ill- n-fiinii^liiii;; nf tlif iiilt rior i^ ilt-si-iili.- 

■ar." .-veil ill l)i. II .if iu fii:ir. wli.iv tlu 

]mnrait of ('••liniiliii.s uiiil jiii-tiins <>f si 

Perez ilf Man-Iu-iiii. vn< at llir tiim- ot 
'lumliu-t th<- ]iriiir nf tl»' i-niuciit. ^, ,, 
iitmfted l>y till- si-viiL' :il ilic ^ali', '■'"' 
it iv[rv»liiii{; tlu- vaj^niut tiLivt.'lLis. iiin 

il as 


declined to entertain his proposals. It may be the applicant 
was dismissed contemptuously, as is sometimes said. It is not, 
however, as Harrisse has pointed out, till we come down to 
Cassoni, in his Annals of Genoa^ published in 1708, that we 
find a single Genoese authority crediting the story of this visit 
to Genoa. Harrisse, with his skeptical tendency, does not 
believe the statement. 

Eagerness to fill the gaps in his itincfrary has sometimes 
induced the supposition that Columbus made an 
TUttoVen- equally unsuccessful offer to Venice; but the state- 
ment is not found except in modern writers, with no 
other citations to sustain it than the recollections of some one 
who had seen at some time in the archives a memorial to this 
effect made by Columbus. Some writers make him at this time 
also visit his father and pi-ovide for his comfort, — a belief 
not altogether consonant with the supposition of Columbus's es- 
cape from Portugal as a debtor. 

Irving and the biographers in general find in the death of 
The death of Coluuibus's wif c a Severing of the ties which bound 
huwife. jjjj^ ^ Portugal; but if there is any truth in the 
tumultuous letter which Columbus wrote to Doiia Juana de la 
Shown to be Torrc in 1500, he left behind him in Portugal, when 
uncertain, j^^ fl^j j^^^ ^i^^in, a wifc and children. If there is 

the necessary veracity in the Hlstorie^ this wife had died before 
he abandoned the country. That he had other children at this 
time than Diego is only known through this sad, ejaculatory 
epistle. If he left a wife in Portugal, as his own words aver, 
Harrisse seems justified in saying that he deserted her, and 
in the same letter Colitmbus himself says that he never saw her 
again. This letter is a sequel to a better known epistle. 

Ever since a physician of Palos, Garcia Fernandez, gave his 
conrentof testimony in the lawsuit through which, after Colum- 
Rabida. bus's death, his son defended his titles against the 
Crown, the picturesque story of the convent of Kabida, and the 
aj>pearance at its gate of a forlorn traveler accompanied by a 
little boy, and the 8uj>j>lication for bread and water for the 
child, has stood in the lives of Columbus as the opening scene 
of his career in Spain. 

This Franciscan convent, dedicated to Santa Maria de Ra- 
bida, stooil on a height within sight of the sea, very near the 


(0WB of Palo*, and after having fallen into a ruin it was 
mtoreil bv the Ditke of Montpenaier in 1855. A recent trav- 
eler ha« found thin restm^tion *' modernitefl, whitevashed, and 
fortiim." while the refurnishing of tlie interior is described as 
~ paltiT and valgar," even in the cell of its friar, where the vi^ 
iii>r nnw finds a portrait of Colunibtu and pictures of scenes 
IB bin carver. 

Thill friar, .Tnan Perez de Marchena, was at the time of the 
Mpponed riiiit of ("oluiubus the prior of the convent. rnuMu- 
and tiring caimallr attracted by the scene at the gate, '^*^ 
wiwrr the porter was refreshing the vagrant travelers, and by 

'■ir foreign arecnt of tlio "(ran^^i^r. ho ciitiTttl into talk with the 
'■irr of ibf-m ami iMinxil hiH n.iiiK-. C'liliiinbus »lsii told him 

;ui he was Itmiml to Hiii-lva to tind tl»- 1 f ••m- .Miiliar. 

1 >|miiard wb» luul iiiarritil the yi>nii;;i'>l >i!>tt'r iif \\\* wife. 
T>» atarr gmii furtlH-r that thr fri.-tr w»h mtl nitiiiforiiiitl in the 
-' 4B»»t:niphic>al L>n> of the tiiiif, h:wl imi! Ih.-u nii<)l>M-rvant of 
tiiv maritime intelligcuci- wliJrh h:i<l iiittiiritUy )h->-ii rife in th<> 
:ri-hbnriag seaport uf I'aluM, und ItatI ki'|>t w.iti'h nf tbc rm-ont 


progress in geographical science. He was accordingly able to 
appreciate the interest which Columbus manifested in such 
subjects, as he unfolded his own notions of still greater discov- 
eries which might be made at the west. Keeping the wanderer 
and his little child a few days, Marchena invited to the convent, 
to join with them in discussion, the most learned man whom the 
neighborhood afforded, the physician of Palos, — the very one 
from whose testimony our information comes. Their talkr 
were not without reenforcements from the experiences of some of 
the mariners of that seaport, particularly one Pedro de Yelasco. 
who told of manifestation of land which he had himself seen, 
without absolute contact, thirty years before, when his ship had 
been blown a long distance to the northwest of Ireland. 

The friendship formed in the convent kept Columbus there 
amid congenial sympathizers, and it was not till some time in the 
winter of 1485-86, and when he heard that the Spanish sover- 
eigns were at Cordoba, gathering a foi*ce to attack the Moors in 
Granada, that, leaving behind his boy to be instructed 
goes to Cor. m the convent, Columbus started for that city, xle 
went not without confidence and elation, as he bore a 
letter of credentials which the friar had given him to a friend, 
Fernando de Talavera, the prior of the monastery of Prado, and 
confessor of Queen Isabella. 

This story has almost always been placed in the opening of 
the career of Columbus in Spain. It has often in sympathizing 
hands pointed a moral in contrasting the abject condition of 
those days with the proud expectancy under which, some years 
later, he sailed out of the neighboring harbor of Palos, within 
eyeshot of the monks of Rabida. Irving, however, as he ana- 
lyzed the reports of the famous trial already referred to, was 
Doubts quite sure that the events of two visits to Rabida had 
tSto* l^een unwittingly run into one in testimony given 
^^^"^"^ after so long an interval of years. It does indeed 
seem that we must oitlier apply this evidence of 1518 and 1515 
to a later visit, or else we must determine that tiiere was great 
similarity in some of the incidents of the two visits. 

The date of 1491, to which Harrisse pushes the incidents for- 
ward, depends in part on the evidence of one Rodriguez Cobe- 
zudo that in 1513 it was about twenty-two years since he had 
lent a mule to Juan Perez de Marchena, when he went to Santa 


Fr froiu Kabida to interpofie for Columbus. The testimony of 
(rareui Fertianilei is that this visit of Marehena took place 
after C olumbus had once been rebuffed at court, and the words 
of the witness indicate that it was on that visit when Juan 
Prrex asked Columbus who he was and whence he came ; show- 
m^, perhaps, that it was the first time Perez had seen Colum- 
bus. Acconlingly this, as well as the mule story, points to 
141*1. Hut that the cin*unistances of the visit which Garcia Fer- 
aantlez rec^ounts may have belonged to an earlier visit, in jiart 
oaofounded aft4*r fifteen years with a later one, may yet be not 
beyond a possibility. It is to be remembered that tlie I/isto- 
nr ftiieaks of two visitm one later than that of 1484. It is not 
T u> see that all the testimony whirh Ilarrisse introduced to 
e the visit of 1491 tlie first and only visit of Columbus 
to the convent is sufficient to do more than render the case prob* 

We determine the exact date of the entering of Columbus 
mto the service of S|iain to be January 20, 148ti, from i^^ ^^ 
a record of his in his journal on shipboard under !^^o( 
Jannark* 14, 1493, where he says that on the 20th of '>*^ 
the \ame month he would have been in their Highnesses* service 
ja«i ««ven years. We find almost as a matter of oourse other 
frtatroientA nf his which give somewliat diffen*nt dates by dedui*- 
tiLio. Two statements of Columbus agnving would U> a little 
»a*picioiis. Certain |)ayments on the {Kirt of tht* (^rowns of 
t aAtale mnA Aragon do not seem to have liegiui, however, till 
tte next year, or at least we have no earlier rtH^ord of such than 
Oil Mav 5, 1487, and from tluit date on thev were maile at 
forest intervals, till an interruption came, as will be later 

In Spain the Christ4>foni C<domU> of (ienoaehoM* to call him- 
•rlf C^risloral Colon, and the JliMonr iAU uh tliat he 
Miozfat nerelv to make his dosivndants distinet of nuneui 
from their n>mote kin. He argu«*4l tluit the Uik 

name was Colonun, which reatlilv was transformed to a 
^fanish equivmlt^nL InuHinuoh an the Duke of Me<Iina-Celi, 
•ho kept C*olumbus in hin houHi* for two y«»ar4 during the early 
Vf«r« of his Spanish n^nidence, ealU him Ci»lonio in 14t**l, and 
t>Twlo «-mlls him C o1«mu, it in a (piestion if he ehi)H«' tlie form of 
lirf<»rp be be«*ame famous by bin vovair«*. 


The Genoese had been for a long period a privileged people 
The oenoew ^^ Spain, dating such acceptance back to the time of 
in Spain. g^.^ Ferdinand. Navarrete has instanced numerous 
confirmations of these early favors by successive monarchs down 
to the time of Columbus. But neither this prestige of his birth- 
right nor the letter of Friar Perez had been sufficient to secure 
in the busy camp at Cordoba any recognition of this otherwise 
unheralded and humble suitor. The power of the sovereigns 
was overtaxed already in the engrossing preparations wbicli the 
Court and army were making for a vigorous campaign against 
the Moors. The exigencies of the war carried the sovereigns, 
sometimes together and at other times apart, from point to point. 
Siege after siege was conducted, and Talavera, whose devotion 
had been counted upon by Columbus, had too much to occupy 
his attention, to give ear to propositions which at best he deemed 

We know in a vague way that while the Court was thus 
coiumbu* withdrawn from Cordoba the disheartened wanderer 
in Cordoba, remained in that city, supporting himself, accord- 
ing to Bemaldez, in drafting charts and in selling printed 
rbooks, which Harrisse suspects may have been publications, 
such as were then current, containing calendars and astronom- 
ical predictions, like the Jjunarios of Granollacb and Andres 
de Li. 

It was probably at this time, too, that he made the acquaint- 
Makes ac- ^"^c of Alonso dc Quintauilla, the comptroller of the 
quaiuuncea. fijjances of Castilc. He attained some terms of friend- 
ship with Antonio Geraldini, the papal nuncio, and his brother, 
Alexander Geraklini, the tutor of the royal children. It is 
claimed that all these friends became interested in his projects, 
and were advocates of them. 

We are told by Las Casas that Columbus at one time gath- 
writes out ^^^^ and placcd in order all the varied manifestations, 
of a w^tern ^s hc conceivcd them, of some such transatlantic region 
^""""^ as his theory demanded ; and it seems probable that 

this task was done during a period of weary waiting in Cor- 
doba. We know nothinc^, however, of the manuscript except 
as Las Casas and the TTistorie have used its material, and 
through them some of the details have been gleaned in the pre- 
ceding chapter. 


These acecMions of friends, aided doubtlem by dome Hueli sys- 
tefnlation of the knowledge to be brought to the que»- 
txio aji thiA lust manuscript implies* opened the way to 
an arquaintance with Pedro (lonzales de Mendoza, Archbishop 
ol Tcjetio and Grand Canlinal of S|)ain. This prelate, from 
thr confidence which the sovereigns ])laced in him, was known 
m Martyr's phrase as ^^ the third king of S|)ain/' and it could 
bat lie seen by Columbus that his 8ym|)athies were essential to 
borcfsrt of plans so far rc*aching as his own. Tlie cardinal 
sriBritms in his intercourse, and by no means inaccessible to 
mmrh a suitor as Columbus ; but he was educated in the exclusive 
spirit of the prevailing theology, and he had a keen scent for 
ytbtng that might be supposed heterodox. It provetl neces- 
T for the thought of a spherical earth to rest some time in 
kft» mind, till his ruminations could bring him to a perception of 
truths of science. 

to the reports which Oviedo giv<^ us, the seed 
C«»lumbus sowed, in his various talks with the cardinal, 
IB doe time germinated, and the constant mentor of , .^^ ,|^ ^^ 
the sovereigns was at last brought to pre|mre the ^/l^l' 
tw, w> that Columbus could have a nnal audience. ^^•'"■*>«^ 
Tba« it was that Columbus finally got the ear of Fenlinand, at 
>»Lunanca, whither the monart*hs had come for a winter's so- 
*<sm after the turmoils of a summer's cani|)aign against the 

W*- cannot proce<Nl farther in this narrative without under- 
ling, in the light of all tlie early and lat«* evidence n.«„rton 

»ii^h nr have, what kind of Wings these sovereigns ^^Jj^J^ 
of Aragon and l^astile were, with whom Columbus ^***^ 
V3M to have so much intercourse in the vears to come. Fenii- 
sAikii and Isabella, the wean*rs of the cnmns 4»f Aragon and 
< aatilr, were linke<1 .in iH>mmon inten»sts. and their joint n»ign 
xmI aa;nir%*«l ^ |K>werful. lMM*auN4* united, S|>ain. The Htu<Ient t>f 
tbrtr rharaclers, as he works among tlu* d<K*umentH of the time, 
"aaaoC avcMtl the recognition of 4|uaiiti4*4 litth* ealcuhite<l to sat- 
miy dnuands for nobleness and devotion which th«* worhl has 
tr%romd to associate with royal «»bligati(»nH. It may In* jMisHibly 
*mm» mneh to sav that habitiiallv. but nf»t too niu<*h to a>s«*rt 
tikat •■ften, these Siianinh motian'iiH Wfn* nion* n^ady at |M*rfidy 
d«vcit than even an allowance for the t«*aehiiigs of their 


time would permit. Often the student will find himself forced 
to grant that the queen was more culpable in these respects 
than the king. An anxious inquirer into the queen's ways is 
not quite sure that she was able to distinguish between her own 
interests and those of God. The documentary researches of 
Bergenroth have decidedly lowered her in the judgments of 
those who have studied that investigator's results. We need 
to plead the times for her, and we need to push the plea very 

^^ Perhaps," says Helps, speaking of Isabella, ^^ there is hardly 
any great personage whose name and authority are 
found in connection with so much that is strikingly 
evil, all of it done, or rather assented to, upon the highest and 
purest motives." To palliate on such grounds is to believe in 
the irresponsibility of motives, which should transcend times 
and occasions. 

She is not, however, without loyal adulators of her own time 
and race. 

We read in Oviedo of her splendid soul. Peter Martyr 
found commendations of ordinary humanity not enough for her. 
Those nearest her person spoke as admiringly. It is the for- 
tune, however, of a historical student, who lies beyond the in- 
fluence of personal favor, to read in archives her most secret 
professions, and to gauge the innermost wishes of a soul which 
was carefully posed before her contemporaries. It is mirrored 
to-day in a thousand revealing lenses that were not to be seen 
by her contemporaries. Irving and Prescott simply fall into 
the adulation of her servitors, and make her confessors responsi- 
ble for her acquiescence in the expulsion of the Jews and in 
the horrors of the Inquisition. 

The king, perhaps, was good enough for a king as such per- 
sonages went in the fifteenth century ; but his smiles 

Ferdinand. ^ . .. •!# ii* 

and remorseless coldness were mixed as few could mix 
them, even in those days. If the Pope regarded him from 
Italy, that Holy Father called him pious. The modem student 
finds him a bigot. His subjects thought him great and glori- 
ous, but they did not see his dispatches, nor know his sometimes 
baleful domination in his cabinet. The French would not trust 
him. The English watched his ambition. The Moors knew 
him as their conqueror The Jews fled before his evil eye. 


Thr minermUe maw him in Ihm inquiHiturs. All thiM pleased the 
Po|Mr, mnd the |ki}ni1 will made him in preferred phrase His 
Mfi«t i^atholic Majesty, — a phrase that rings in diplooiatio 
formalities UmUv. 

Kver}* purpose u|M)n which he iiad set his heart was apt to 
blind him to aught else, and at times ver}' conveniently so. We 
may allow that it is precisely this single mind which makes a 
'>>n«piruous name in history : but conspicuousness and justness 
a*» Oi>t always march with a loi*ked step. 

He had, of course, virtues that slume when the sun shou& 
H«* cvmld be etpuible. He knew how to work steadily, to eat 
■ki«ieraii*ly, and to dress simply. He was enterprising in his 
ATtkmtt. as the M(M>rs an<I heretics found out. I le did not ex- 
money ; he only extorteil agoniztnl confessions. I le heard 
and prayed cnpially well for (fod*s Ix^netliction on evil 
^ im g«MMl things. He uiaile promises, and then got the papal 
•ti«|ien<iation to bn*ak them. He juggled in state policy as his 
mttnl ohangeil, and he workeil his craft very readily. Machia- 
irlli woukl liav«* liked this in him, and indeed he was a good 
«-holar of an exi?«ting school, which counteil the act of outwit- 
Mnz betu*r tlian the arts of honesty : and |K*rhaps the world is 
>< litftier in the pur|Mmes of stati't'raft to-day. He got people 
'•^ bimirv him« but ft^w to hive him. 

Tbf rt^^ult of an audicm*e with the king was that the proj- 
•^'U «if C'olumbuH wen* (*ommitt4Ht to Tahivera^ to l»e 

C<4tt w Inm*b 

ojnI I»t him iM'fiire surh a ImnIv of wi.M* mm as the virw«r««. 
rrv>r ccHikl inther in c«>uncil. Ijim savs that t»u««^ 

ami n|Wr» 

thr rooMderatiou of the plans was entru^^te^l to ^* tvr- 
iLio perwins of the (^»urt/* and li«* enumenites Canlinal Men- 
vca« IHego de lX*za, Alonso de (\inlen:is« and Juan Cabrero, 
*,*r mval cbamU-rlain. The miH'tini: was s(*eminslv held in the 
viatrr of 148l»-><7. Tlie ('atlu»Hc writ4*rs atvuse Irving, and ap- 
itij with right, of an unwarrant4*<l assumption of the iui- 
of what lie calls the (\Hnu*il at S:daman<*:i, and thev 
tmi b»* has no authority for it. cxct*pt a writer on«* Atsau. 
tosArJn^ and twentv vearn aftt-r thr event, who ni«'n- "*"'*"•• 
^4M the matter but iiicid«*ntallv. This soun'e \\as Heni«*s:ir8 
//ii#'/ri«« de ChytifHi { Madrid, Itill^). an aciMiiint of on«* of the 
provinces. TIm'H' s*»«'nis no n*a<on to •«ii)i|M>se tliat 
it was anything nion* tluin mmii** inforitrd i'onfen*n4*e 


thrown much light upon the relations which the cosmographical 
views of its principsd character bore to the opinions then pre- 
vailing in learned circles of Spain. We know what the His- 
tories Bernaldez, and Las Casas tell us of Columbus's advocacy, 
but we must regret the loss of his own language and his own 
way of explaining himself to these learned men. Such a paper 
would serve a purpose of showing how« in this period of coura- 
geous and ardent insistence on a physical truth, he stood man- 
fully for the light that was in him; and it would afford a 
needed foil to those pitiful aberrations of intellect which, in 
the years following, took possession of him, and which were so 
constantly reiterated with painful and maundering wailing. 

Discarding, then, the array of argument which Irving borrows 
from Eemesal, and barely associating a little conference, in 
which Columbus is a central figure, with that St. Stephen's 
convent whose wondrous petrifactions of creamy and reticu- 
lated stone still hold the admiring traveler, we must accept 
nothing more about its meetings than the scant testimony 
which has come down to us. It is pleasant to think how it was 
here that the active interest which Diego de Deza, a Dominican 
Find fftTor f 1*1^1*9 finally took in the cause of Columbus may have 
withDexa. ^^ j^ beginning; but the extent of our positive 
knowledge regarding the meeting is the deposition of Rodri- 
guez de Maldonado, who simply says that several learned &en 
and mariners, hearing the arguments of Columbus, decided 
they could not be true, or at least a majority so decided, and 
that this testimony against Columbus had no effect to convince 
him of his errors. This is all that the " Junta of Salamanca " 
meant. A minority of unknown size favored the advocate. 

When the spring of 1487 came, and the court departed to 

Cordoba, and began to make preparations for the 
Court at campaign against Malaga, there was no hope that the 

considerations which had begun in the learned ses- 
sions at Salamanca would be followed up. Columbus seems to 
have journeyed after the Court in its migrations : sometimes 

lured by pittances doled out to him by the royal 
renders, treasurer ; sometimes getting pecuniary assistance from 

his new friend, Diego de Deza ; selling now and then 
a map that he had made, it may be : and accepting hospitality 


where he could get it, from such m Alonso de QiUDtaniUa. In 
UwM wmndciiag dsyi, he wu for a while, at least, ia attendaDoe 
oa the Court, tlien lurroonded with military parade, before the 

, ^• 



WifiL . — II 

1 ^^^»'° 




Maoriifa atront^ioU at Malu;;». The town Hurrendrred on Au- 
fwt IH. 1487. and tbv Court thpn rrtumMl lu Cordoba. 


the autumn of 1487, at Cordoba, that Columbus 
1 into sui^h an intimacy as apousehood only can sauo- 
ri with a i>er8on of ^wyX eouilition as to birth, but 
ir in tbe worlds goods. Whether this relation bad | 

sanction of the Church or not has been a subject < 
liry aud opinion. The class of French writers, who 
<j secure the canonization of C-olumbus, hav<? found 
» clear tbe moral character of Columbus from every 
liey confidently assert, aud doubtless tbitdc tliey < 
othiug but conjugal right is manifest in this eon- 
questiou which the Church will in due time have to 
ever brings itself to the recognition of the saintly 
the great discoverer. Even the ardent supporters 
of beatification are forced to admit that there is no 
,ch a marriage. No contemporary recognition of ' 
ju is evinced by any family ceremonies of baptism 
nd there is no mention of a wife in all the transao- 

erowniug endeavors of his life. As viceroy, at a 
■ constantly appears with no attendant viceKiueen. 
itcly out of sight until Columbus makes a signifi- 


rvconi the one which was indisputably legal, and whose fruit 
»a!» l>icgo, the Admiral's successor. The lawful son was di- 
r\-i-ted by Columbus, when starting on his third voyage, to pay 
tu Bt^atrix ten thousand maravedis a year ; but he seems to have 
nt^lect4*«l t4> do so for the last three or four years of her life. 
I>ie<;o finally onleretl these arrears to be paid to her lieirs. I.«as 
t 'asas distinctly H|M*aks of Fenlinand as a natural son, and Las 
I'asas had the best of op|M>rtunities for knowing whereof he 

While all this stiH|icnse and amorous intrifni® v^>^ P^'rp'^^^^ls 
tht^ anient thei>rist. he id supiMst^l t4> have ilis|)atcheil cuiiuabu. 
hi<» brother liartholumew to Knglantl to disclose his f^Jl^lSj^ 
pn*jti*t* to Henry VII. Ilakluyt, in his WvMrrne *^*»'**' 
P'*intuiff^ t^'lls us that it ** made nnich for the title of the kings 
••f Kn^land " to the New World that Ilenry VII. gave a ready 
a«^**rptance to the theory of (\dunibus as st*t f«>rth somewhat 
(aniily by his brother lisirtliolomew, when escaping Reuiioo^ »» 
fn>m the detention of the pirates, he was at last able, o*il^,'?,f 
on Frbruarv 13, 14HH, t<i otfer in Kndanil his s.a- ^'^^^^ 
r*ar^l. emboilying Christopher's tlii*ories, f«»r the royal considera- 

William ('a«*t«'ll, in hi** S/ntrt Dlsmnn/ nf A/nt-rint^ savs 
tiiat llirnry VII. ** unhappily iffiiMMi to )»e at any charp* in 
th«- <liM*i>vt-ry, r«iip|>4><«iii!^ thi* IranuMi (\ihnnbus to build castles 
in thf air." It is a rniunion storv that Ilcnrv tinallv brou;;ht 
himM*lf to acot^le to thi* ini)Nirtunitif.s (»f HarthoIonu'W, but only 
at a late day. and aftt-r ('hri<*top)ier had efFect<Hl his cimquest 

• »f the Spaiii^ih Court. Culunibus |iinis«*If is cnsiit4Hl with s:ty- 
ir.'Z that Ilenry artiially \\ri>te him a h*tt4*r of a(*c<*ptance. This 
•-pi^tlt* ^li-* very likrly a fruition of th«> new inipuis«'s to <K*eanie 

^••-i»\vry whirh the pn'»ii'ii<M». a littU latrr, of the Ve- Thi«c*biii« 
x.ftian C:i!N»tH, wan making; rurn'ut anion;; the Kujj- ^»*^*~»'*- 
li«h %a)liip« : for flohu Calntt ami \u> si»iis, (»ne of whom, S«*b:is- 
Ti^n. U-in;; at that tiui«* a youth of hi\t«*fii or s«*v«*nt<H*n, lutd, 
2o*i'niini; to tlif U*M t«"«tinion\. rMablishrtI a home in Kristid, 
ti t far from 141^1. 

If the n*|>4irt of the Spanish envoy in Kn;rl:ti>d t4i his sover- 

• <^n« i%r«irrect as to dat«-'«. it wai^ near this tim<> that thi* HriMid 
in«-ri-hantA were renewin;^ their quests oi*eanwanl for the island •« 



lid the Seven Cities. We have seen that these 
othera had for some time appeared on the conjec- 
of the Athiutic, and very likely they had appeared 
^a,i-d shown by Bartholomew Columbus to Henry 
e efforts may perhapg have been in a measure 
)- that faet. At all events, any hazards of further 
[oration could be met with greater heart if each could he found in mid ocean. Of the re- 
is wliieh Bartliolomew may have made to his brother < 
olnt^ty nothing, and he sei'ms not to have returned 
after a sojourn in France which ended in 1494. 
ieved by Irving that Columbus, having opened a 
respondence with the Portuguese king i-especting a 
urn to the service of that country, had received 
m that monarch an episUe, dated March 20, 1488, 
was permitted to come back, with the offer of pro- 
ist any suit of civil or criminal nature, and that this 
-liued. We arc left to eonjectui-e of what suits of 
le could have been apprehensive, 
commends the sagacity of Navarrete in discerning 


It wms very likely subseqaent to this last event that Co- 
loinbos crossed the Spanish frontier into Portugal, if Harrisse's 
view of his crossing at all be accepted. His stay was without 
doabt a short one, and from 1489 to 1492 there is every indica- 
tion that he never left the Spanish kingdom. 

We know on the testimony of a letter of Luis de la Cerda, 
tlie Duke of Medina-Celi, given in Navarrete, that for iHak«of 
two years after the arrival of Columbus from Portu- JJjJSjJ^** 
gml be had been a guest under the duke*8 roof in Co- ^^"■**^ 
guUudo, and it seems to I larrisse probable that this gracious 
help on the part of the duke was bestowed after the return to 
Spain. All that we know with certainty of its date is that it 
occurred before the first voyage, the duke himself mentioning 
it in a letter of March 19, 1493. 

It was not till May, 1489, when the court was again at Cor- 
Aahtu according to Diego Ortiz de ZuHiga, in his work ^^g^ q^ 

lie, that the sovereigns were gracious enough ofSZd 


Id onler Columbus to ap{)ear there, when they fur- ^^<*'*<*^ 
Buhed him lodgings. They also, perhaps, at the same time, 
L4Mwd a general onler, dated at Cordoba May 12, in which all 
cities and towns were <lire<*te<l to fuminh suitable acconimoda- 
tioQs to ColunibuH and bin attendants, ina.smuch as he was 
KKimeying in the royal S4»rvioe. 

The vear 1489 was a hazanlons but fniitftd one. The sover- 
•-i^T*** were pushing vij^onmsly their c^onquest of the M(H>r. Isa- 
l»-lla hf rs4»lf attemiiHl tlu* army, and may have api^eannl in the 
(vleaguering lines about IW^, in one of those suits of 

... •Ill 1 r/-** Colwnlwi* •! 

Ani»«>r which are still shown to travelers. Zuniga tb*aktrrt»( 

that C^dumbus arniye<l hiniM*lf among the oom- 
batantA« and was tloubtless aiHpiaint^Hl with the mission of two 
friar* who hail U^en gitanlians of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusa- 
These priests arrive<l during the sii»gf, bringing 

a Mrtsige from tin* (irand S<ilt]an of Kg>'pt, in which tii^H<>iy 
that potentate' threatem^l to d(*stn>v all (liristians 
within his grasp, unK^ss the war against (tnmsula should be 
•(oppFiL The point of driving the M<»ors from S)>ain was too 
nftmrir reachetl for such a threat to 1h* effective, and Isabella 
4erre«d the annual payment of a thousand ducats to supi^rt the 
faithf ol custodians of the Sepulchre, and S4*nt a veil embroidered 
with her own hand to decorate the shrine. Irving traces to 


BcaDce the impulse, which Columbus frequently in later 
ll, to devote the auticipated wealth of the Indies tu a 
I'alestiue, to recover and pi-otect the Holy Sepulchre. 
Iialgu closed with the surrender on December 22 of 
i fortress of Baza, when Sjiain receive<i from Muley 
B>abdil, the elder of the rival Moorish kings, all the 
■litory whifh he elaitued to have in his power. In 
|490, Fei'diiiand and Isabella entered Seville in tri- 
a season of hilarity and a]>lendor followed, signal- 
spring' by the celebration with great jubilation of 
<^ of the Princess Isabella with Don jVlonzo, the heir 
I of PortugaL These engrossing scenes were little 
ive Columbus a chance to pi-ess his projects on the 
ioon found nothing could be done to get the far- 
i of the monarchs till some respites occuri-ed in 
)ns for their final campaign against the younger 
. It was at this time, as Irving and others have 
ft[ijectured, that the eonsideratioa of the project of a 
.■stem passage, which had lieen dropjwd when events 
ived the Court from Salamanca, was again taken up 
lu.stigators as Talavera had scnunioned, and again the 





•xtmJu^ Ii>b»«.g»ni«iao( bop. lainpaMl tint tlxjnds- ■ 
>■> bad nniml turn >dnne i»lor b punng Oamth Ttit- ■ 





1 CllBKIl 

■l da am cI.UI1i.k nj. 
■mIvw. With'U>l>»l i-ti 

lAL or imux 

h4 to Srvillr, )mt only U> 



•erving the Crown not so much as vassab as sympathetic 
helpers in its wars. They were depended upon to recruit the 
armies from their own trains and de|)endents ; money came 
fnMn their chests, provisions from their estates, and ships from 
their own marine ; their hmdetl patrimonies, indeed, covered 
Vmg ilretches of the coast, whose harbors sheltered their con- 
■iilorahk) navies. Such were the dukes of Medina-Sidonia and 
Medisft-CelL Columbus found in them, however, the ^^^^^^ 
rarineas which he had experienced at the donUnMi 
eoart. There was a willingness to listen : they 
toaad aome lares in the great hopes of Eastern wealth which 
Columbus, but in the end there wa.s the same disap- 
One of them, the Duke of MeiUna-Celi, at last 
adroitly parried the importunities of Columbus, by averring 
that the project deserved the royal patronage rather tlum his 
■icanrr aid. He, however, told the suitor, if a farther applica 
tion alioald be maile to the Crown at some more opportune mo- 
mtnU he woold labor with the queen in its behalf. The duke 
kept hie word, and we get much of what we know of bis interest 
ta Goltunbos from the information given by one of the duke*s 
to Las CaHa.s. Tliis differs so far as to make the 
perhaps as I larrinse thinks in the H]M'ing of 14i^l, actually 
fit oat aone caravels for the mm* of ColuniluiH ; but when seek- 
tagmrojal license, lie w:lh iiifonneil that the qn«^Mi bail deter- 
to embark in the ent4*rpris4» liers4*lf. Su<>h a decision 
t» cmrry this part of the story, at h>ast. forwanl to a time 
Columbus was suniuioncNl frtini H:il»ida. 
A eoosultation which now t<K>k place at the convent of !{» 
affords particulars which the historians have o^umiwi «& 
difficulty, as alrt*.i(ly stat*^!, in keeping distinct *^''*^ 
of an earlier visit, if there was sut*h. (*olumbns, ac- 
to the usiu&l st<»rv, vi>itett the <*iinv«>iit appan^ntly in 
Oet o her or NovemU'r. 14**1, with the pur|M»s4» of rcclainiin;^ his 
mm Diego« and taking liini to Cortl<il».i. where lie nii«;ht U^ left 
*idl Ferdinand in the char^ce of th«' latt«'r*s mother. Coluni- 
(i«» himself iutendetl to pass to France, to s«'e if a lett4*r, whit'h 
i-*d bera receive«l from the kin;^«>f France, niifjlit |N>ssibly o|M'n 
'•br «ay to the fultillnient of his gn*at tio|H*s. It is repres4*nte<l 
'•kkl it was this expresMMl intention of aban«l«inin;; Spain which 
M ^< i »^ the patriotism of Man'liena. who nmlertook to pn*vent 


■. We derive what we know of Iiia method of pre- 
■iition from the testimony of Garcia Fernandez, the 
lysician of Paloa, who ha^ been cited in respect to 
iL- jdleged earlier visit. This witnesa says that he was 
ti> Kabida to confer with Columbus. It is also made 
I' story that tlie head of a family of famous uaviga- 
os, Martin AIoubo Pinzoii, was likewise drawn into " 
le little company assembled by tlie friar to consider 
le new situation. Pinzon readily gave his adherence 
s of Columbus, It is claimed, however, that the 
: Pinzon is disproved by documents ahowing him to 
[i Kome at this time. 

.d voyage of Jean Cousin, iu 1488, two years and 
ore before this, from Dieppe to the coast of Brazil, ' 
here brought iu by certain French writers, like E*. , 
iiieelin and Gaffarel, as throwing some light on the | 
uf Columbus and Pinzon, later if not now. It must , 
u.lged that few other than French writers have cred- 
age at all. Major, who gave the story careful ex- ! 
utterly discredits it. It is a part of the story that 
. a Castiliau, accompanied Cousin as a pilot, and this 


luiubttm in the famous suit of the Admiral's heirs, he could 
hardly, for any reason which the Fi-eiich writers aver, have 
Dt-|;lec*t<*d so important a piece of evidence as the fact of the 
i ousin voyage and his connection witli it, if there had been any 
truth in it. So we must be content, it is pretty clear, in 
rliaq^iu;^ Fiuzon*s conversion to the views of Cohunbus at Ua- 
bida u|M»n the eftic;icy of C'olumbits's ar^nuents. This i*uit,NiMa. 
^noivss of Columbus brought some substantial fruit ^'"*»*"»*'*»^ 
in the promise whii*h Pinzon now nuide to bear the ex{)enses 
xtl a r(*iiewe«l suit to Ferdinand and IsaU^lhi. 

A i*iim*hision to tlie deliberation of tliis little circle in the 
o'UTont was soon reachiHl. Columbus tlircw his cause into the 
iiai)d!« of his friends, and a<xreeti to ivst (|uictly in the convent 
while tlit'y pressetl his chiims. Pt^ivz wrote a letter of supplica- 
:iuu to the (jutHMi, and it was dispatched by a iX'S]>ect:ible navi- 
J3^>r tif the neij;hlH>rluHHl, St»bastian Kotlrigucz. lie a,„iR,jri. 
fiMiml t lie Queen in the city of Sunt^i Fc, which h:ul S^JTiu^'FtV*' 
;,Timn up in the military surroundings befon* the city jy.rto*tte 
ifi tirunada, whose siej^e the Spanish aruiies wen* then **"'"'" 
l^n-^-^inj:. The cpi^tlc was op]M)rtuuc, for it rccnfoive«l one 
■ hit-h .hIic luid already received from the l)ukc of Mi'diiia-CVIi, 
«ht» hail Imvu faithful to his prouiiM- to Coluuibiis, and whti. 
>i;nii;: from a Ictt^'r which he \\n»tt> at a later da\, Marcli 1\K 
:4'.***. t4M>k to hiniM'lf not a little credit that he had thus lieen 
.:<i.«trum«*nt:d, a.^ he thouixht, in preventin;^ Columbus throw- 
it* j hiui.M-lf int4» the M-rxiee of France. The n-sidt was that 
:ij»- pilot t<»ok bsick to Kabida an intimation ti» Marchcna that 
:..^ piVM'iK-e wouKl be welcome at Santa Ir. So niountin*; his 
mulr. after midnight, ft»urt4'cii days aft^T lunlripiez Manhriw 
:*»«l de|Kirt4-«L the friar followed tlie pilots tracks, '"""•' 
vhii'h l4H»k him thnMi^^h M»me of the re;;ion.N already contpiennl 
from the MiH>r>, and. n-acliin;; tlie Court, preM'Utcd liims4*lf 
• f*«rt- tlic Queen. Pen*/. i> s:iid to liave found a seconder in 
Lui« de Santan^el, a tis<'al otiieer of Arai^on. and in the Mar- 
LiifDC^H of Moya, one of the ladie*« i»f the liousehold. The friar 
-• thoa;;ht t<i have ur^ed hi> |H>tition so ^tron<;ly that the Queen, 
• hi» had all along been mon* o]M'n to the repn*senta- tii«> .luM-ti 
:ariat of 1 olumbus than Ferdinand had Imh'U, finally |',l),',*iiuV,.','.^ 
Mcrrmiiml to listen once more to the (ienoeM*'s ap- ""'"* 
f«-al«. I^*amiiig of the |NMir ))li|;lit of Columbus, .^he onieretl 


to be Heiit to him, to restore bis wardrobe and to 
iself with the conveniences of the journey. Perez, 
lie biick the hfijipy news, again returned to the 

Columbus under his protection. Thus once more 
iiope, and suitably aiTayed for appearing at Court, 
iilunibua, on his mule, early in December, 1491, 
(le Into the camp at Santa Fi^, where he was re- 
ived and provided with lodgings by the accountant- 
■neral. This officer was one whom he bad occasion 

remember, Aloiiso de Quintanilla, through whose 
Hces it was, in the end, that the Grand Cardinal of 
.lain, Mcndoza, was at this time brought into sym- 
itliy with tlie Genoese aspirant. 
events were still too imposing, however, for any im- 
fntioa to his projects, and he looked on with ad- 
id a reserved expectancy, while the grand parade 

the final submission of Boabdil the younger, the 
st of the Moorish kings, took place, and a lung pro- 
ssion of the magnificence of Spain moved forward ' 
■leaguering camp to receive the keys of the AJham- 
; succeeding wars for nearly eight centuries had now 

iMf n accepted, and Columbus was summoned to present his 

llere« when he seemed at Ust to be on the verge of sncoess, 
thr puor man, unused to good fortune, and mistaking 
iu token, repeateil the mistake which had driven him ofcoii 

u outcast from Portugal. His arrogant spirit led him 

&• magnify his ini|K>rtanee before he had proved it ; and he 

failed in the modesty which murks a conquering spirit. 

True scit*nce places no gratulations higher than those of its 
tf«u conscience. Co|H*niicus was at this moment delving into 
the M^'rets of nature like a nobleman of the universe. So he 
«taiids for all time in lofty contrast to the plebeian nature and 
•unlid cravings of his coutem{M)niry. 

When« at the very outset of the negotiations, Talavera found 
thi« uplifted suitor making demands that belonged rather to 
proved success than to a ctmtingent one, there was little pros- 
ppct of acctimmodation, unless one side or the other should aban- 
don its insitiun. If ( ulumbus's own words count for anything, 
be was conscious of lx*ing a laughing-stock, wliile he h^ p^ 
was making claims for office and cnuiluuieuts that wouKl '"***'^- 
»irtgage the power of a kingdom. A dranuitic instinct has in 
manv minds savetl (\»hinibus from the critical estimate of such 
pn-Mimptiiin. Irving and the Fn*nch ranonizcrs dwell on what 
strikes them :is constancy of pur|Misi» and luftiiii'ss of spirit. 
Hm-v marvel that |M»vi*rty, nci^li^'t, riiiicnlc, iNmtuiucIy, and dis- 
ft{>fiiitntmi*nt hiul not dwarfed hi> spirit. (\»hinil»us was to 
•uc^Yrt^l : but his sui*(*ess was an error in g«'<»graphy. and a fail- 
itr in |Hiliey and in morals. The (*i-own was yet to succumb: 
(•Qt its submission was to t*ntail niist*ries u|M)n Columbus and 
bM line* ami « reproach u|Mni SjKiin. Tlie outcome t«i C\>lumbus 
*aA to S|Miin istht* diivst «*oniiiient (»f all. 

^'olumbus would not aliatc one J4»t of his pret4*nsions, and an 
-r.i WEM put to the ne;;otiations. Making up his mind to carry 
ti* Miit to France, he left Conlobsi on his mule, in the begin- 
:.:n^ of Febniar}', 141*2. 




■ s, a dishearteued wanderer, with bis back turned on 
\e Spanish Court, his mule plodding the road to Cor. 
)ba, offered a. sad picture to the few adherents whom 
' had left behind. They had grown to have his 
>nfidence, but lacked his spirit to clothe an experi- 
ice witli aU the certainties of an accomplished fact, 
t of the departing theorist abandoning the country. 
o seek countenance at rival courts, stirred the Span- 
He and his friends had, in mutual counsels, pie- 
ealms of the Indies made tributary to the Spanish 
viis this conception of a chance so near fruition, and 


wmrrior of Aragon, with new conquests to regulate, with a treas- 
ury ilraincd almost to the last penny, would have little heart for 
xn undertaking in which his enthusiasm, if existing at all, had 
^ways been dull as inmipared with hers. She solved the diffi- 

• ulty in a flash. The voyage sliall be the venture of Castile 
a]«»ne. and it shall be undertaken. 

Onlers were at once given for a messenger to overtake Co 
. imhus. A horseman came up with him at the bridge 

• •I Pinus« two leagues from (iranaila. There was a broucM 
moment's hesitancy, as thoughts of cruelly protracted 

and suiipt*nded feelings in tlie past came over him. His deci- 
^m. however, was not stayed. He turned his nmle, and jour- 
DTTt^l b8ii*k to the city. Columbus was sought oni*e more, and 
m m way to give him the vantage which his imperious demands 
ofuld eaiiilv us*'. 

The interview with the Queen which followed removed all 
«uiobc of his complete ascendency. Ferdinand in turn yielded 
If* the persuasions of his chanilierlain, J nan Cabn^ro, and to the 
•upplicatiousi of IiuilM>lla; but he suci*unibed without faith, if the 
tittry which irt told c»f him in relation to the demand for similar 
•^jQt^eA!»ion« maile twenty years later by Ponce dc l^*iin is t4i be 
U-ii^v(-d. '*Ah/* said Fenlinand, to the dis<*ovenT of Florida, 
" «t i« one tbin;^ to givi* a strt*t4*h of |N>wcr wlu*n no one antici- 
iiAUr* tilt' exi'n*is«* of it : but we have Irariird S4)methin(r sinc^ 
ihfu : you will sucim*«nL antl it is another thin;: to ;;ive such 
^•w«-r lo y«iu/* This st4)rv ;j«h»s a grt'at way to explain the 
Uu-r «-fforts uf the (Vown t<i connteraet the |K>wer which was, 
:n tilt- Mu?«h of excitement, unwittingly given to the new Ad- 

TIh* ensuing days were devotetl to the arrangement of details. 
Tl*r UMial stor}\ derive<l fn»ni the llistnri*^ is that the yj.^gu.^-, 
V^*;vn offeml to {Kiwn Iht jewi'ls, as lier tn'asury tif *'••'*' 
< A^tile could hanily furnish the Hmall sum re<|nire<l : but liar- 
r.M#- i« Ifd to lM*lieve that the i-xi^fi'nries of tin* war lia«I aln^adv 
r^l'iirt^i this sa<*rific(» of tlie Qiii'i*n. th(»n;;h the d«Krumentary 
»r. i«-oce is wanting. Santani^el, however. iiit«*r|M»<i*«|. As 
trv^^un'r of tin* «HH*lesia*itieal ri'vrnues in Arairtni. he was able 
t-' tthfiw tliat while l<ilii*lla was foremost in pmiiiotiii;^ the en- 
terprine, Fenlinand (*«»uld join her in a luan from tliesc^ c*ofFrrs : 

1 an it was that the ne« ••*«*«» ry fuinU wen*, in n*:dity. paiil in 



\i\ the revenues of Aragon. This is tbe common 
■ged by later writers upon the narrative in Laa 

IJarrisse tiuds no warrant for it, anti judges the ad- 
lids to have been by Sautangel from his private rev. 

11 the interests of Castile only. And tbis seems to 
ly the invariable exclusion of Ferdinand's subjects 
ipating in the advantages of trade in the new lands, 
.'xeeption was made for some signal service. This 
1, prevailed, even after Ferdinand began to reign 

something quite as amusing as edifying in the osten^ 
Ide purpo-Mjs of all this endeavor. To tap the re- 
urces of the luxuriant East might be gratifying, but 
to conceive tbat tbe energies of tbe undertaking were 
[1 tbe treasury out of which a new crusade for the 
111; Holy Sepulchre could be sustained. The pearls 
A the Orient, the gold and precious jewels of it8 

but there was a noble condescension in giving Co- 
inbus a gracious letter to the Great Khan, and in 
)l)ing to seduce his subjects to the sway of a religion 


ColoiDm, and is preserved among the papers of the Duke of Ve- 
ragiia. It was printed from that copy by Navarrete, and is 
again printed by Bergenroth as found at Itarcelona. As formu- 
lated in English by Irving, its purport is as follows : — 

1. That ColutnhuB iihould have f >r himself during his life, and for 
hi* heirs ami tarcefuiorB forever, the office of Admiral in all the lands 
\nd rontinenU which he might discover or acquire in tlie ocean, with 
•imilar honors and prerogatives to those enjoyed by the high admiral 
•if Ca*tale in his district. 

'J. Tliat he nhoultl Iw viceroy and governor-general over all the said 
lands and continents, with the privilege of nominating three candidates 
fur the i^vemment of each inland or province, one of whom should be 
laierted by the sovereigns. 

3. That be should be entitl(>(l to reserve for him^elf one tenth of all 
pearls, precious stones, gold, silver, spices, and all other articles of 
arrrhaodises, in whatever manner found, bought, bartered, or gained 
viiiiin his ailmiralty. the c(»st^ bt>ing tintt diulucted. 

4. Tliat he or hU Heutenant hIiouM be the sole judge in all causes 
or <ii«puteii arising out of tratHc lietwecn those cMmntries and S|)ain, 
provided the hi^h admiral of Castile had »imilar jurisdiction in his 

r*. That be nii^ht then and at all after time;* contrilmte an eighth 
of thi* ex|M.Mi»o in fitting out vesseU to sail un this enterprise, and 
an eif^hth |iart of the profits. 

capitulations wert^ followiMi on the «)Oth of April by a 
rocnmission which thi* S4>vorcii;:ns hi«^ni'<i at (iranada, t«^-- April 
u» whirh it was further irrantetl that the Aduiinil and «ii«mc«ito 
his fai'irH HhouKI um* the pn*fix Don. siOua. 

It is sup|MK«e«I ho now gave some IichmI to his ilomestic c-on- 
erma. We know nothing, however, of any provision for the 
«*jori¥ Beatrix, but it is H;iid that be plaoetl his bov Ferdinand, 
liken but four vears of a«j:e. at sc*hool in Cordoba near 
hift noiher. He left his lawful son, Diogo, well pro- <i.mi««uc 
vided fi»r through an ap|Miiiitment by the IjuefU, on 
May 8, which niiub* hitu page t4i IVinco Juan, the heir ap{mrcnt. 

Columbus hinis4*lf tells u> that he then left (iranada on the 
12lh of May, 141^2. and went direct to Palos ; stoiv 
puig, however, on the way at Kabithi, to exchange cou- K«^bM 
graUilations with its friar, .hian IVn*z, if imleed be 
«isJ not kidge at the convent during his stay in the seaport. 



day eousista of a double street of lowly, whitened 
luses, in a depression among the hills. The guides 
.iiit out tlie luiiia of a larger house, which was the 
■ Pinzona. The Moorish mosque, couvei-ted into St. 
ureh in Columbus's day, still stands ou the hill, just 
village, with an image of St, (ieorge and the dragon 
;h altar, just as Colnuibus »aw'it, while above the 
ixistiug niins of an old Moorish castle. 

wltich Las Casaij lias told of the fitting out of the 
ssels does not agree in some leading particulars with 
at which Navarrete holds to be more safely drawn 
>cumenta which he has published. The fact seems 
Mi of the vessels of Columbus were not constructed 
:. of Medina-Sidouia, and later bought by the Queen, 
s says ; but, it happening that the town of Palos, in 

of some offense to the royal dignity, had been 
:lie service of two armed caravels for twelve months, 
liity was now taken by royal order, dated April 30, . 
-igning this service of crews and vessels to Coluin- 
1 expedition. 

command had also provided that Columbus might 



tlitr great uoknowu ocean. The reluctance to enter upon the 
undertaking proved bo great, except among a few prii^oners 
taken from the jails, that it became nei*essary to re{)ort the 
iili*»tacle to tlie Court, wlien a new peremptory order was issued 
«»n June :!0 to iuipn*ss the vessels and crews. Juan 141,2. jum 
do l*i*naloHa, an officer of the roval household, a|)- ^^^^^t^ 
{K-aretl in Palos io enforce this demand. Even such *"•*••■**• 
iui|K'nitive measun^s availed little, and it was not till Martin 
Al«*n!i(i Pinzon came forwanl, an<l either hy an agn*enient to 
dnidi* with (\ilumbus the profits, or through s<mie other under- 
standing, — f4»r the testimony on the jMiint is doubtful, j|^|., 
aiKi l.«as I'asas dislndieves any such division of pnifits, 

— rxt'rt4Hl his inHuence, in which he was aidtnl bv his brother. 
&1«> a navigator, Vii*ente Vafiez Pinzon. There is a story trace- 
abl«.- to a S4in of the ehler Pinzon, who testified in the Columbus 
Uw!»uit that Martin Alonso hail at erne time beci>me convinced 
i'f tbf existence of western lands from some d(K*uments and 
charts which he had seen at Kome. The story, like that of his 
cviii|iauionf«hip with Cousin, alreaily referreil to, has in it, how- 
rvrr. many elements of suspicion. 

Thii* hflp of the Pinzons provetl op]>ortune and did much to 
^vf the cauM', f(»r it had up to this time .socuhmI im]>ossible to 
Z^\ vt-^!««ds or crews. The sUinding of tht*si* navigators as men 
Aud tita'ir promise to embark |)ersonally put a new complexion 
• •Q the iui«h*rtaking, ami within a mniitli the armament was 
ic up. IlarrisM* has rxamine<l thr evidence in the matter to 
if tlH-n* is any proof that the Pinzons contribut^Hl more than 
thc-ir |M-rsrmal inHuence, but there is no appan*nt gnmnd for be- 
lirving they did, unless they st4MMi lM*hind Cobnnbus in his share 
of the ex|)enses, which are c*omputrd at r>OU,000 maravedis, 
vbile those of the Qut^en, arranged througli Santangid, are nH*k- 
oord at 1,140,000 of that money. Tin* Hivt i*onsisti'tl, as Peter 
Martyr U'Us us, <if two o\w\\ caravels, *' Nina " and **Pint4** 

— the latter, with its cn»w, being pn^ss^d into the service,^ 
d^fckevi only at the extn*mities, when* high prows and |>oop8 
rmve quarters for the crews and their offi(*ers. A larg(MK»<*ked 
reiMrl of the regisU^r known as a canirk, and nMiamed by Co- 
I'ambuA th«* ** Santa Maria," which prove<I ^*a dull saih*r and 
anfit f(»r discovery.** was taken by (\)Iumbus as his flagship. 
There is lonie confusion in the testimony relating to Uie nama 


The Uistorie alone calls her by this name. Las 
llj styles her "The Captain." One of the pilots 
! " Man Galantc." Her owner was one 
ICosa, presumed to be the same persuu as the naviga- 
iiographer later to be met, and he had command of 
J Alooso Nino and Sancho Ruis served as pilots. 
V. Fox has made an estimate of liei' dimensions 
her reputed tonnage by the scale of that time. 
Id thinks she was sixty-three feet over all in length, 
l-t along her keel, twenty feet beam, and ten and a 

li'inzons were assigned to the command of the other 
1 Martin Alonso to the " Pinta," the larger of the two, 
I brother of his as pilot, and Vicente Yanez to the 
■Many obstacles and the natural repugnances of sail- 
3 hazardous a service still delayed the prepa- 
I by the be-^iiuiing of August the arrangements were 
rnplete, and a hundred and twenty porsons, as Peter 
■iirtyr and Oviedo tell us, but perhaps the Historic' 
lore correct in saying ninety in ail, were 


The directionM of the Crown also provided that ColuinbuB 
•b«>uld avoid the Guinea coast and all other poiiHes- ai^uaiidi' 
•ionsi <if the Portuguese, which seems t4i bt' little more {1^^|1|^ 
than a striking manifestation of a ei*rtain kind of in- ^''^■*' 
mnlulity respecting wiiat Colunilnis* after all, meant by sailing 
went. Indeed, tliere was necessarily more or less vagueness in 
everyl»ody*s mind as to wliat a western ])assage would reveal, 
or how far a westerly course might of nei*essity be swung one 
way or the other. 

The llhturlt' tells us distinctly tliat Columbus hoped to find 
4oaif internuHliate land befon* reiiching India, to be n,,^. ^^ 
luctL :is the mcHlern phrase goes, as a sort of base of ^^^•''^'■^ 
operations. This hope rested on the belief, tlien common, that 
there wa^ mon* laml than sea on the earth, and consequently 
that no wide stret4*h of ocean could exist without interlying 

TlM*re was, moreover, no contidenee that such things as float- 
id;: isilands mi;;lit not Im* em^ou uttered. Pliny and Seneca had 
dr^Tibt*«l them, ami (\>lumbus was inrlinod to U'lieve that St. 
lirandan and the Seven Cities, and siidi islt*s as the dwellers at 
th«* Axi»n.*H had clainuHl to st^* in the of^n«^. mi;;:ht be of tliis 

Tlit're s«*ems. in fact, to Ik* gnmnd for U'li«'ving that Colum* 
)*u« thought hirt rourM* tii the Asiatic short's rouM hanlly fail to 
l»ring him in vitrw of «»tlier regions or islund** lying in thi* wt*st^ 
t>-ni o(*t-an. Mufloz holils that ** the ;;lnrv of sii(*Ii disct>veries 
inttamttl him Mtill mon*. |Hrrhaps. than \\\^ rliirf iU^sign.** 

That a vast art*hi]>elago wotdd Ix* tin* tirst hind encountered 
«x«» not w it hi MI t confid«Mit U'lirVfrs. The Catalan A*i»cir 
nap i»f 1374 hail hIiowm m\v\\ islands in va^t nuinlH>rs, •»^*''p'>m«»- 
amounting to T.*>4H \\\ all : Mairo Polo had iiiadi' tlirm 12,T<)0, 
f»r wxH thought to do mi*, and lUdiaiiu wa> M-t to oite the latter 
'^ hill gloln*. 

It w:i.<«, indct'd, at this very s4*asoii tliat l^diaim. having re- 
turu«tl frtim Lirtlxin to his lioiii«> in Niin-ndift^. hail |ui,«iu'. 
tm|art4-<l to the burghiTs of that inland town tlioM* ^^*^* 
l^rvat (XMHK^graphical i^miceptionH, whirh In* \%as arrnstonied to 
k«r difU'usMHl in thi* Atlantic M>a|N)rts. Such views witc exem- 
pliht^l in a large gloht* uliirh l^diaini had s|H'nt the suinmt-r in 
eDn%tru«*ting in Nuremberg. It uiim madt* of pastelioard «*«>v- 




Clt'iDfiitH K. Markhaiii, in a recent edition of Robert Hues* 
TrtirtiituB lie Globin^ cites Nordenskic'Jd as considering Behaim's 
gIobi\ without coui|mrison, the most important geofi^phical 
diH-uiuent since the atlas of Ptolemy* in a. d. 150. ** He points 
•Hit tliat it is the first which unreservedly adopts the existence of 
anti|Hjdes; the first which clearly shows tliat there is a passage 
f Kuro|)e to India ; the first which attempts to deal with the 
iii<H.*overies of Man*o Polo. It is an exact n*presentation of geo- 
jrjphiral knowleil^c imnieiliaU*ly previous to the first voyage of 
( •iliiuihus.** 

Tlie liehaim glolw has become familiar by many published 
dru wings. 

It h;iM l)een claime<l that C\)luuibus probably took with him, 
• »n hin V(iya<;i\ the map which he hail reccivetl from T.i«'n«iii'a 
T<>M'aiu*lli« with its delineation of the intt*rjacent and "^*** 
i%Linii-»tudile«l o<*ean. wlii(*h washed alike the shores of Kuro|)e 
xu*l Ania, and tliat it wan the subjei*t of study by him and Pin- 
^in at a time when i'ulumbus refers in his joum:d to the use 
:tjt\ nia^le of a chart. Tinu.»anelli*s map long survived the voyage is known, 
AU'l I^ui CV<is uscnI it. IIumlN»klt has not the same confidence 
«iii<'h Spn*n*;el h:uL that at this time it rn>s.s«.'d the sea in the 
- ^.inta Maria : ** and h«' is inclined nitlier t4) siip|M>s(> that the 
i'-TaiU tif T<>s4*an«*irrs chart, ailded to all others which i'ohunbuN 
:i^l ^theretl fnun tlie maps of Kianco and l^*nincasa — for it 
.- :i*«t |M»*^Hible he could have seen the work (i( lieliaim, unless 
^i*-^-!!. in fragment;! ry pn*iN>n<*«*ption?« — must have served him 
'•-!t«-r an laid down «>n a ehart of his own drafting. There is 
j»m| rt'aiton to sup|M»<M* MiaS. more than once, with the skill 
■ riii'li he in known to have |K)HM*sHed. In* nnist have made such 
'rart4, to enforce and demonstnite his U'lief, which, though in 
:ikr main like that of ToMMUfUi, wen- in matters of clist^mce 
•\'Mf different. 

Sx ever}' thing being n*ady. on the thinl of August. 142^2. a 
Lalf hifur liefore Hunrisi', he uum<M>nHl his littlr fiert in 

Ibe Atrram an<l, npreailing his siiiln. the vi'*«m*1^ pasM'd muH.\.vo. 
'iot of the little river niadntead of Pains g-.i/rd aftrr. 
p^r hap«, in the inen'.'i^ini; li*^lit, a> th«* littli* crafts n*arhi-d the 
by the friar of Uabida, fn>m its distant pmniontorv of 


■ {■'V.<li»ii;il fi'i-Iiii;;> tliul tl)t-y ;;:illu>i' ih lilt- mcslii-s iif tin- >Uir> 
-'t tli>- ili']i;ii-tiin-. 'I'lii-v !<ii]i|ilv to till' ■•riilNirkiitiiiii ii vurii-ty 

■ •t •It'iiii] that tlii-ir holy |iiir|<iiM-s n>u<li]y iiiia^jiiu-. iiml ]il»i-t' 

( ■•liitnl'iiM :it l:t>l -III his ] |>. uitli ilu' Miindiinl of tin* Cross. 

;h- itii:!^'.- of tlif Siiviuiir ikiIIimI to tin- liolv woikI. waving,' in the 
. ;..Iy l>r.-./.-^ tlMt 1i.t:i1.I<'.I ill.- .lay. Th<- .■iiiU-Ilislinu-ntK iimj- 
to- iilL-:k>iii^. Iiiit lltt-v an- not of tlic strit'tt-M aiitlii-uticitv. 

Ii. onW tint III- t-'it..iiii.»i I :.i. .'l.ll•:)-^ to rl..- ]>i'i»<'<> of 

■..■■ ^..-t iiii-l.i 1- -liiK .l,i..i,i.-l..l. (■.■ .l.t.T- K..,-. 

..:-,.-.l. a, 1.., j...iit.:il -m -. t" I |. :iii a.--..,.nl ..t tl..- ' " 

...■•■ liV till- w.-t. "1.^ »lii<'l III--..' Ii.' -:n-. " iilito iIh- 

- - .: til,.,-. u,-.|.. ,.,.| l.i,..«. t..r ..,-f.,:u. tlMt' .iliv ha^ 

.-.I.- It wa. I.i- i-iii"... I.. >MiI.- .I..U.,. ;.- 1... ,.i Ul. 

. :.■!.;>.- In- ^tH aii.l ..11 T],:tT li.- .Ii.l. .n.'l U- mak. a.1.:<il of 
. .i.«-..i..ri-.. aii.i I.. -!..» tl<.- .lii-. tl.-h. ..I ].;. ii.Lrk. 
N-tliiii;; .»vurn-<l .ioni.^ rli....- ,..,iU A>i-iM .la>-. lu ii.^tr lii-. 


run t4> the Canarieii, oxoi>pt the apprehenHion which he felt 

tliat an acvident, hiippeninj; to the nidder of the ^^ IMn- 

ta/' — a st4HTing gear now for some time in use, in u** di*. 

{•Luv of the okl hitf*nil {MuUIles, — was u trick of two 
ni«*n, her owners, Cioiiioz Itascon and Christopher Quintero, to 
iniiHtli* a vova[;^' in which they had no heart. The Admiral 
know the dis])osition of these men well enough not to be sur- 
pri'vc*! at the mishai>, but he tried to feel secure in the prompt 
enerjv of Pinzon, who commanded the *' Pinta/* 

A^ h«* passeil (August 24-25, 141)2) the peak of Teneriffe, 
it «:!•< thf time of an eruption, of whieh he makes bare r^^hm uw 
mention in his journal. It is to the corresponding ^^^i**"**- 
}ia»'<iL:%-4 of the ///x/oriV, tluit we owe the somewhat sensational 
•torit"* of the terrors of the sailors, some of whom certainly must 
l<io;: liavi* 1>ei*n a(*eustomeil to like displays in the volcanoes of 
tlMr Mi-«lit4*rranean. 

At thi* (tran Canaria the ^' Niiia '* was left to have her 
Utrtrn saiLi changed t4> stpiare ones ; and the ^^ Pinta," it being 
{••und ini|MM!«ible to tind a better vessel to take her place, wan 
al«o left to 1>e overlmulrd fi>r her leaks, and to luive her rud* 
«lf-r a;r>iin repaired, while (.\>Iuuibus visited (lomera, another 
of till* i!«lands. The Hi^vt was reunited at (lomeni on Septem- 
U-r 2. Here he frll in with S4)uie residents of Ferro, the wes- 
ti-nim«Mt of the group, who n'|N.*:ited the old stories of land 
'^*a.<»ionally seen from its hi*i;;hts, lying towanls the S4*tting 
^an. Having taki*n on iNKinl wihmI. water, and provisions, 
Cfliinibus finally suKmI fn>m (ioniera on the morning of Thur»- 
day, S'ptemlwr t». lie se«*uis to have scmn s|M>ken x%9i. s#p. 
A Vf^M*! fnun Ferro, ami fmui tliis he learnetl that !^«^oo- 
thfv** Portugiiesi* oaravrls wen» lyiu)j in wait for him "'^ 
111 tin* nfighlMirhiNNl of that i>lan(l, with a i>ur|N)so as he thought 
•>t viol ling in simu* way n)N)u liiui, for having gone over to the 
iuvre^trt of Spain, the indignation of tlie Portuguese king. He 
•^^-apeJ en(*ountiTinij[ tlit*ni. 

I 'p t«» Suntiay, Septenil>er 1^ they had ex|>erienoed so much 
fxlnx wrather, that their pr«>i;reHi hacl lK*en slow. This 
'.««li<Mi«nr<M s(Nm nii*i«Hl an appreliruMon in the mind i^mHrrf. 
:' (*oIumbuH that the voyage niiL;ht prove t^N) long 
f'F llie r«»n*itanev of his men. Hi* aeeordin^lv det«>rmin«Ml to 
falsify hi^ n*(*kfUiing. Tliis deet'it w:i<« :i largr eiin- rai^iflMhis 
Uamum of his own timidity in dealing with his crew, 





;etl the beginning of a long struggle with deceived , 
ins subordinates, which forms so large a part of the 
,.s Hubsequeut career. 

It of Monday's sail, which he knew to be sixty 
noted as forty-eight, so that the distance from home 
Lir less thnn it was. Fie continued to practice this 

noes given by Columbus are those of dead reekou- 
g beyond any ([uestiou. Lieutenant Murdock, of the 
nited States navy, who has commented on this voy- 
hia league the equivalent of three modem nautical 
lis mile about three quarters of our present estimate 
tanoe. Xavarrete says that Columbus reckoned iu 
es, wliich are a ijuarter less than a Spanish mile. 
;i! bad eK[iected to make land after Bailing about 
letl leagues from Ferro ; and in ordering hb vessels 
separation to proceed westward, he warned them 
sailed that distance to come to the wind at night, 
proceed by day, 

!is at present understood in navigation had not yet 
il. Columbus depended in judging of his speed on 


gnilnally. Tlic CaUilaiiH from the port of Barcelona pushed 
out iiiUi the givat Sea of Darktie« uii4l«r the direction of their 
nevdltM, KH eui'ly ut leant an the twelfth i-entury. Tho pilots of 
(ji-tuta and Veuii*e, the hardy Majurcana and the adveoturoua 
Muom, were followers of almost equal temerity. 

'-.iVu •-■'■r-i -^Hj^ 

A knnwlmlj^e tif llie variatinn of thi* ik-ciUo rame mora slowly 
to bf known to tlic iiiariiii*nt of th<- MiiUli-rram'nn. v^ruiM ai 
It had been obttrrviil by IVrcip-ini ah i-arly an I'iliil, '^ "**"•■ 
b«t Ibat knowledge tif it whivh n-ndere<l it grvatly serviivable 


in voyages does not seem to be plainly indicftted in any of t 
vharts of tbeae transition centuries, Ull we tind it laid down oit| 
the maps of Andrea Bianeo in 1436. 

It was no new thing then when Columbus, as he sailed west- I 
ward, marked the variation, proceeding from tLo northeast j 
more and more westerly ; but it was a revelation when be came i 
to a position where the magnetia north and the north star stoodl 
in conjunetion, as they did on this 13th of September, 149&fl 


As he Htill inove<l westerly the magnetic* line was found to 
move farther and farther away from the |M>le as it had bt^fore 
the 13th approaeheil it. To an observer of CoIumbuB*H cjuiek 
{lerceptionA, there was a ready guesH to {XMUieHH his 
mind. Thin inferen(*e was that this line of no varia- 
tion was a meridian line, and that diverm^nees from it umoibo 
eaiit and went mi^ht have a regidarity which would l)e 
found to fumiMh a niethoil of aM^ertaiuing longitude far easier 
anil surer than tables or water eloelcs. We know that four 
ream later he tritnl to sail his ship on observations of this kinil. 
The same idea set*niH t4) have cK^eurred to St^bastian B«bwti«i 
Cabot, when a little afterwanls he approai*hed and ^"ll^l^JS^of 
paMc<l in a higher latitude, what he sup|)o8c<l to be SlJl ifJSL, 
the meridian of no variation. Humboldt is inclined '^^^"'^ 
to believe that the |K)ssibility of such a methoil of ascertaining 
longitude was that uncomniunieable secret, which Sebastian 
Cabot many years lat4*r hintinl at on his death-bed. 

The claim was ma<le near a ivntury later by Livio Sanuto iu 
his (in^ymphiti^ publishetl at Veuii*e, in 1588, that Sebastian 
Cabot had been the first to obfl4>rve this variation, and had ex- 
plaineti it to Edward VI., and that he had on a chart placnnl 
the line of no variation at a |Niint one liundrtHl and ten miles 
went of the island <»f Fionas in tlie .\z4in*s. 

These oliser vat ions of Ccilunibus and Calnit were not whollv 
accepted during the sixteenth i*entury. UnlM^rt Hues, in 159:!, 
a hundnnl years later, ti*lls us that Minlina. the S|>:in- variow 
i»h gran<l pilot, was not disinclinetl to believe that ^**' 
mariners saw more in it than n>allv existcnl and that thev found 
it a cimvenient wav to exeuH(> their own blunders. Nonius was 
TwIitMl witli saying that it simply meant that worn-out mag- 
nets were used, whieh had lost their |»ower to |>oint correctly to 
tht- pole. Others had <*<intendiHl that it was thmtigh insufficient 
applii*ation f>f the l«»:uUt4ini* to the inm that it was so devious 
in it** iiiork. 

Wliat wan till Mi ^ lit )M»<sible by the early navigators possessed 
tht- niin«U i»f :ill M':iiiii*n in varying ex)M'rinieiits for two cen* 
turi«*« and a half. Tli4iiii;|i not reacliin;^ >ut'li satisf.irtory re* 
ftultA AM Wen* lio|M'd for. the ex|M<etatiiin diti ni»t pifive soehimer- • 
i(*al as WAH Miniftinh'M iina^iiHMl wlit*n it ua** (lisi*«ivere<l that the 
iim^ of variation ui-re nrither pandlfl. nor stniight, nor con- 


stant. Tlic lino of no variation which ColumbuH found near the 
Aziin*H has moved weHtwanl with erratic inclinationH, ^.^i^ ^^^ 
until to-4lav it is not far from a Htrai^'ht line from ^"•*«**- 
t 'anilina to (iuianu. Science, Wpnnin;; with its cnidc efforts 
:it tlie hands of Alonrxi dc Santa i*ruz« in 1530, has so mapped 
till* surface of the i^lolie with observations of its multifarious 
fn*aks of variation, and the changes an* so slow, that a mafi^etic 
rliart is not a liad i^ide to-day for as4*crtaining the hmgitude 
in any latitude for a few years ni*ighl>oring to the date of its 
nniirds. So science has i*onie round in some measure to the 
dn^aiiis of Columbus and Cabot. 

Hut this was not the only doveloi>mcnt which came from this 
ominous clay in the mid Atlantic in that Septeml)er coIdmImm 
of 140:2. The fancy of Columbus was easily excited, 7SS»«t 
and notions of a chancre of climate, and even aberra- !SE!!Sf 
tion* of the stirs were easily imagined by him amid ****••* ^"^ 
th<- <»t range |ihenoniena of that untracke<l waste. 

While Columbus was sus|MH*ting that the north star was some- 
what willfully shifting from the magnetic |>ole« now to a dis- 
tan«f f>f /»^ aM«l then of 10 \ the calculations of ni«Nlern astrono- 
nitTH have gauged the )H»lar distance existing in 14!**J at 3^ 28'. 
Am against the 1 *J0' of today. The eon fusion of Columbus 
va4 very like his run founding an old world with a new, inas- 
much as hr hU|>|x»M*d it was the jMile sUir and not the niHrtlle 
mil it'll was sliifting. 

Ill* ar*^u«*«l frtiui what he s:iw.or tlniught he saw. that the line 
••f ni> %-ariation niarktHl the lieginning of a protulN*r- in^^uMs 
;4h«f iif the earth, up whieh he :i.s<vnde<i as he saili*<i JUIi^llIui, 
«»-»l«*rlv, and that this was the n^anon of the cooler *^*' 
•father whieh hi* i*X|>erieui*tHl. lie never got over scmic no- 
li *ns of this kind, and lH*lii*vi*tl he found continuation of them 
•li hin kit«fr voyagi*s. 

K%-en as early :ls the reign of Kdwanl III. of England. Xich- 
••ia* of Lynn, a %'oyager to the northern S4':is, is thought j,^ „^^, 
to have definitely tixi-d tin- niagiietie pide in the An'tie ■*'•*" i**'' 
r»-::ii»n4, tninsmittiiii: hi'* vifws to Cnoyen. the master f>f the 
liUr Meri*ator. in n'<>)HM*t t>i tin* four cireuniiMdar i^himU, which 
ID tilt* sixU*fnth ei'Uturv luade so (*on*itant a nurruiindiii;; of the 
fturtbem pole. 


(lay (September 14), after these tuagnetjc observa- 
>iis, a water wagUil was seen from the " NiKa," — a 
\i\ which Columbus tliought unaccustomed to fly 
-five leagues from land, and the ships were now, ao- 
their reckoning, not far from two hundred leagues 
>m the Canaries. On Saturday, they saw a distant 
>lt of fire fall into the sea. On Sunday, they had a 
ill, followeil by pleasant weather, which reminded 
ilumbus o£ the nightingales, gladdening the climate 
Andalusia iu April. They found around the ships 
floatage of weeds, which led them to think some 
t be near. Navarrete thinks there was some truth 
much as the charts of the early part of this century 
leakers as having been seen in 1802. near the spot 
iiibus can be computed to have been at this time. 
■as in fact within that extensive prairie of floating 
;iweed which is known as the Sargasso Sea, whose 
iiicipal longitudinal axis is found iu modem times 

le made from the rather uncertain data of Colum- 
il seem to point to about the same position. 


gremt flockn of birds towards the west. Columbus conceived 
that the sea was growing fresher. I leavy ch)uds hung on the 
niirthem horizon, a sure sign of land, it was supposed. 

C >n the nrxt day two |)elicans eaine on board, and Columbus 
rt^^irds that tlM*se birtls are not accustomed to go i^^g^ ^^ 
twt*nty leagues from land. So he sounde<l with a line '**^*"' 
of two hundretl fathoms to be sure he was not approaching 
bnd : but no iNittoni wsts found. A drizzling niin also be- 
li>ki»ne«l land, whirh tlioy i*ouId not stop to find, but would 
M-arvh for on their rt>tuni. as the journal says. Tlie pilots now 
cum|uiretl their rei*konings. Columbus s:iid they were 400 
kAgiies, while the ^^ Pinta*s ** record showed 420, and the 
-Nifias '440. 

On SeptemU^r 20, other |)elieaiis came on board ; and the 
«hi|iswfre agiiin among the weetls. Columbus was de- 1492, g_. 

trrmineil t4> aM-ertain if these indieatinl shiKil water and 
«*undttl, but could not reach bott^uu. The men caught a bird 
miih fe«»t like a gull; but they were convini-etl it was a river 
bini. Then singing hind-birds, as was fancied, hovered about 
a<* it darkeneil, but they disap|»eare«l lN'f<ire morning. Then 
:i fifliran was obsc*rvi*4i flying to the southwest, and :is *^ these 
i'lnU «li*t*pon hhttre.and g«> to sea in the morning/* thi* mi*nen- 
oKira^etl thems^OvcH with the* lK*lief that they r4>uld not In* far 
fniui land. The nrxt day a whale i*t>uld but In* another indica- 
:i*>D of land : ami the wimmIs coveretl thr sea all alMUit. On 
*^:unlav, thev stfH»n*<l west by northwest, ami ^ot 
'Irar iif the uwtls. This change of counn* so far to ---•rr 
thr D<»rth, whii'h had lM>gun on the pn*vious day, was 
o^asiouinl by a hi*ad wintl« and (^olumbus s:iys that he wel- 
1 it, lN*cause it h:i«l tlie <*ffe<*t of <*«Hiyincing the 

IIimI wind 

^kilor» that W4^tt*rlv winds to n*turn bv wen* not im- 
>A«iblf. On Sunday ( Si*pt4'mlN*r 2^)). th«*y found the wind still 
^u^iiig; but tlu*y made iiioii* westering than lN*fore, - - weeds, 
Tabik. ami binls still aU>ut them. Now then* was smooth wa- 
>r. whieh again de]iresw*<l the s«*amen : then the sea nrptn»bw 
krmtf, nivsteriou.*»lv, for there was no wind t<» cause ^ 
X They Htill kept their (*oursi' westerly anil (*(mtinuetl it till 
U> Di;:ht of SeptenilH*r 2«V 

Ccdunibus at this tini inferred i%itli l*in/on, as t4i a chart 

vkirh they earried. wliieh showed S4inii* island <• near where they 


hA the ghips to be. That they had uot seen kad, 
.1 was either due to currents which had carried them 
h, or else their reckoning was not correct. At sun- 
t Pinzon hailed the Admiral, and said he saw land, 
liming the reward. The two crews were confident 
as the case, and under the lead of their comniandere 
^■eled and repeated the Gloria in Excchis. The 
od to lie southwest, and everybody saw the appari- 
.u. Columbus changed the fleet's course to reach it ; 
id as tlie vessels went on, in the smooth sea, the ntea 
id the heart, under their expectation, to bathe in its 
ies. On Wednesday, they were undeceived, and 
iind that the clouds had played them a trick. On 
e 27tli their course lay more directly west. So they 
ul still remarked upon all the birds they saw and 
_ed-drift which they pierced. Some of the fowl 
i!V thought to be such as wei-e common at the Cape de 
ids and neie not supposed to go far to sea. On the 
)th Septtmber thej stiU observed the needles of 
eir i-om|>asbes to i iry but the journal records that 
jole sttr whiih nunctl, and not the needle. On 


upposed Cipango to lie, and he was 25 J ° north of the equator, 

.*onling to hiA astrolabe. The true distance of Ci- 
pan;;i> or Japan was sixty-eight hundred miles still 
fart)M*r« or lievond both North America and the Pacific. How 
much Itcyond that islantl, in its supi)osed geographical )Nwition, 
(*4»Iumbus expected to find the Asiatic main we can only cou- 
jf«cture fn>ni the restonition.H which modem scholars have made 
of ToiH*anelli*M map, whicli makes the island about 10° east of 
Avia, and from Rehaim^s glolxs which makes it 20^. It should 
U* borne in mind tliat the knowledgi* of its position came from 
Marco Polo, and he does not dihtinrtly say how far it was from 
tht* Asiatic coast. In a general way, as to these distances from 
>|Kftin to l^hina, To!U*anelli and Itchaim agreed* and there is no 
rva^n to believe that the views of Columbus were in any note- 
worthy degree different. 

In the trial, years afterwards, when the Fiscal contested the 
nghtii of Diego (\d«m, it was put in evidence by luiatidMof 
iioe Vallejo, a s(*aman, that Pinzcm was induce<l to S* ^-^ 
urgv thf dinn'tion to Ih» changinl to the southwest, l)e- "'•^"^ 
raoMf lie hsul in the prei*<Hling evening ol>servetl a flight of |>ar- 
rviC» in that dinn'tion, which could have only been MH'king land. 
It VX4 the main pur|HMi* of the evidence in this part of the trial 
:^ «how that Pinzou h:ul all altmg forced Columbus forward 
A^nst bin will. 

How pregnant this rhange of course in the vessiOs of Colum- 
ha^ not es4*a|HHl the observation «»f Humlmldt and many 

A davor two further on his west«M*Iv wav, and the Gulf 

• • • 

would, |H*rha|>s, ins<Misibly liave lN>rnc the little fleet up 
tW Atlantir i*oast of the future Tniteil States, mi that the han- 
arr nf l*ai«til«* might have Imn'U plant4*<l at (^irolina. 

C>n th«? 7th of (K*tol»er. l\ilunibuH was pretty nearly in lati- 
tude *Sy ifi)\ — that of one of th«* Ualiaiiia Islands. 
J^*t wh<*re lie was by longitude tlu*n* is niiirh more 
■&'qIiL prolmhlv iM'twiM'U <><'>^ and (Wr. On the next dav tlie 
aa^i liinK flying alon;; the rourM* of the ships s«*4*iiie«l ortobrr 
w r«»ntimi their lio|ies. On the lOtli the journal re- "'^ 
^fdtt that the men lM'g:in tt* 1«im* |i:itieni*e : but tlie Ailniiral re- 
N<anfJ them by nMniiidingtheni of tlie pn>fitsin ston* for them, 
aad of the folly f>f H«-4*kin;; to n*turn. when they had already 
M» Car. 


ible that, in this entry, Columbus conceals the story 
lieh later eame out in the ret-ital of Oviedo, with 
jre detail than in the IFiistorie aiul Las Casas, that 
I of his crew was threatening enough to oblige him 
to tuin back if land was not discovered in three 
t conunentators, however, are ini-lined to think that 
' a mutinous revolt was merely engrafted from hear- 

sonrce by Oviedo upon the more genuine recital. 
i conspiracy to throw the Admiral into the sea has 
ial basis in contemjwi-ary report. Irving, who has 
:endency throughout his whole account of the voyage 
his recital with touches of the imagination, neverthe- 
his, and thinks that Oviedo was misled by listening 
ho was a personal enemy of the Admiral. 
datious of the voyage which were drawn out in the 
of Diego with tlie Crown in 1513 and 1515. affoitl 
lor any belief in this story of the mutiny and the 
i Columbus to it. 
however, difficult to conceive the i-ecurrent fears of 

the iuci-ssant anxiety of Columbus to quiet them. 

Peter Martyr tells us, — and he may have got it 


othor, I{<Mlrigo Sanchez» sitiiatetl apparently on another part of 
thi* vossi*l, was not able to see it. It was not brought to the at- 
tcMitioii of any othem. The Adiuinil says that the light seemed 
t«» Ih* moving up anil clown, ami he claimiHl to have got other 
:;linipsc*ti of its glimmor at a hiter moment, lie ordered the 
Stiirr Ui l>c chanted, and liiriHrted a vigihint watch to be Het ou 
till* fiin-casitle. To 8huriK'n tlieir vittiou he promised a silken 
j:Arki't« U'sitle the inoonii* of ten thousand maravcnlis which the 
King and (jueen liad offeriHl to the fortunate man who should 
first descrv the ctivetrd hind. 

This light has U'cn the iH*casiou of much comment, and noth- 
in;; will ever, it is likely, Ims si'ttlecl alniut it« further than that 
tin- AtlminiL with an inconsiderate rivalry of a c4>mmon sailor 
wli«» later s:iw the actual land, and with an ungenerous assurance 
ill-bt* fitting a commander, |NH*kete<l a rewanl which b(*Ionged to 
aunt her. If Uvit^io, with his pn*judires, is to be belie veil, Co- 
lumbus was not even the first who claimetl to have seen this du- 
bii>u<« light. Then* is a com mon« story tliat the |N>or sailor, who 
wan defrau<ieil. later tununl Mohanuneilan, and went to live 
among that juster |M*oplc. Th(*re is a sort of retributive justice 
in \\w fa<*t that the |N*nsion of tlit* Crown was made a chargi' 
ui">n the sliambh's of Seville, and thence (\)lumbus rtHvivinl it 
till he iliitl. 

WlH'thrr the lii'ht is tn Ih* cimsidennl a reality or a fiction 
vill d«*|M*nd nnich on tin* tlimry each may hold n*g:inling the 
p«»«iti<in of the lamlfall. \V]ii*n (\iluinbus clainitHl to have dis- 
"ovfit««l it, he was twrlve or fmirtifn h»a;rncs awav from the isl- 
and »lM>re, four hours lat«'r, land was indubitably fi»und. Was 
ih*- light on a canoe? Was it on S€>nie small, outlying island, 
&• has lM*en suggest e«l ? Was it a torch carrier! fn>m hut ti» 
haU a^ llerreri avers? Wa** it on eitbfr of tlic other vessels? 
Wx-i it tin the low island «in wltich, tlu* next morning, he landtnl ? 
Tbrre was no elevatitm un that island sufficient to sliow even a 
%ix>Mtk^ light at a di<«tani'«* of Ww leagues. Wa.« it a fancy or a 
k <lr«vit ? N** one can sav. It in vcrv dif^cult fur Navarn*te, 
MsA even for Irving, to rest s:Uist)cil with what, after all, may 
kivf? lw«n onlv an ill union tif a fevered mind, niakinir a n*conl 
*i the incident in the excitement of a wouderfiil hour, when his 
atrUigenoe was not as eirciuiiH|N*ct a;* it mii^lit have Ikm'U. 
Foor houra after the light wa.n M-en. at two uVloi'k in the 


tiMirninL:, when tin- moon, UMir \U thin) quarter, w.ih iu the uoht, 

tlw *■ I'iiitji " k*f]iiiijj ulii-U(l. (Hic of Iwi- sailont, Kod- 

ri;:i> J»' Triaiia, (U-wrii-d tliu land, two luiuniiit away, i" fl^ i»^ 

au(l a gun otinniuniciitt^^t thu juytnl im<.-lli<^-ruH; to 

tlif ittlitT !>)u]>!i. Till- flt>vt t(M>k in Nitil, aiut cacli veiMt'l, under 

Lai-ki-«l t'anvas, was [xiintt-tl ti> thu wiml. TIiuh they waitnl 

fiif daylirvak. It wiu a pnmd 
C'ltluiiiliUH ; and liriinmiri}^ 
lM>{tcs, |M.-rha]M fearH uf dis- 
ap|>iiii)imi-nt, mii>t have uc- 
i.»iu]tanii'4) that hmir of wav- 
ering oni-hantnivnt. It wiu> 
Friday. (XtolH-r 1 -2, uf th.- old 
cbnmulogy. and thf litiK- Avvt 
bad bveu thirty-thro- dayn uu 
ita way frtini thv Caiiiiiivx, 
atfl We must aihl tvn dnys 
iiMin.-. tu ci>m]>l>-t<- the [H'Hod 
wiHv t\f\ lift ral.M. Tin- 
lan<l Ix-foru thnn was wen, 
X' iIh- ilav tlawufd. Ut Ik* u 
Muall inland, -i-all.-d in th.- 
Indian tunfrni.-" 
(iiunaliani. Smii- 
uluil ii:itivc4 wi-n- (U'wrii-ti. 
TV Ailiiiiral and tlic cmn- 

Bl»a.h-M of lIlL- »Hll.T V.T.^'llt 

|)rv')Kir>il V' land, ('•iliindxis 
v«tk thf piyal Htandttnl uiid 
:nr uthem (.-auli a ItaiiutT of 

li»- initial of thu --iv.Ttii;n 

nt of iminful iiiui|ieiiHe fur 

■ ■th a 

H Itftw 

>'i>i.r)iBC>-ii aHNok 
surnioiiiitiii}; cvury letter. 


lid iu.i-i)ni])aiiie<l liy ItiHlri]^ 

(■/ :iiid MIMIC waiufu, tin- boat 

liaiidy took formal [MMHOTMinn 

■ ::h th<- rinhh-iiiN (if thi-ir ]hi 
W KM->v.-.hi aiiil ICmIiIj.. S 
r»".U. th.*'<li..r.-. Tli.y in 
-f th^ land, ami the i)<it:iry r< 

TV wonU of the jii-aM-r usually ■•ivvii aa iitti-r^il hy 
f ■.luiuhu-t on takiu-; iHi.,.«-'.-.i.iii uf San Salvador, uhcn 
>■ named the iNlaiul, oaiiiiot U' trao'il farther l>a<'k 





Ltiou of T'lfjfti^ Chi-onolugicxiH, got together at Va- 
189, by a Jesuit father, Claiidio Clemente. Hai-risse 
Uiority for the Btatement of the French canonizers 
bus established a foim of prayer which waa long in 
iich occupations of new hinds. 

s, from whom we have the best account of the cer&- 
iio landing, does not mention it; but we find pictured 
< the grave impressiveness of the hour ; the form of 
with a orimaou robe over his ai-moi-, centi-al and 
1 the humbleness of his followers in their oontrition 
[■s of their faint-heaiteduess. 

s now enters in his journal his impressions of the 
its inhabitants. He says of the land that it bore 
■i-iiu trees, was watered by many streams, and pro- 
iced divers fruits. In another place he speaks of 
s fiat, without lofty eminence, sun-oundod by reefs, 
in the interior. 

sfs and distances of his sailing both before and on 
Uland, as well as this description, are the best means 
identifying the spot of this portentous landfall. The 


iuti'Miiiili:it4* ilist:in(vs out of the way as coiii|KinMl with his com* 
piiutiiiii of thi* (lisUiiioc run liy (.\>hiiiiluis, three thtiuHand four 
h'.iiiilri-«i aiul tifty-ei;;ht of HUi*li iiiil«*>. 

Thi* rf:uler will iviiiemlK*r the Ii:ih:iiii:i <^ruup :i8 a range of 
i<>Liiiil'«, i:Hi«>ts, and r(M*ks, siiiil to In* Mtnie tlinre thou- ^^ 
^jLuA in niinilNT, running s*iulht'a.«»t from a |Miiiit part '******»^ 
\.i\ ii|i till* Florida roast, and approaehin^^ at the other end the 
».i<t iif IIi<>paniola. In tlie latitude of the lower 
"lint of Florida, and five de*:rri*i*s fast of it, is the isl- .ior.»rCat 

f I I 

a:id iif San Salvathtr or Cat Inland, whirh is tin* most 

ij<i::hfi-lv of tlioM* clainitMl t4» have liecn tin* landfall of Colum- 

bu-. l*r«M-«tMlinj; tiown thf ;;n»np, wi- enronnter Wat- o^,^^ 

iin.:''', Saniana, At'klin (witii the IMana Cays), Mari- *'****^ 

jiLUia. and tin- (rrand Turk, — all of which have their advo- 

lat* <^. 'Ihi* tiiree nii'thtMls of identitieatiim wliieh have 

i«^ n follow* -1 1 a If, tirNt, by plotting the ontwanl tnii'k ; i.uticiiir». 

«^ ^nd. by pIiitiiuL: tin* track Ix'tween the landfall and 

< 'ili.i. Uith forward and backward; thinl, by apjdyin;^ the de- 

«• rii>:iiin'«. nartindarlv C*olunibns*s, of the ii^lanil first s<*en. In 

'.z.:^ Ll^^i t«-'«t, llarri'oM* pirfcrs to apply the desrription of L:ui 

* A<i<, whii-h !•« iMtn-ikWrd in ])art fri»ni tiiat (»f tin* IIUt'inf\ and 
.-•• r»i ■'inil«-* Cii|niiibn^*N appar«-nt ili^'i rfpaui-v wlim In* ?»:iys in 

:.• ]''<* tli«* i-^land was *" pretty Ian;!*/* and in another 
■ -iij.ill." It\ -^iipiMi^iiii; that III* may liavi* :ipplii*d tlii*M* ^. ^,,„ 
;.;.r.ii.« li-mi-*. tln' If-^s^T to till* IMaua C:iVf%. a?» first '••"•'■ 

•v-vij. anil till* otIiiT ti» tlif ('nNikftI <ii-oiip, or Ai-klin Uland, ly- 
i.j jii<i wr<.tiil\. oil which he ni:iv li:i\t* landed, llarri^tsi* ih 

'•v oiii\ ••III* who iiiakr*« thi^ idi'iititi<-ati'»n : anil he finds s«)me 

• «:*t!riuation in l:il4*r niap^. whiih <%how thcn'alMiut :in inland, 
IriiM^o or Trian^iilo. a nanif najil by La*« C:isi*« to have lM*t*n 
. ;-i.t-«l to (iiianahani at a I:it«*r ila\. Tht-re \^ no known map 
- ».*,,* r ih. II I'MO bi-arin'^ thi^ alt<rn:ilivc name of Triani^o. 

^.iii >.d\adoi M*i-ni** to b;i\i* Intii tbi* i<>lani| •«i'l«*i't«'ii bv the 
•A.*..<*t of iiiiMli'rn iiii|iiirfr-*. in tin' '««'Vi'iit4*4*nth and ^^„ 
'.ji.:*»i»lh i'i'ntiiiii-«i, aiiii it lia'^ had lln* •»ii|ii»ort of Ir- ''••**'' 
• :.j ariil lliiniUtlilt in«-r tinir^. Captain .\Ii'\:iiiil»*r Slid* il 
V!« k<-n/ie of thr I nitfil Stat*-* iia\ \ work« i| out the priddi'ni 
! 'f Ir\xn;:. It is much l:ii::i r th:iii .-iii\ of ihr ••thcr i^lainU. ainl 
'>u^l hanilv liavi' U-fU <-:iIN •! 1>\ ( ohiinbn^ in :iii\ :dti|ii.ili\c 
«ai a " ^mall ** i«laniL wiiilc it liiH-- imt an-^wcr Coliimbu'**-* ib*- 



being level, having on it an eminence of four liuii- 

ud no interior lagooo, as hia Guanabani demands. 

canonizers stand by the olj traditions, and find it 

3r fine enough have substituted for it that of Cat, 
hydrographieal atlases the Island of the Holy Sa. 
ly called Cat Island/' 

:ht of modern testimony seems to favor TVatling's 
and, and it ao far answers to Columbus's description 
at about one third of its interior is water, correspond- 
large lagoon." MuBoz first suggested it in 1793; 
:iments in its favor were first spread out by Captain 
the royal navy in 1856, and he seems to have in- 
r I'eHchel in 1S58 to adopt the same views in his 
lie ran<,'e of modern discovery. Major, the map eua- 
he British Museum, who had previously followed 
n favoring the Grand Turk, again addressed himself 
em in 1870, and feU into line with the adherents of 
Xo other considerable advocacy of this island, if 
he testimony of Gerard Stein in 1883, in a book on 
discovery, appeared till Lieut. J. B. Murdoch, an 


Turk Island, which wait aitvoc*ated lint by Navairete in 1826« 
whoM Yiewii have since been Hupported by George Gibbs, and 
for a while by Major. 

It is rather curious to note that Caleb Cushini^, who under* 
took to examine this question in the North American Revietr. 
untler the guidance of Navarrete*s theory, tried the same back- 
u ani nietlKMt which Ims Ix^en later applied to the problem, but 
\% ith cpiite different n*sults from those reached by more recent 
investigators. He ssiys, ^^ By setting out from Nipe [which is 
the |M>int where Columbus struck Cuba] and proceeding in a 
retrognule direction along his course, we may surely trace his 
]ath, and shall be convinced that Guanahani is no other than 
Turk*s Island.** 

Mr. (*. K. Miirkhuui ligLs just ( S>|it«*iiiUT. \A92) gin^n a rpiwoiuiblv inter- 
prrUlum of tlu* iiaiiu* "TAllrrtr il«* I^ij<*i« ** (aii/^, p. 1H4) in uying that 
Ijkjf^ i% a miiall town m*ar (*oriiftn. and tlwt, lfavin|{; off the 7* and final f, 
U4h natural a«liiitii»ns fur a S|Ninianl to make, we ha%-e Allert or Allart, a 
nan«r ronumm in rariy days anion); the Kngli»h Mulom of the Cinque Porta. 


On the next day after landing, Saturday, Colombus describes 
again the throng that came to the shore, and was 1492. ootc 
struck with their broad foreheads. He deemed it a ^^ ^^ 
natural coincidence, being in the latitude of the Canaries, that 
the natives had the complexion prevalent among the natives of 
those islands. In this he anticipated the conclusions of the 
anthropologists, who have found in the skulls pre- 
served in caves both in the Bahamas and in the Ca- the 

naries, such striking similarities as have led to the sup- ^^*°^ 
position that ocean currents may have borne across the sea 
some of the old Guanche stock of the Canaries, itself very likely 
the remnant of the people of the European river-drift. 

Professor W. K. Brooks, of the Johns Hopkins University, 
who has recently published in the Popular Science Monthly 
(November, 1889) a study of the bones of the Lucayans as 
found in caves in the Bahamas, reports that these relics indi- 
cate a muscular, heavy people, about the size of the average 
European, with protuberant square jaws, sloping eyes, and 
very round skulls, but artificially flattened on the forehead, — a 
result singularly confirming Columbus's description of broader 
heads than he had ever seen. 

" The Ceboyuas," says a recent writer on these Indians, " gave 
us the hammock, and this one Lucayan word is their 
only monument," for a population larger than inhabits 
these islands to-day were in twelve years swept from the surface 
of the earth by a system devised by Columbus. 

The Admiral also describes their canoes, made in a wonder- 
ful manner of a single tree-trunk, and large enough to' 
hold forty or forty-five men, though some were so 
small as to carry a single person only. Their oars are shaped 
like the wooden shovels with which bakers slip their loaves 
into ovens. If a canoe upsets, it is righted as they swim. 

Columbus was attracted by bits of gold dangling at the nose 
of some among them. By signs he soon learned that q^^ ^unong 
a greater abundance of this metal could be found on *^®™* 
an island to the south ; but they seemed imable to direct hira 
with any precision how to reach that island, or at least it was 
not easy so to interpret any of their signs. " Poor wretches ! " 
exclaims Helps, ^^ if they had possessed the slightest gift of 
prophecy, they would have thrown these baubles into the deep- 


riiey pointed iu all directioDS, but towards the east 
to other lands ; and implied that those enemies who 
the northwest often passed to the south after gold, 
e found that broken dishes and bits of glass served 
. well for traffic with them as more valuable articles, 
id bolls of threads of cotton, grown on the island, 
r most merchantable commodity. 
is rude foretaste, Columbus detei-mined to push on 
r the richer Cipango. On the next day he coasted 
ijug the island iu his boats, discovering two or three 
Uages, where the inliabitanta were friendly. They 
Jiinh that the strangers had come from heaven, — at 
ilius so interpreted their prostrations and uplifted 
iumbus, fearful of the reefs parallel to the shore, 
:; of them, and as he moved along, saw a point of 
a ditch might convert into an island. He thought 
ifford a good site for a fort, if there was need of one. 
1 this Sunday that Columbus, in what he thought 
)ubtless the spirit of the day in dealing with heathens, 
ves us his first intimation of the desirability of using 
:ike these poor creatures serve their new mastei's. 


«*aii«K*. The Spaniards ov«*rto<>k the canoe, but not till itM oocu- 
pants luul 4'H4*a|KMl. A single* man, i*oniin|;^ off in ant»tlier 
«*an(M>, was si-izcMl and taken on lioanl : but i\dumbus thought 
liini a pKxl niessen<;vr of amity, and loading him with ])n*Henta« 
** not worth four niaravetlis/* he put him ashon*. (*olnnibu8 
watehetl the lilH^nit^nl s:ivaps and jutlged from the wontler of 
th«* erowds whi(*h surnnnuletl him that his ruse of friendship 
liad lH*en well playe<I. 

An«>ther large island ap])ean*d westerly about nine h*agueH, 
fam«ius for its goI«l ornaments, its his pris«mers again 

II I 1* ''a' a. \ 'I** I* ('nliinilNU 

tlerlariHl. It IS significant that in his journal, sinee •*«>»• unr 

hi* diM'overtHl the bit.s of gold at San Salvador, Co- 
hinibus has not a wttrd t4) say of nvlaiming the In-nightcd he:i- 
theii : but he «M)iiNtantly n*|)eats his ho|H* "with the help of our 
lionL*' of finding goI«l. On tiie way thither he had piekinl up 
:i MH*iiiiil ^iiii^le man in a eanm', uho had appan*ntly foUowed 
iiiiii from San Salvador. lie tleterminetl to l»est«>w some favors 
ii]Nin hiiii aiitl l«*t hint go, as he ha^l done with the other. 

Till** ih'W i<<laiid. whii'h he n*aeh<Hi (Vtolier l(i. and called 
Kt'riiaiidiiia, Iir found to Ik* aUmt tweiity-4*ight h*agues n.,. ,^ 
I'tii'^. \iith a -^afiT •*hi»n* than the others. Ilr aiirhoretl *'**""' ** 
ii«-:ir a vill:iv:«>. whi'n* thr man whom lie luul set fre«* had alifatlv 
• •tiiii*. liriii^liii: i:«hmI rrports of tlie stniiiger. and so the Span- 
i.irtl« got a kind ri'crption. Hrt^at niindM'r*^ nf natives came off 
:ii raiiiNxi. til i^htiiii thi* men i^ave trinki'ts and mohisM>s. lie 
tiMiU i>ii Utard *>i»mi* watrr. the nativr-* a*isi>tiiii; th«* rn^w. Iiet- 
tin;: an imprr^<*inii tliat tht* i*»land contaiii«-d a mini' of gold, ho 
n-^uilvinl to fiilliiw thf I'lta-^t, ami find Saiiiaot. when* th«* gold 
wa- said to Ik*, ('oliimlm^ tlioii;*lit lit* *iaw s^mie improvement 
in till* native-* ovit iIiom' In* had m>«*ii iN'fon*, remarking u|Mm 
till* (*«itton riotli with uhicli they partly eoventi tln-ir ]>«*rH<ms. 
II*- >Aa*« ^urprini'd to find that di-»tiiirt braiu'Iies of tli«* saiiii* tree 
i-»n* difYiTi'iit li'avi"i. A Hiiii^'jr titt'. a> he says, will show as 
iii.iii\ a« tivr III- -i\ v:iiii-tii'^. ii<ii doiii> bv •;r:iftiii^. but a nat- 
urd viroMth. Ilt> uiiiiili-n-'l :it thi- brilliant ti*«li. and found no 
laihl cn*atnn's but paiii<t» ami li/ard^, though a Uiy of the com- 
|icin\ tiild him that In- hail -»i-«*ii a **naki'. i hi \Veilm*.Mlay he 
*tarti*«l to H:iil aronijil tin* JNlaml. In :i litth* liavi*n. wh«'n' thev 


tarn4*«l awhih*. tlif'\ tir**t t'literrd thf iiativi* Iiiiiim*s. Thev 
f'Hind rvvr} thing in them lU'at. with lU'ts ext«'ndiMl lM*tween 


nt*ptile proved inofFensive. The sifpiM of his prisoners were in- 
t4*rpretect to repeat hen> the welcome tale of gold. Ho ^ „ ^^ 
iiiiiU-rstood them to refer to a king decked with gold. Soi«»bM*i 
•• I ilo not, however," he ailds, *'give much credit to these "■*" •^^•^ 
a(i*i-<»iintA, for I understand the natives but imperfectly/* *^ I am 
pHM^eetling solely in quest of gold and spices/* he says 1492. oe> 
apftin. fobtrsi. 

i >ii Sundav they went ashore, and found a house from which 
ihf* «icru|KintH hail recently departed. The foliage was en- 
chanting. FltH*ks of imrrots olMcured the sky. Specimens 
wi'n* g-atiu^rtul of wontlorful trees. They killetl a snake in a 
l:ik«\ Th«*v c*ajoli*d some tinii«l natives with l>eads, and got 
tlii'ir help in lilling their w:it4*r cask. Tliey heard of a verk' 
l:ir;;i* ishind named Colha. which hail ships and sail- ^.^i^ 
i»r«, as the nativ«*M W€?n» thought to say. They had— ^'•^**'" 
littK* douht that thes«> stories rt*ferreil to Ci[)ango. They hoped 
tlif native king would hring them gold in the night : but thia 
11* it hapiNMiin;:, .and being cheereil by the aivounts of Colha, 
tlii'V niadi* up their minds that it would l>e a wast«* of time to 
M'ari'h lon<;t'r for thi> 1 tack ward kinic, and so resolvtil 

, . \\91. (V- 

ti» run for thi* bi^ i^laiul. ioii^'r-.M 

Starting from UaU^la at midnight on OotoWr 24, 
;inii iKis^ing othrr smaller i*«lands« they finally, on Sunday* 
( K'toU'r -»'». fnterinl a rivrr near the eastiTly end of ,,,.,^,1,^, j^^, 
< iiba. 

Th** tra«'k i»f (*<ihiiubns frtmi Salvador to Cuba has Imn'U 
a- variou*«ly diH|Mit4Ml as tlu* landfall : indee<l, the divergent 
vifw^ of till* landfall neifs-Mtati* surh later variations. 
TIh'V lauilt'd within the river's mouth, and diM*ov- 
t^nil desATted hiiiiM'N. wliirh fn>m the implements within they 
•ii|tpiK«4*<l to In* till* iiiiUHi>s of fishermen. Columbus olis«>rvi>d the gniss *^v\'\\ down to the water*s edge : and he rt*asoned 
th«*refnim that tin- *«i*a eould never be rough, lie now observed 
moiintaint. and likened them to those of Sieilv. lie linaliv 
viip|io4«««i his pri<iiner<« to af^rm by their sign-* that tli«' island 
was too large for a eaniN* to sail n>iind it in twenty days. 

rhen> were tl Id -t< tries of «ndd : but the mention 

of |i^arU ap]N*ars \v\\\ fur tli«' first tim«' in the journal, 

whirh in this plai-e. however, we have tuily in l^as Casas's 



' natives pointed to the interior and said, " Cuba- 
iiiiig, it \% supposed, an inland region, ColumboB 
i^^iiied it was a reference to Kublai Kban ; and 
Cuban name of Mangon he was very ready to asBO- 
te with the Mangi of Mandeville. 
1 coasted westerly he found river and village, and 
,se of his prisoners than had before been possible. 
by this time to liave settled into an acquiescent 
voiidered in one place at statues which looked like 
was not quite sure whether the natives kept them 
if the beautiful, or for worship, 
domesticated fowl ; and saw a skuU, which he sup- 
cow's, which was probably that of the sea-calf, a 
lese waters. He thouglit the temperature cooler 
ther islauds, and ascribed the change to the moun- 
liserved on one of these eminences a protuberance 
like a mosque. Such interpretation as the Span- 
make of their pi-isoners' signs convinced them that 

ed on. Bad weather, however, delayed them, and 
)L'ned communication with the natives. They could 


HpiivH, which were shown to the people. In reply, his iuet»- 
M'li^ers learned th»t such thingH gn?w to the southeast of them. 
(*olumbuH later* in his first letter, 8i)eakH of cinnamon as one of 
the (tpiccH which thcv finnul, but it turnetl out to be the bark of 
a sort of laun'l. L:tH C'asas, in mentioning this expedition, says 
that the S|Kiniards found the natives smoking small tubes of 
lirietl leaves, tilhsl with other leaves, which they called 
ftJHtcn^. Sir Arthur lleips aptly n^niarks on this 
trivial discover)' by the Spanianis 4if a great financial resource 
of ni«Mifrn statesmen, sintrc tob:u.vo has in tlit* cn<l ]>n»Vi*d more 
]iriHlu«'tivi» to the S|);uiidh crown than the gold which Columbus 
>4iuglit. The Spaniards fountl iw large villages : but they |>er- 
•*t>ivcil great .stores of fine cotton of a long staple. They found 
the |>e«)ple eating what we must r« -cognize as potxitoes. 
The absenee «>f gold gave Coliunbus an op|K>rt unity to 
wish nii>n* fervcntlv than lH'fi>re for the conversion of some of 
theiM* |H*«»ple. 

Whih' this party was absi'nt. i'olumbus found a quiet beaelu 
ami careentni his ships, 4»ne at a time. In melting his tar, tlie 
wimti whi4*h he iiseti gave out a |Miwcrfnl inlor. and he pn»- 
iioun(*eil it tilt* nia>tic gum, which Kun)|H> lia«l always got from 
Chii»s. As this work was going on. tlit* Spanianis got from the 
iiativi-st, aN Ik's! they eon Id, many i lit i mat ions nf larger wealth 
ftnd t*timmen*e to tin* siuithcast. Other strange stories nn,^,^ 
were told of men with one eye. and f:uvs like ilogs, JJ^Ij'I^b 
:ind of cruel, blixMlthirsty man-eater^, wlii» f«night to rauuiau. 
jip| their ap|N'tit<* on the tlesli of tli«* slain. 

It was not till tli«* 1-tli of No Vf I idle I that Columbus left this 
hrMpit;ible liavrn. at «lay break, in M*arch of a place j^^. !fo> 
eallinl lial NM pie. " w lien* gold was coUectetl at night ••■^■' '-• 
by tfirch-light ii|N»n the shon*, and afterwanl ham- "W"*!^- 
mercfl into bars." I It* the more readilv n*trac(Hl his traek, that 
th«* coast to the westward s«M*me<I to trend northerlv, and he 
drpade«l a c«»lder climate. He must leave for an4>ther time tlie 
«ight i>f men with tails, who inhabite<t a pn»vinct> in tliat direc- 
tion, a^ he was iiiforme«l. 

Again the histi»rian reoogniz«*s h(»w a chaniv turned the 
Spanianis awa> from a gn-ater goal. If i*«dunibus had gone 
on westerly ami dis<>overed the insular character of Cuba, he 
might have wmght the main of Mexii*o and Yucatan, and anti- 


Bvonders of the conquest of Cortez. He never waa 

In believing that Cuba, was the Asiatic main. 

1 sailed ba^k over his course with an inordinate idea 

I of the is>untiy which he was leaving. He thought 

tc ; that their simple belief in a God was easily 

enlarged into the true faith, whereby Spain 

t gain vassals and the church a people. He 

lUaged to entice on board, and took away, six men, 

, and three children, condoning the act of kidnap- 

monizers call it *' retaining on board " — by a pur- 

h them the Spanish language, and open a readier 

i;ir benighted souls. He allowed the men to have 

[liare their durance, as such ways, he says, had 

Kl on the coast of Guinea. 

■i-al says in his first letter, referring to his captives, 
I] mediately understood each other, either by words 
1 waa his message to expRctant Europe. His 
[■ fi-oni conveying that impression. 

low steered east-by-south, passing mountainous 

., which on November 14 he tried to approach. 

n while he discovered a harbor, which he could 


ft^^ar, for it was a 8|iot whi^rc the ouc^-eyc<t pe<»plc and the can- 
iiilKils it welt ; but tin Sat unlay, Niivouiber 24, the 149^ ji^^. 
>hi|)H wore forivtl back int«» the j^ulf with the many •«»^''-* 
i<«IanilH, wlu're C\>luuibu8 found a desirable ruadsteail, which he 
ha4l not U^fore diseoven*d. 

On Sunday, expiorin;; in a Inrnt, he found in a Htream ^*eer> 
tain stomas wiiieh siione with s|K)t4 t>f a goKlen hue : ^^*^ ^^ 
anil retMllertiug that j^nhl w:ls found in the river *•■**•'-■ 
Tairus near the sea, he entertained no doubt that this was the 
nit'tal. an«l dinvtcnl that a eollertion of the stones should lie 
nia«le t4> carry to tin* Kin<^ and Quei^n.'* It beinimes notice- 
alilr, as l\>lund»us (^im's on, that rvrry new place sur|ias8es all 

• •th(*rs; the atniosphrn* is better: the trees art* more marvelous, 
lie now found pines tit for masts, and seeuriHt some for the 
•• Nnia. 

Ah ht* t*i»a*<t<Ml the next day alon<^ what he l>elievecl to be a 
t*<»ntint*nt.d roa&t. he tried in his journal to :ui*ount for the 
ati<M-nii* i>f tiiwns in s«) lH*autifuI a eountrv. Tluit there W'jre 
inhabitant^ hi* knew, for he found tratvs of them on {jT^nn;; 
^ohiinr. Ilo had ii si 'overtoil that all the natives hail a ^reat 

• In ail iif a |N>opli* whom they ealli*d CanilKi or Caninia, and he 
.ir;:ui't| that tli«* tttwuN wrre kr|)t bark Innw x\\v roa>t to avoid 
tilt- fliani't"^ of thr iiiaritiini* atta«'ks tif this tirrct* |>t't)|)lc. Yhcrt* 
U.I- ini d'Mibt in tilt' mind of Coliniibns that these inro;uls were 

• ifnilurfiil by **ubji'rl-» itf thi* (iii*at Khan. 

Wliilr 111' was '•till '•tri'trliini; his course aloui^ this ciKtst, 

• fb^-rvin:: \x^ h.irlNir-. '«f'«-ini; iimrt* siirns of habitation, and 
:Att*niptin-.; t«i Ip»M iiitiTi'iMirM* with the fri;;htene«i natives, now 
:kn'-hiiiiii;^ in ^mnc liavm. and now riinnini; up adj:uvnt riven 
.:. a ^alli*y, hi' fniiiid tiiM<* ti» jot down in this journal for the 
: itiin* {HTUvd of lii-» *«iivi'n'ii;ns sonu' of bin suspicions, pniphe- 
t ii-«. anil dit<'iniiiiatii»ii'«. lb* couiplains of the difKeultv of 
i»ii«l«r^tandiii^ lii^ pi-i«iiiH'i-'«. and s«*<'ms nuiscious f»f his fn*- 
•( I* lit nii«<*oiii'i ]itiiiii*« Iif tlii-ir nicanin;^. lie s.'iys he h:is losit 
r>*ntidrn(*«' in (lit- 111. and snnirwhat iiiniH*eiitIy iniai^incs that they 
«<»al«l fs«*a|if it tlH*y ciiiiM! Then lie s|N'aks of a determine 
tiiin to a«*i|tiir«* f bi'ir Ian'jna::i', which ht* sup|Mi4i's to lie the 
!hniu;;h all the rcvrinn. *' In this wa\/* he adds, '* we can 1 
tiir riclH*-* of the i*iMiiitr\. and mak«> riideavon^ to i*onvert thfwe 
{iMipU* to our n'IiL;i<>M. fm they an* without even the faith of 


lie descants upon the salubrity of the air ; not one 

Itad Iiad auj illness, " except an old man, all bis life 

1 the stone." There is at times a somewhat amuB- 

in his conclusions, as when finding a cake of wax 

^ houses, which Las Casas thinks was brought from 

" was of the opinion that where wax was found 

e a great many other valuable commodities." 

I were now detaioed in their harbor for several days, 

!i the men made excursions, and found a populous 

I'y succeeded at times in getting into commuuicatioit 

m\i the natives. Finally, on December 4, he loft the 

lurto 8anto, as he called it, and coasting along east- 

lied the uext day the extreme eastern end of what 

\ now know to be Cuba, or .fuana as he had named it, 

r Priuce Juan. Cruising about, he seems to have 

Lhension that the land he had l>een following might 

I be the main, for he appears to have looked around 

f side of tlus end of Cuba and to have seen the 

\' trend of it'( coast. He observed, the same day, 

1 the southeast, which his Indians called Bohio, 

RiS subsequently named Espauola. Las 

riiK isLASDs ASH THE HKTuny voyage. •229 

ent4«ro<K and which was o|>|M>site Tortit;^, when a skatt* leaped 

iiit«> thrir InkU, and tiie Admiral nHMtrds it :is a first instauM* in 

whirh thi*y had mvii a lish siinihir to thf»sc of th<* Spaninh 

wat4*rs. llr s:iys, t«N), that he huanl on the shore ni;;htin;^alefl 

''and other Spanish hints/* mistakini^ of eonrse their identity. 

Ill* s:iw nivrtlrs and 4ith<*r trees ** like tliosi* of C^Lstile/* There 

wan another ohvinus n*fen>nee t4» the (d<l e<inntrv in the name 

•if Kspafuda, whirh lie now U'stowetl ii]N»n the island, lie e<nild 

lind f«»wof the inhahitaiits, and eonji*i*tiinHl that their t^iwns were 

hark from tlie eua^t. Tli«* men. however, t*a|>tnnMl a handsome 

youn;; woman wli<» wore a hit 4>f <;oM at her nose : and having 

UmowisI u|Min her j^ifts. h*t her ;;o. StM»n after, the Admiral 

•«*nt a |uirty t4i a town of a thous^md houses, thinkin;; the luek 

of the woman woidd emhohlrn tin* ]HM)|iIe to have a |iarley. Tlie 

inhahitants tle«l in fear at first : hut ^rowin;^ iMtlder eaine in 

^*at erttwds :ni<l hn»ui;ht ])res«-nts of |»arri>ts. 

It was here that Cohimhus tintk his latitude and found it to 

be 17', — while in fart it was 'JO'. The journal drives . . ^ 

^ , e.auoiiwi* 

nuuienMis in^tanei's din-in<; all these «>xidonitions 4if «•!•»■ i*" w- 
the U*stowini; uf names n|M)u headlands and harlntrs, 
few of wliieli have remaiiUMi to this tlav. It wan a eommon eiw- 
turn to make >urh \\<v nf a Saint's name on his natal day. 

I)r. Shfa in a ]ta]ier which he puhlisheil in l-^Tt*. in the finit 
vnlum** of tin* .\nnrir,t/i ( \itftn!ir Ottnrf* rh/, has emidiasized 
iIr* help whit'li the |{«>iMaii nomenelature of Saints* s^nu' 
days, ijiven to river^ and headlamU, affonN to the "•*"•■ 
jyw^s^raphieal student in trarkiu;; the early explon^rs alon^ the 
caja««ts of th(* XfW Wnrld. This nietli<Ml of traein;4 the pro;jn»aii 
of maritime (liM*overv sM^iresti^I it^df earlv to Ovii^ht, and has 
Kren a|i|H*aIe4l to 1>y II«-nry C Murpliy and other modem 
Autli«»rities on thi<i ^iiIijiTt. 

Finally, on Friilav. PeerniU^r 14, they sailett out of the har- 
iirir tnwani TtirtUL:a. He found this island to lie under ^.j.. iv. 
rii«'n%ivi» eultivation like a plain of C'ordoha. The *■*"•*"'• 
vimi not hohlini: for him to take the iNuirsi* whieh he wished 
to nin. Columhus rrtnrniMl to his last harlK>r, the I'uerto de la 
ronrte]M*ion. A;;ain on Sat unlay he left it, and standing 
to Tortupi onee niorr, lit* went towartls the shore 
■ad pm(*it!ede<l up a stream in his U^its. The inliab- 
itaati fled as he appnKielK*^!, and burning fires in Tortnga 


KspaHola seemed to be signals that the Spaniard* 
,'. Duriug the night, proceeding along the channel 

two islands, the Admiral met and took on board & 
i:tn in hia canoe. The usual gifta were put upon 
urn the sliips anchored near a villii^e, he was sent 
the customary effect. The beach soon swarmed with 
ered with their king, and some came on board. The 
,'ot from tlieui without difficulty tlie bits of gold 

wore at their ears and noses. One of the captive 
> talked with the king told this " youth of twenty- 
lie Spaniai-da had eame from heaven and were going 

Biibeque to find gold ; and the king tolil the Admi- 
I's messenger, who delivered to him a present, that 
i in a certain course two days he would arrive 
■! is the last we hear of Babeque, a place Columbus 
. at least under that name. Humboldt remarks that 
iientions the name of Babeque more than fourteen 

journal, but it canuot certainly be identified with 
s the UiUorie of 1571 declares it to be. D'Avezao 
h^red Humboldt's view. Las Casas hesitatingly 
light have referred to Jamaica. 

rut: isL.iSDs Asn the hkturs voyage. 231 

fn>in thi*ir ImnHos, eaU*ii out by the cannilialH. This the Admiral 
till I not U^irvt*.** It w:ui now, too, that the S|KUiiartIs found 
<;i)l«l ill hir«;iM* <|ii:intitios than they h:ul seen it lie fore. They 
HAVi sc>nu* lK*at4'n into thin plates. The cacic|ue — hero this 
word api^ars for the first time — cut a plate as lii^ 
a.H his hand into piere.s and l);irti.*rtMl them, promirtinjr 
to have more t«> exrhan*;e the next day. He }(a%'e the Span- 
ianln t«t unihM'stand that there vtxxs nion' ;;ohl in Tortu;^a than in 
KH|iaiiiiIa. It is to l>e n'niarked, also, in the Adniirarn a(*count, 
th:it while *M)iu* Lord ** is n4)t reeordi^l as indii^atin^ to him any 
nii'ihiMl of eonvertin;; the |K)or heathiMi, it w:ts *' Our Lord ** who 
%ka> now ahont to direet the A«hniral to Ii:ilH>(pu*. 

The next «iav. l>t*fi>ndK*r 18, the Admiral lav at anehor, both 
lMH>aUM^> wind faih'd him, and lH*«*aus«* he would lie n.,. ^^ 
ahli* to M*<* the ^old whirh th«* eaeitpie had pnmiisiHl «*"*^'**- 
to lirin;;. It alM> ;;avr him an op|N)rtnnity to deek his shi|i6 
and tire his ^uns in honor of the Annuneiation of the Blessed 

In dm* tim«' thi* kini^ ap|N>ared, lN»rne on a sttrt of litter hy his 
m**n. and Uiardini; tlir ship, that ehivftain found Cohnnhus at 
taMt' in \\\^ iMliin. The rariipii* wa<« pI:i«'«Ml li('>iili' thi* Admiral, 
and oiiiiil:ir viands and drinks wrri' plai'«'d U^fore him. of wliiidi 
ht- ] Mill ink. Twit of liis dusky foIIi»wi'r>, sit tin:;; at his feet, fol- 
I'lMiil t1i«-ir ni:i^t«'r in thr aet. ( 'ohnid»n<i. oli<«i>rvin;; that the 
h.iii^ln::-» of hi^ hrd h:iil attraett'*! tlu* atf«'nfi<in of th«* sava^«*, 
^a\i* th<*in til him, and adiltMl t«» thi* prr^'Ut souk* andnT In^ads 
from hi-» •»v\n ni'rk, <*«imi' re«l shin***, and a tia>k of onin;;i*-f lower 
mat'-r. " This day." -ays th«' rreord, *' litth* j^tdil was ol»t:iin<*<l ; 
I'Ut an <iM man indii-ated that at a di-tamv of a hundred 
i*-.i;:n**-» or niiiri' witi* some islands, wlu'ri' much iroKI eould l>e 
fiiMniJ. auil in -oinr it w:is S4) ph'ntifid that it was roUrcti'd and 
bi»It«*il with '•ii'Vi*'. ihi-n niidttnl and lN*:it«*n int«i divers forms. 
Oiii- iif x\\v \Aa\\k\^ w.i-* saiil to l>t> all ;;iild. and the Admiral 
dt-t'Tiniiii-il to ::ii in th** ilin'«'tion wiiirli this man point«*i|.** 

Tliat ni::ht t}i«'y tii«-il in vain to *>taiid out lM>yi>nd Tortn«va, 
ImiI (ill tli«* .tMli lit nri-rnilN'r, till' ri'eiird places the n.^. ^^ 
•hip'* in a hailMir lii'twrcn a little i«*iaiiil. whi«*li Colum- ••'"^'■^ 
I'lis raUcil St. Tlioiiia**. and the main i*»land. Ihirin;; the follow- 
in;; day, l>ii-cnilNT -1, he snrvey«*<l the roadstead, ami ^ 
going about the re;; ion in his boatH, he luul a num- 


iews with the natives, which ended with an inter- 
ts and courtesies. 

uy, December 22, they encountered some people, 
: by a neighboring cacique, whom the Adntiral's 
L Indians could not readily understand, the first of 
iitioncd in the journal. Writing in regard to a 
Jiiluinbus at this time sent to visit a large town 
speatu of having his secretary occomjiany them, in 
>ss the Spaniards' greediness, — an estimate ot his 
eh the Admiral had not before suffered himseli to 

were three fat geese and some bits of gold. As 
e adventure in his journal, be dwelt on the hope of 
n the island in abundance, and if only the spot 
lid, it might be got for little or nothing. " Our 
>ae hands are all things, be my help," he cries. 
in his mercy, direct me where I may find the gold 

ral now Icanis the name of another chief officer, 
)se precise ixiaition was not apparent, but Las 
i later that thi» word was the title of one nearest 


utriiok :i sand hank. Tin* cry (»f tlu* Im)v awakencNl tin* Actmi- 
ral, and liv was tlio lirst to disco vor tlu* dan^^rr of tlit*ir situa- 
tion. Ml* onlereil out a l>o:it*s c*rew to rarrv an anchor asU^ni, 
hiiU lH*wiKh*rv<l or fri^ht4*n«Ml, the niiMi pulled ft>r the ^' Nina.** 
Till* 4*rt*w of that caravel warned thfui off, to do their duty, 
and st*nt thfir own hoat t4) assist. Ilelp, luiwever, availe<l noth- 
iii;:. The ** Santa .Maria ** had eareenud, and her seams werv 
• i|H*nin||^. Hit mast had lM*en eut away, but she failetl to right 
hfrself. I'he .Vtlniinil now aUindoned her and rowed to the 
'* Nina ** with \\\< men. Connnunieatin^ with the eaei(|ue in the 
UKirnini;, that chieftain sent many canoes to :iHsist in unloading 
tlie *ihii>. so that in a short time everything of value was saved. 
Thi- a»i<tistanc<* gave occasion for nnitnal euntitlences between 
the Spaniards anil the natives. ** They are a loving, uneovetous 
|k*ople/* he enters in his journal. One wonders, with the later 
e\|ierii*nt*i* of his new friends, if the e:u'i(pie could have saitl as 
much in n*turn. The .Vdniiral U^gan t4i 1h* c«>nvinevd that ^^the 
I»rd hat I ]H*rmittctl the shipwr(*ck in order that he might 
rh«M>s«* this place for a sctth*nient.** The canon iziTs go further 
ami *»ay. ** the shipwrt^ck made him an engineer.** 

IrviniT. hIiosc hceiUc^s end)flli>hnicnts of tlie storv of these 
:imeH may aniiis<> tin* pastime reader, but lianlly .satisfy the 
«tudi*ut. wa*i not blind to the misfortunes of wiiat Cobimlius at 
tht* time 4*alled tile divint* int4'r|)o**i(ion. ** This shipwre(*k.** 
Irvin:; siiy-. '* shaeUled and limited all (*olumbus**« future dis- 
i-iiverie^. It linked his fortinies for the rem.iinder of his life to 
ibi^ i'^Lind, \^iiii'li was tl(M)nieil to be to him a soun*e 4)f cares 
2in«l troubles, to involve him in a th«>us:iud |NTplexiti<'s, and to 
UM-loud hio tlecliuing yt*ars with humiliatiiui and disiipiMiint- 
nifitt. " 

The living of his stoivs and tin* li>ss of his >hip had inib*4*d 
:ilri-aily su^trr^ted what s4»uu' of his men had asked for, that 
\\\*'\ nii;:lit Ih' li'ft there, while the Atlmiral returniMl to Spain 
with the ti«liui;o of tli«* discovcrv. if — as the unc4>m fort able 
tii«ju:;ht s|irun;; up in his mind — he had n(»t aln*ady lN*on 
antieipatisl by the recreant 4*i)mniantlerof th«* ** Pinta.** Aeconl- 
inirlv ( *olunibus onlrred the eimstrnction of a fiirt, 
«ith lower ami diteh. ami arningi'Mient'* wen* scmiu 
nuiih* t<» provide im-ad and wine for umh* tlian a ycar« beside 
I for th«* next planting-time. The ship's long-boat eonld bt 


calker, oarpeuter, ooojier, engineer, tailor, and sur- 
be found among his company, to be of the party 
J remain and " search for the gold mine." He says 
ected they would collect a ton of gold in the interval 
nee ; " for I have before protested to your High- 
adds as lie makes an entry for his sovereigns to read, 
irofits shall go to making a conquest of Jerusalem." 
w the naiues of those who agreed to stay on the 
land. Navarrete discovered the list iu a proelama- 
on made in 1507 to pay what was duo them to their 
. This list gives forty names, though some accounts 
ige say they numbered a few less. The company 
e Irishman and Englishman already mentioned. 
!7th of December, Columbus got the first tidings of 
le " Piuta " siuee she deserted him ; and he sent a 
pauiard, with Indians to handle the canoe, to a har- 
end of the island, where he supposed Pinzon's ship 
lunibus was now jrerfecting his plans for the fort, 
J make out if Guacanagari, the king, was not trying 
) conceal from him the situation of the mines. On 

•ary C 


bus understood one of hifl Indians to announce the oariqae*s 

Having iH>nnni*«>ii)ned Diep^ dc Arana as t-oinmander and 
Ptnlro (iutUTrt'z :iiul K<Kli*rip> de (ImhivihIo to ai*t aM iiis licn- 
tonants of tin* fort and iu tliirtv-nini* mm, C\>Iunil>ur now ein- 
l»:irki*d« hut n4»t U*fore ho had addrfSMnl all sorts of )^iod advice 
to those ho was t^i loavr lK*hind, — advii*e that did no good, if 
tho siibMN|U('nt ovontH an* olearly divined. It was not« however, 
till Fritlay, •lanuarv 4, 141t3« tliat the wind |>erniitt<.'d ,4^ j^,^ 
him to »tan4l out of thr harUir of the Villa de N'avi* ^^*' 
(lad, as hi* hati nanunl the fort and settlement fn>ni the fact of 
liiH >hi|iwnH'k there on the day of th9 nativity. Two 
(lav'« later thev met the ** Pinta." and Pinzon, her 
«iinii I lander, H<Nm lMiarili*<l the Admiral to explain his absence, 
'*<i>ni^ he had left air«(iiiHt hi<« will.** The Admiral doubted 
«iifh prtifessionn : hut did nut think it prudent to show active 
i^'s«*iitnient. as Las (*asas tells im. The fact ap|Kirently was that 
Piii/.on had nut found the pdd ho went in si*an*h of and so he 
fiail n*tiirn«*d to meet his eommander. lie had Is^en (*oasting 
th«' i.-hinil for t»ver twentv davs, and had Is'en seen bv the 

mm * 

natives >«ho made the n*|M)rt t4i the .Vilmind aln'a4ly menti«ine<l. 
Siiiuf ludianH \iliiim In* hail tak4*n raptive were snlisi^ipicntly 
n-Ii-XMil liy tli«* Aiiniiral, fi»r th<* u*inal ult<'rior pur|Nis«*. It ia 
«Mirii»UH to oliMTVi* imw an act 4if kldnappin;; whieh emulated 
xhv Atlniirar<i. if ditiie h\ I*iu7.«>n, is (*alle<l by the eanunizers, 
*• jiiiuini; viohiuM* t«) rapine/' 

.\t till** tiiiif t 'iilunihu^i r<*c*«>nls his first int«dIip>noe respecting 
an i*»laTiil. Vamavi'. *iiiuth of (*ulia, whieh s«*ems to have 
U'fii .Lini:iii*:i. ulii-rr. as lie h'arn<>d, pdd was to In* 
fouml in ;:r:iiiio nf ttif *»i/4* of lM*aus, while in Ks|i:iri4>la the 
j^raiuH wi-r»* niail\ llu* *«i/i* of ki*rnrls of ^»heat. lie >%as also 
:nfiiinii'il of an i«l:ini| l«i th«* eant, inhabittMl hv women t>nlv. 

ill* alMi unili'r<»t I tliat lln* {NMiplr of the 4Mintint'nt ti> the S4mth 

wtT*' t-liitlifii, :iii«l iliil iiiit «jii nakiMl likt* tli4i<4' 4»f tin* i-lamU. 

Ilitli \i"»<*i U niiw li:i\iii:^ hiadf a harbor. an«l the ** Nina" Uw 
;:iniiin:; t<i IimU. a «i;i\ u:i** *«|n-ii( ju ealkiui; Iht *m*:iiiih. (\dinn- 
l>!i« wa- nut \Mt limit :ipprt'liiii^ii>n that tin' cvn |iri>th«'r<i. Martin 
\liin«iti l*in/«in ^f tin* " l*inta.' an«l Vi(*en!f tlani*/ l'in/.i>n who 
ii:iil eommandi-il tin- "Nina.* mi;;ht now witli their ailh«*ri*nts 
• tiiiliiiii- for uiiM-liiif III- wa<* a4M*4>rdin«'l\ all th«' m4>re anxious 



s departure, without further following the coast of 
Going up a river to repleuish liis water, he found oa 
casks on board tliat the crevices of the hoops h»d 
le bits of gold from the stream. This led biu to 
oigbboring streams, which he supposed might also 

t, only gold which he saw. Three mermaids stood 
;li out of the water, with not very comely faces to 
sure, but similar to those of human beings ; and he 
■ailed having seen the like on the pepper coast is 
he commentatora suppose they may have been sea- 
.inctly seen. * 

iihips started once more on the 10th, sometinm 
iig to at night for fear of shoals, making and nmm* 
X cape after cape. On the 12th, entering a harbor, 
ihirabus diauovered an Indian, whom he took for a 
irib, as be had learned to call the cannibals whioh 
.so often heard of. His own Indians did not wholly 
thia strange aavage. When they sent him ashore 
lis found fifty-five Indians armed with bows and 
irds. They were prevailed upon at first to hold 


tribe of wouiou livttl. He had i;otU'D the HtA>ry somehow, very 
likely by u erotlulou.s atlaptatiou of Marco Polo, that carihaa^* 
the C;iril>s visiti»<l this islaucl once a yi»ar and re- ^"'•■•"^ 
L*kuiiu*d thi* male offspring, leaving the female young to keep 
u|i thi* triln*. 

In followiii;; the Admiral along these coasts of Cuba and 
K?*|Kii'iohi, no attempt has here been made to identify ail his 
ba\s and rivers. Navarrt*te and the other com men tatom have 
d<»ne s<>. but ni»t always with a;;reement. 

On tlif Itkh. they had tlieir last hnik at a distant cape of 
E<t|iariiila, and were then in tlie bniad iKrean, with sea- xwl. Jim- 
wt'ed ami (unnie?« and |H.*Iieans t<» break its mttiiutony. ^' '^ 
The ** Pinta,'* havini^ an nuMiund mast, bigged liehind, and so 
the ** Nina ** liad to ^hleken sail. 

i*obnubtis iiiiw tnUt>wi*<t ai*ours(> which for a long time, owing 
to defect^ in the niethiHls i»f aset*rtaining longitude, i t imwiij 
was till* mariner's ri*a4lii'st reciuirse t4> reaeh his |>ort- '"'■■* 
Thi?« wa^ to run up liis latitudes to that of his destination, and 
thru foll<»w tht' parallid till lie sighte«l a familiar laiithnark. 

i(y February l(^ when they lK>g:ui t4i compare ret*koning8, 
fuliiuibu** plari'd bi<i |x»iti«»n in the latitude of Fionas, ,|«p, ^^^ 
wliilf- ill*' '■tliiT'i thi>u:^lit tli«»y wen* on a nion» southern "**''*" 
c«>iirM*, auil a liniitlrnl ami fifty leagutw nearer Spain. Hy the 
I'Jtli it wa> :ippari-iit that a irah* wa** coming on. The next day, 
Ft'bruarv lo. tii«* *«tiirni int'reaM*<l. PuriniT the fol- 
liiMiiii; ni.;l)t Uitli vt'OM*!*. ttMik in all s:iil and s^Mubbnl 
U-f«tM' tlif wiiitl. Tlii*y l<i*«t Mii^lit of eai*li other's lights, and 
Dt-vfr JMin«iI ('.ini]i:iny. Tii«' ** Piiita ** with her weak mast wan 
bliiwri a\»ay !•> tlir utirtli. The .Vilniirars ship e«iuld In^ar the 
iHili* lifttiT. but a^ iii*i ballast was insutlieient, he had 

. A flir- 

ts » till lii^ watt-r iM^k** with S4*a-water. Sensible of 

thrir I" til. hi'* cri'W niadi* vnws, to 1n> ke]it if they were savetl. 

Th«\ 4lii*i% l«>t^ to ili-ti-riiiitif who should carry a wax ta|ier of 

fivt' |N.iiiiiU t<> >T. M.iry of (iuadalii|H*. and tin* |M*nant*<* fell to 

th*' Aiiiiiiral. A **:iil<>r bx aiiotlifr li»t was d(MMn«*4l to malu? a 

pil^tiiiia^'f to Si. .M.ii\ of l/orrtte in the impal territory. A 

third li't ua^ ilrauii for a iii^bt wateh at St. (*l:ir.i de M«>gnes, 

an^l it tVIl u|N»ii 1 'uliiiiibii-. Tlim thry all vowe<l to |»ay their 

dr\>itioii<i at ihr Urari'-t ehureh of ( hir I^dv if onlv thev init 

a»hori' ali%*e. 


oue thought which more than another troubled 

this moment, and this was that in case his ehip 
le world might never know of his success, for he 
usive that the "Picta" had already foundered. 

the crew, he kept from them the fact that a cask 
ii-h thoj- had seen him throw overboard contained 

account of his voyage, written on parchment, 
lud in a waxed cloth. He trusted to the chance of 
ling it. He placed a similar cask on the poop, to 
f in ease the ship went down. Ue does not men- 
he joiirual. 

let on tlie 15th there were signs of clearing in the 
it, and the waves began to fall. The next morning 
iunrise theie was land ahead. Now came the teat 
tlieir reckoning. Some tliought it the rock of Cin- 

near Lisbon ; others said Madeira ; Columbus de- 
ire near the Azores. The land was soon made out 
lid ; but a head wind thwai-ted them. Other land 
■n astern. While they were saying their Salve in 

some of the crew discerned a light to leeward, 
idi might have been on the island first seen. Then 


hone anil foot, and maile prisoners.** Not being able to see the 
herniitaj^ from Iiia anchorage, and not su8|)ec*ting this event, 
but htill anxious, ho made sail and proceeded till he got a view 
of the tft|>ot. Now he riaw the homeuien, and how presently they 
4li«mount4Ml, and with arms in their hands, entering a boat, ap- 
pn)a4*iied the iihip. Then foHowetl a parley, in which Columbus 
thought he diiU'overed a pur))OHe of the Portuguese to capture 
him, and they on tlieir |>art discovered it to lie not quite safe 
t4i boanl the Admiral. To enforce his dignity and authority 
:l4 a reprcHcnUitivc of the Hoven^ignn of Castile, he hold up to 
the l>oatH his eonimission with its royal insignia ; and reminded 
them that hin iustructionA iiad been to treat all Portuguese ships 
mith nni|N'ct, since a spirit of amity existed between the two 
(*rowns. It lM*htM)vc4l the Portuguese, as he told them, to be 
wary lest by any hostih* a<*t tiiey brought u)>on themselves the 
intlignation of thost* hi^^her in authority. Tlie lofty bearing of 
Castefleda c<mtinuing, i\>himbus began to fear that hostilities 
might ]>ossibly liave broken out Iwtween S|>ain and Portugal. 
So the interview ended with little satisfaction to either, and the 
Admiral n*turned to hii» old anchorage. The next day, to work 
off the lee shore. tlit*v sailed for St. Mi(*ha«*rs, and the weather 
4*r»ntinuing sti»i-iiiy he fmind hims<*lf cripple<l in having but 
three ex|H*rieii(*ed scsiinen among the crew which remaine<l to 
him. Si) not s4M*ini; St. Mieluiers thev a^^ain Ixirt* awav, on 
ThupMlav the 'iNt, f«»r St, Mary*s, and again n\aehed ,4.0^ ^^ 
their fortner anfhora«;t\ n»ry2i. 

The storms of thcM* latter (lavs here inducetl (*olumbus in his 


journal to hmmII liow plai*id ilie s(*a h:ul Immmi among those other 
new-found islantU. and how likely it was the terrestial |Miradise 
wa-i in that n^gion, as thtM)|oi;i:ins and learned philosophers had 
«iip|Mis«Hl. Fn>m thes4* thou;:hts he was arf>usetl by a iKKit from 
^lyirc with a notary on lM>ar(l« and (^)lnmbus, after completing 
hU <-ntertainmrnt of tlie vi'^itors, was askt»<l to show his roval 


o>roini'«Hi(m. lie reconU his 1)flii*f that this was done to give 
the Portnguesi* an oppurt unity of retn*ating from tlieir belliger- 
ent attitudt*. At all evrntH it had that eiftvt, and the S]»an* 
ianls who hail Into restniiutil wrn* at imci* r<*leas<*d. It is sur- 
ni^Hl that the 4*iindiiet •»( CastnV'da w.os in «*«informitv with 
iiutruc?ti<mH from Li*>l> tlftain (\>Inmbus ^ihoukl lie find his 
way to any de|)endeni'V of the Portuguese cr<»wn. 


ay, the 24th, the ship again put out to sea; on 
'wlnesday, they encountered another gale ; and on 
e following Sunday, they were again in such peril 
lade new vows. At daylight the next day, some 
[id whith they Lad seen in the night, not without 
uoniy appreheniiion of being driven upon it, proved 
ck of Cintra. The mouth of the Tagus was before 
em, and the peo]>le of the adjacent town, observing 
e peril of the strange ship, offered prayers for its 
e entiance of the river was safely made and the 
ultitude welcomed them. Up tlie Tagus they went 
Rasti'lo, and anchored at about three o'clock in 
>n. Here Colu[nbu.s learned that the wintry rough- 
lie had recently experienced was but a part of the 
?rity of the season. From this place he dispatched 
1- to Spain to convey the news of his arrival to his 
ivereigus, and at the same time he sent aletter to the 
ng of Portugal, then aojourning nine leagues away. 
u explained in it how be bad asked the hospitality 
:;uese i>ort, because the Spanish sovereigns had di- 
10 do 90, if he needed supplies. He further informed 


On the tliini day, a royal messenger brought an invitation 
fn>iu till* king to eoine and vinit the court, which Co- x^n. 
luniliuH, not without a|»|)ri*liension, aocepteil. The ''*^^*- 
kin;;*H st4*w;irtl h:ul l>ecii Hi^nt to iu*t*oni|>any bini and provide for 
his entertainment on tlie way. On the night of the 
ftillowing day, lie reai'liitl Val do Paraiso, where the «iaiuik« 
king was. This s|H)t was nine leagues from Lisbon, "* 
;&n4l it was sii|i|Niseil tliat liis rec*i*ption was not held in thai 
eity because a |H*st was raging there. A royal gn*eting was 
given to him. The king afTei*t4*d to Indie ve that the voyage of 
(\)lunibiis was made to n*gions which the Portuguese hml lieen 
alhiwetl to (H*rupy by a c<»n vent ion agrees I u{>on with S|)ain in 
147t(. The A<lmiral undeceived him, and showed the king that 
hi.H ships had Udt U'en near (luinea. 

We have aiiotlier aceiMint 4>f tliis interview at Val do Paraiao* 
in tlu* |Kiges of the Portuguese historian, liarros, tinginl, doubt- 
lens, with something of pit pie and prejudiiv, btvause the profit 
of the voyage hail not Im^ui for the btMietit of Portugal. That 
historian charges Columbus with extra vagani*e, and even inao- 
lemv, in his language to the king. He says that CVilunibus 
c*hided the mt»uan*h for the faithlessness that had lost him such 
an em]tire. lie is represented as launching these rebukes so 
Teheuiently that the attending mtbies were provoked to a degree 
nhieh pn»mpt«Hl whi>|H.*rs of ass;issinatitui. That Columbus 
ftMind his tir«t harlxir in the Tagus has given other of the older 
Portugiies«» writers, like Faria y S<ius;i, iu his Eunfpa PoriW' 
^u^ji'f, and Vasi*onrelles aiitl Hesende, in their lives of Jofto IL, 
oct^a^ion to represent that his entering it was not 8(» much in* 
ductal l>y •tin'SH of weath<*r as to sivk a triumph over the Por- 
tugu(*se king in the fii>t tlu^h of the news. It is also said that 
thf* n^dution was formed by the king t4> avail himself of the 
knowltslge 4»f twii Pnrtu<;ues«* who were f<iund among Coluui* 
hvks\ men. With their aid hi* ]>n»|Nis4*4i to send an armed ex|ie* 
dition t4) tike po<i<44*4Niiiii of the new-found rt*gions lN*fore Co- 
Inmbus in add tit out a tti*4't for a s«H*4»nd vova;;e. Knmeisi*o de 
Almeida w:is even M'h^ettil. at*eorflini: to the r<*|Nirt. to command 
thi4 fi»rro. We hear, lioweviT, nothing ni<»rt* of it, and the 
Ikill of I>emareatii»n put an end tii all su«*h rivalries. 

If, on the i^uitr.irv, we mav btdieve C<dumbus himsidf, in a 
letter which la> subsiMpiently wrote, he did not escape being sue- 


iuin of having thus put himself in the power of the 
11 onier to aurreuder the Indies to them. 
Sunday at court, Columbus departed on Monday, 
irch 11, having first dispatched messages to the 
ng and Queen o£ Spain. An escort of knights was 
jvided for him, and taking the monastery of Villa- 
i way, he kissed the hand of the Portuguese queen, 
le lodging, and journeying on, arrived at his car- 
'1 on Tuesday niglit. The next day he put to sea, 
1 on Thursday morning was oil Cape St. Vincent. 
iruiug they were off the island of Saltes, and croas- 
: bar with the flood, he anchored oo March 15, 1493, 
t far from noon, where he had unmoored the *' Santa 
uia" oversLtven months before. 
the passage thither in aeventy-one days," he says in 
1 letter ; " and back in forty-eigLt, during thirteen 
inber I was driven about by storms." 
ta," which had [jarted company with the Admiral on 
; 14th of February, ha*t been driven by the gale 
o Bayona, a port of Gallicia, in the northwest oor- 
;■ of Spain, whence Pinzon, its commander, hatl dis- 



Pktkk Maktyr tells ua of tlie common tgnorance and dread 
pervadin*; tlu* onliiiary ranks of society, before and during the 
alttenoe of C ohiiubus, in res)>ei*t to all tliat part of the earth*a 
cin*iunfen*n(*e wliicli the sun looked upon beyond Gades, till it 
a^in cast it*« rays uih)u the (xolden Chersonesus. During this 
ab!H.*nce fnun the known and habitable regions of tlie globe» 
that orb was thought to sweep over tlie ominous and foreboding 
Sea of Darkness. No one could tell how wide that sea was. The 
learniHl dis:igre«Hl in their estimates. A conception, far under 
the actual i*«>n(lition, had phiyed no small part in making the 
Toyage o( Columbus |M>ssible. Men possessed legtuids of its 
iny'«t«*ries. Fables of \U many islands were re|M.Nitc<l ; but no 
one tiien livin;; was credibly thought to have testinl its glooms 
exce]it by s;iiliii;; ,i little U^yond the (»utenn4)st of the Azores. 

It rails fur ii(» stn*ti*l) of the imagination to picture the public 
sentiment in little Pal«»s during the months of anxiety 
which many liouM*hol«ls hat] cndunMl sinc*e that /Vugust AmiMd ■* 
niornin*;, when in its dim light i'olnmbus, the Pinzons, of coiua- 
and all th<*ir i*t>ni| 1:111 ions had bt^en waftetl gently out 
to sea bv the curn'Ut and the bret*ze. The winter had been 
uuu«»ually savairc and wcinl. The navigat4ini to the Atlantic 
L«Iands liatl r**|N)rt<Hl rough iKtssagcs, and the cxrean had broken 
vihily f«>r long intervals ah»ng the nK*ks and sands of the |M*nin« 
»aUr shori*s. It is a natural movcm<*nt of the mind to wrap the 
ab«4*nt in the ^^ItHiui of tli«* pn^scnt hour ; and while Columbus 
luul Invn |i:is«.ini; ahuig the gentle waters of the new archU 
prlago« liiH actual rx|>cricm*i*H had Imhmi in strange contrast to 
tbi' turmoil «if the si*a as it washed the Kur«>|M*an shores. lie 
bail indc«>4l snfTcnMl on his return voyap' the full tnmultn- 
ou»ne«H of the i*h*mrnts, and we can lianlly fail to recognize the 
diaquiet of mind and falling of heart which those savage gales 

ren to tlie bin and friends of the untraceable wan- 

s, then, which we have of the thanksgiving and 
the people of Palos, when the "Nina" was descried 
bar of the river, fall readily amoug the accepted 
tory. Wo can imagine how despondency vanished 
luims of exultation ; how multitudes hung upon the 
ange revelations ; bow the gaping populace won- 
; bedecked Indians; and how throngs of people 
y that Cohunbus might lead the votive procession 
1. The canonizers of course read between the lines 
;s tlmt it was to the Church of Rabida that Colum- 
men now betook themselves. It matters little. 

much to mar the delight of some in the house- 
forting i-ejtorts must be told of those who were 
ivtdad. No one had died, unless the gale had sub- 
"Pinta" and her crew. She had not been seen 
iila " parted with her in the gale. 
of her rescue Iiaa already been told. She entered 
ore the rejoicings of the day were over, and relieved 
ij anxiety. 


promptly answered ; and having organiied the necessary ar- 
ningvuienU in Seville for the preparation of a fleet, he departed 
for Ban*elona to make homage to his sovereigns. His Indians 
accompanied him. Porters bore his various wonders from the 
new islands. Ills story luid preoede<l him, and town after town 
vied with each other in welcoming him, and passing him on to 
new amaz(*mentH and honors. 

By the middle of April he approai'hed Barcelona, and was 
met by thron;^ of i>ei>plc, who condiictetl him into the 
citv. II i^ Indians arraved in effective if not accus- in^ 

touted ornament of ^old, led the line. Bearers of all 
the marvels of the Indies followetl, with their forty (larrots and 
other stran;;e birils of liveliest plumage, with the skins of un- 
known anini:il<, with priceless plants that would now supplant 
the eastern spices, and with tiie prei'ious ornaments of the dusky 
kin^^H and princes whom he hail met. Next, on hiirseback, came 
(*iiltimbu?« iiinisi*lf, (Hinspicuous amid the mounted 
chivalry of Sp:iin. Thus the pr(H*ession marcheil on, iiwwver. 
thniugh cn»w<l(Hl streets, amid the shouts of lookers- 
on, to the alca/^ir of the MtMirish kings in the (\ille Ancha, 
at tiiis tinti* tiic resilience of the Bi>h4ip of l^r<^I, when* it is 
§up|Mise«l Ffnlinand and Isabella had cause<l their tiirones to be 
Act up. with a e:iiiti|»y of bnM*adetl ,i;oKl tln><»]>in;^ aUiut them, 
lien* the luoiiarehH :i\iaited the ciiuiing of i'olunibus. 

Ke rtl ilia lit 1, :i> tiie accounts pieture him, was a man whose 
mndenite ^tatun* w:i> iieijH'd by iiis erectnesh and itiB«rrttU. 
rul»es t«i a tlet-ith-d dijLjnity of carriaj;e. His expres- "•*** 
sion in the ruddv i;low of his conn >h*\ ion, clearness of eve, and 
L»ftiness o{ bniw. i^rew ^at'ious in any pleasurable excitement. 
The l^i«*en was a very >ui table (*oni|ianioii, grave and g^,^ j^ 
graceful in her (b'lneanor. Her blue eyes and auburn ^'^ 
tr%-^scs t*4ini|H)rt<-<{ with hermitwanlly l>enigii air, and one lookcnl 
•iiarpl) to M'v anuliin*^ of ht*r tirmiie^s and courage in the pre- 
Tallin:: !«weetne<«** of liei- manner. The heir ap|>arent, Prince 
Juan, wax M*ated by t)ii-ir ^ide. The dignitaries 4>f the i'ourt 
Brn* L;n»u|M>d alM>ut. 

I^SL^ 1'asa.H telU u- how comman<liiig ( olumbus hooked wlien 
hr rntennl the riMini. surroundetl by a brilliant anu- 
}«ny of cavalier?*. When In* appn>ached the n»yal iH>f«r«>a« 
ilais, both monarch-t rosi* t4» receive him standing : and 



ped to kiss their hands, they gently and graciously 
id made liim sit as tltey did. They then asked to 
lat he had seen. 

bus proceedeil in his narrative, he pointed out the 
s of his apeecli, — the Indians, the birds, the skina, 
nniiunents, and the stares of gold. We are told 
■ of the sovereigns at the close, in which all joined ; 
iant«d Te Deum from the choir of the royal chapel, 
lie thoughts of every one, says the narrator, on the 
lody to celestial delights. This ceremony ended, 
as conducted like a royal guest to the lodgings 
'en pi-ovideil for him. 

u a question if the details of this reception, whioh 
vving in imaginative fullness, and are commonly 
a thread of incidents as have been related, are 
\- the scant accounts which are furnished us in the 
Las Casai-, and in Peter Martyr, particularly since 
does not seem to have made enough of an impres- 
ime to have been noticed at all in the Dietaria of 
I'ord of events embodying those of far inferior inter- 
,ild now value them. Mr. George Sumner carefully 


bridgeii, that might cauAc new exultationB, to which the present 
were an nothing. It wan a fatal lure to the proud Spanish na- 
ture, and n(» one was doomed to expiate the folly of the delusion 
more |N>ignantly than C^olumbus himself. 

Now that India had been found by the west, as was belieTed, 
ami liariH'lona was very likely |>ulpitating with the f^^n^^ 
thought, thf HOWS spn^ail in every direction. What **^""^^ 
u en* the tlisiunvries of the Phcrnioians to this? Wliat quet- 
t if Ills t»f t'thnology, hinguage, s|)ei*ies, migraticms, ]ihenoniena of 
ull rMirts, ill man and in the natural world, were pressing u])on 
the mind, as th** i*esults were eonsideretl ? Were not theM> par- 
rtits \ihii'h Columbus had exhibited such as Pliny tells us are 
ill A Ma '.' 

The gri*at ••vent IkkI fallen in the midst of g«*ogra]>liieal de* 
Vflo|im«*iit, and \\a*« und('rst<MMl at l:u<t. Man*o Polo and the 
utlit-rs had t4ilil their murv«'ls of the The navigators of 
Primv llrnry liiul found new wonders on the sea. Uegiomon- 
tanii>, l(«'li:iini. an<l TnM*anelli had not communed in vasn with 
c<Mn<>gi-a|»liii':d pniblrnis. Kvrn errors had 1>een stepping- 
Mones : a*« when tiic Wlief in the easterlv over-«*xtcnsiou of 
A*«ia had ]iii*tiiri'd it near ('nou;:h in the \ve<t to <M»nvint'e men 
that till' lia/ard «»f tin* Sra «»f I>arknt'ss was nut so great after 

Spain \va<« thru tlif (M'utn* of nnirii activity of mind. ^* I 
am luTr." rrrords Pf'irr Martyr, '• at the soiin-c of this 
ui'Iroiiii' int«-lligfnf«* from the nt'w fouml lands, ami t^rrmmit 
an tli4> lii-«tot-ian iif siirh events. I may ho]M* to go 
do^n to |>«i-»t«Tity as their r«MM»rd<*r.** We must nMuendier this 
pnifeshion when w«> try to a4'count for his meagre rtH*orfI of the 
rt-«v|itii>n at Hat'('i-l«>na. 

That part of tli«* letter of Peter Miirtyr. datetl at Ilareelona, 
«in the ides of May. 14t*«t. which i*onveyt^l to his corn*siH>ndent 
tlif tir<*t tidings of <\ilundius*<4 r«*turn, is in thes«> wonls. as trans* 
iat4<«l by IIarris*M* : ** A eertain < 'liriHt4»plicr Colon us, a Ligurian, 
rftiinitHl from the anti|»«Hles. lie had obtained for that pnr|KMe 
thref* *»hipH from my Mtvereigns, with much difti<*ulty, lieesiuse 
the itieas whieh he expn*sse«l were considere<l extravagant. He 
came liai*k and brought s]H*eini«*ns of many pr(*<*ions things, en- 
pei*ially gokl, wliirh those regions naturally pnNlucN*.*' Martyr 
also tells us that when Pomponius I^aetus got such news, he 


1 refrain " from tears of joy at so unlooked-for an 
hat more delicious food for an ingenious mind ! " 
him in return. " To talk with people who have 
IS elevating to the mind." The confidence of Mar- 
in the belief of Columbus that the true Indies had 
iu not marked. He speaks of the islands as ad. 

uot themselves, the East. 

?abot remembered the time when these inarvelons 
igs reached the court of Henry VII. in London, 

he tells us that it was accounted a " thing more 

lich Columbus hiid written and early dispatched 
liirceloua, nearly in duplicate, to the treasurers of 
two crowns was promptly translated into Latin, and 
•ily to be issued in numerous editions, to be copied 
; Paris and Autwerp printers, and a little more 
those of Germany. 

iiowevcr, singularly little commenting on these 
lassed into print and has come down to us ; and 
nay well doubt if the effect on the public mind, 
>nd certain learned circles, was at all commensurate 


days of his sojourn in Barcelona. We hear of him riding 
through the streetn on horseback, on one side of the coIm^m is 
King, with Primv Juan on the other. '■'^ 

We And record of his being awarded the jiension of tlurty 
crownA, as the first discoverer of land« by virtue of 
the mystt^rious light, and Irving thinks that wo may SnT 
ciindtmi* thiH theft from the brave sulor who unqueti- 
tionably saw land the first, by rememlwring tliat ^* Columbus's 
whole ambition w:lh involvtKl.** It seems to others that his 
whole i*lianu*U*r was involveil. 

Wo find him a giiost at a banquet given by Canlinal Men- 
di»z:i, an<l tlio woll-known story of his making an egg ^.^ ^ |^ 
stand upright, l»y ohi|>])ing one end of it, is asHociatinl ***' 
with thin niorriniont of the table. An imiiertinont question of 
a nhalliiw ixiurtior had induootl Columbus to show a table full of 
guo<its that it was easy enough to <lo anything when the way 
Has |M»intcd out. The story, exee]>t as belonging to a tradi- 
ti«>nal HtiK*k of anecdotes, dating far back t>f Columbus, always 
n*ady for an applioatitm, has no authority earlier than Itenzcmi, 
and li>s«'<« its |N)iiit in the destru<'tiou of tho end on whic*li the 
:iim was to make it staml. Thi^ has bofu so |>:il]»;iblr to simie 
• if the n'|N«:it('rs of tlie .•«tory that they h:iv«* Mi|i|NiM*d that the 
feat w:!-* ai'eniiipliHhiHl, imt by <'i-arkini; tlio «'ii(| df the egg, but 
bv u-iii'^ :i quirk motion whicli brokt* the .H.*irk whieh holds the 
\i»lk. <Hi tli.'it that Wfi^htirr substaiitM' M'ttled at one end, and 
li:il:iii«*(tl the «';;«:: in an U|M'iglit |)ositi<»n. 

Si |i:iH<4>tl thr time uith tin* nt*w.inade hen», in drinking, as 
Irvini: ••\|in'"»M-. it. **tln' hoiH»y<»<l tlniip^ht of |iopularity before 
ffiiiiitv anti tlf'tnu'tion hail tiiu«* to drip^ it with liitterness/* 

Wf* find thi* H«iv«-rci:rii^ U'Mowiiig u|Km him. on the *20th of 
May. a i^oat of arni-i, ^^hi(*h shows a eastle and a lion fi-^i n^. 
in thf npjHT i|iiartir<«. aiiil in tliosi* Im'Iow, a gn>up of ;". oUToI *'** 
:;«»l«lfn i-lan«U in a -ra <if wa\i-, on the one hand, and *""" 
thv arin-« ti» uhii-h hi^ faniilv had liei'U i*ntithNl, <in the other. 
liumlMtldt •^iN'ak-of this an'hi|N>lago as the fir<*t map of Amer- 
ii-a, but hf apparriitlv knt'W onlv Ovitnlo's d('M'ri|)tioii of tlie 
arms for thr lattiT plaer<« tin* i^^laiids in a gidf formed bv amain* 
Und. and in this fashion tht-y an* ^ron|NNl in a blaaum of the 
arm* i^hieh i^ prcMTviMl at tin* Ministry of Foreign Aflfairs at 
Paris— -a duplieate Iwing at (iiMKKi. Ilarrisse says that this 


of his own motion, so far as Ilarrinse can discover* to have 
rhaiigtsl the blazonry of those obj<*cts in the drawing of 1502 
Ui iv^rw* with thoiM* of the royal anus. It was by the sauie ar- 
DH^aiit lictmse, ap|Nirently« tliat he introduced later the conti- 
nental short' of the archi|)eLigo ; and llarriase can Hnd uo 
rtn*onl that the anchors wen* ever by any authority added to his 
blaziin, nor that the pnifesstnl family arms, borne in connection, 
had any warrant whatever. 

Th«* rarlirst engniviHl c(»py of the arms is in the IliMoria 
(r*n*rtii of Oviedo in iri35, where a proKle helmet supi^orts a 
cn*st ii\:u\v of a gloU* top))ed by a cross. In Oviedo's Conmica 
of ir>4T. tlu* helmet is slutwn in front view. There seems to liave 
U*i*n s«ime wide tliscn*]>ancies in tlu* heraldic excursions of these 
early writ4*rs. I^is Casas, for instance, puts the golden lion in 
a nilvcr ti(*ld. - when heraldry abhors a i*on junction of metals, 
an mnrh a^ nature ablutrs a vac*uum. The dis<*ussion of the 
family arms wliirh were addetl by C\>lumbus to the escutcheon 
ukmIi* a HiHrniticant {Kirtof the arguments in the suit, many years 
hit«*r. of l(;d<l:iss:irt* ( li:dtliazar) Colombo to )M>ssess the Admi- 
rA'^ dignities : :uid i\s llarrisse ]>oints out, the emblem of those 
Italian ( N'lumbos of any pn*tensions ^o nobility was invariably a 
tlovi- tif -^oiiic kind. — a dt»vice quite distinct from those designa- 
ti-<i b\ <\>liinibiis. Tills assinn|)ticm of family arms by C*olumbus 
i<» lit'ld by IIarri<«M* !<» In* dimply a i*onccssion t4> the pn^judii^es 
of his ]t«*ri<»«l, and to the c\igi*ncit*it of his new ]>osition. 

The arm^ have lK*en changtfft under the dukes of Veragua to 
f»li«iw silver-ea|>|H^I waves in the >ca, wliih* a glolw surmounted 
by a eroH<, i<« phu^iMl in the midst of a gulf containing only five 
L»Iantl.H. • 

Then? is another lat4*r a(H*om]>animent of the arms, of which 

the origin ha.n eM*a]HHl all sean*h. ft is far mon* familiar than 

tlM- eM;ut4*he<in, on wiiicli it plays the jwirt of a mott4i. hi. ui^i^ 

It M>nietimes n*|)n*sents that (\)lumbus fimnd for the ■*^**" 

allieil eniwii-* a neM worlil. and at other times that he gave 

one ti» them. 

INir ('a-tilLi «* |M)r l^iMin 
Nik \i* Miitiilii lialli* Colou. 

A CiLotilhi, y ji \ahm\ 
NiifVii Mumlii Uiii (\iIiMi. 

f>vii*«lo is the earliest to mention thi*» distich in 1535. It is 



Historic, not as a motto of the arms, but as an 
iced by the king on the tomb of Columbus 
ter hb death. If this is true, it does away with 
Gomara that Columbus himself add«! it to his 

acy had its part to play in these events. As the 
stiaii world at that time recognized the rights of 
loly Fathei- to confirm any trespass on the pos- 
oiis uf tliL' heathen, there was a prompt effort on 
idinaud to bring the matter to the attention of 
- early as 1438, bulls of Martin V. and Eugene 
Ited the Spaniards to sail west and the Portngnese 
i:oufirmation of the same had been made by Pope 
■'ifth. In 1470, the rival crowns of Portugal and 
reetl to respect their mutual rights under these 

igi-rs whom Ferdinand sent to Kome were in- 
;imate that the actual possession which had been 
behalf of these uew regions did not require papal 
ey had met there no Christian occupants ; but that 


ids not already occupied by Christian powers, west 
n drawn one hundred leagues west of the Azores 
^ Verde Islands, evidently on the supposition that 
.lips were in the same longitude, the fact being that 
teriy of the southern, and the moat eask'rly of the 
lup possessed nearly the sitme meridian. Though 
* not mentioned in deacrihing this line, it waa un- 
t there was reserved to her the same privilege 

not as yet any consideration given to the division 
eat circle meridian was likely to make on the other 
obe, whui-e Portugal was yet to be most interested. 

Good Hope had not then been doubled, and the 
; of the division was to eouline the Portuguese to 
m of the western African coast and to aiijacent 
,vitl be observed that in the placing of this line 

phenomena which Columbus had observed on his 
1 were not forgotten, if the coincidence can be so 

Humboldt suggests that it can. 

l)hysical limit serve a political one was an obvious 
>urse at a time wlien the line of no variation was 


the new iHlands, under a pretenne as difthonorable ms that which 
oivered the ostensible voyage to the Cape de Verde Islands, bj 
whose ex]>osure Columbus had been driven into Spain. The 
S|ianish monarch was alert enough to get quite befon>haud with 
his n>val brother. Ikforc the ambassador of which mention 
ban lMH*n made had come to the Spanish Court, Ferdinand had 
diH]uit<*h<Hl Ijo|h* de llorrera to Lisbon, anui*d with a concilia- 
tory and a dt*nun€*iat4>ry letter, to uat* one or the other, as he 
might Knd the iHinditions demandiHl. Tlie Portuguese historian 
Itcsende tells us that Jti&o, in onlcr to give a wrong 8ct*nt, had 
o|N*nly lH*!«towotl largesses on some and had secretly suborned 
otIu*r meuiU^rs of Ferflinand*s cabinet, so that he did not lack 
for knowletlge of the SiKinish intentions from the latter mem- 
Imts, lie and his ainbasHailors wen* accordingly found by Fer- 
dinand ti» lie inexplicably ])rei)an*il at every new turn of the 

In this way •loSo h:ul Uhmi informe«l of the double mission of 
Ilerrvnt. and iH»uld av<»id the issue witli him, while he sent his 
i>Hn :unb:issa4lor> t4) Spain, to jironiise tliat, |)emling their nego- 
tiations n«i V(*s<i4*l should sail on any vovasre of dis4*overv for 
>i\ty tlav"*. Tliey \\vn* also to pro|>ose that inst4*ad of the |Ki|)al 
lint*, one >lioiili| U* dniwn due west from the Canaries, giving 
all ht'W diM'4iviTi('<« north to the SpanianU, and all s<nith to the 
I'>*rtii;rii<'M>. Tlii*i new move Fenlinand tiinitMl to his own advan- 
t:k^\ for it gavf liitii th«* op|M)rtiinity t4» I'Uter u]M»n a i*ourse of 
<iiploma4*y viliirli hv ouiM exti'ud long enough to allow Columbus 
Ui gi't off with a new aniiament. lie th«*n sent a fresh embassy* 
with instruction** to mow slowly and protract the diM*ussion« 
but t4> n*s4irt« wh«*ii eom|x*llctl, to a pro|K>sition for arbitration. 
J4d4> wait foiltil and he knew it. ** Thes4* ambassadors,** he said, 
** liave no fet't to hurry and no ht*ad to pro|N>und.** The S|KUI- 
i*h ^ame was tiif lM'«»t player K and the INirtuguese king grew 
fn tful niidrr it. and ititiniat«*<l Hoinetimes a pur]iose to pniceed 
U» vioK*nr<», but h«' w:i«. n'Htr.rm4*<l iiv a U'tti^r wisilom. We de^ 
Iitf*nd mainly u|Nin tin* INirtugUfsc historians for nnd«*rstanding 
tli«*s«* complication'., and it in to In* h«»|N^l that some time the 
an-hives of thr V:itir:iii mav n*vi*al tht* ^tub^tamv of thrse tri* 


partite negotiations of th«* papal tniurt and tlu* two crowns. 
Uefore (*4»lumbu- had h'ft li;in*flona, a large gratuity had 


Bd to him by hts Bovereigns ; an order bad been 

landing freo lodgings to be given to him and his 

Jerever he went, and the original stipulations as to 

,nd authority, made by the sovereigns at 

lita Ft, liad l>een confirmed (May 28). A royal 

' confided to his koeping, to be set to let- 

Itid to commissions that it might be found necessary 

night be used even in appointing a deputy, to act 

l-e of Columbus. His appointments were to hold 

lyal ]ileasure. His own power was defined at the 

I particular to hold command ovdr the entire 

fciii to conduct its future government and explora.- 

I'le left Barcelona, after leavetakings, on May 

I and his instructions, as printed by N^avarrete, were 

lied the next day. It is not unlikely they were 

:gestions of Columbus made in a letter, without 

le, which has i-ecently been printed in the Cartas 

B/rt(/(«K (1877). Eai'ly in June, he was in Seville, 

■ he was joined by Juan Rodriguez de Fonaeca, 

(ideacon of Seville, who, as representative of the 

, had been made the chief director of the prepa- 


that FonBCca sought to check the demands of Columbtts as ro» 
sptrcts the number of his personal servitors* That these do- 
iiiands were immoderate, the character of Columbus, never cau- 
titHiH umler incitement, warrants us in believing ; and that the 
oflii'ial guardian of the royal treasury sliould have views of his 
own Ia not to be wondered at. The story goes that the sover- 
«i<;n.s forctnl Fonseca to yield, and that this was the offense of 
I'oluuibus whirh i*ould neitlier be forgotten nor forgiven by 
F«»ns4H*a, and for which rtcvoritteH were visited upon hiui and his 
lit-ini in the yi*arA to come. Irving is confident that Fonseca 
lix<* os4*a)H*<l thi* c«>ntleinnation which S{»anish writcrn would 
willingly luivc put ujmu him, for fear of the ecclesiaiitical i*en- 
jitirs t»f the press. 

llic mcasun**^ which were now taken in accordance with the 
in-»tnietiuns given to (\>lunibus, alnuuly referretl to« to regii- 
Lita* the comiiicnv of the Indies, with a cuHt4Mu houm* at Cailia 
auil a in)rrv.H|N»nding one in KH|Niilola under the control of tlie 
AdniiniK ri|M'iieil in time into wliat was known as the r.nitirii for 
i*tinm'il for the Indies. It had been early detennineil **'*">'•>«• 
{ May 2*i ) t4» <Mntn»l all emigrati(»n to the new n*gions. and no 
«iii<> ma** allowiul to trade thither except under litvusi* from the 
nioiian'hN (*oIunilius, or Konsei*a. 

A n»\al onler ha4l put all ships and appiirtenam^es in the 
|iiirt?« of Anilahi*«ia at the demand of Fonstva and i^^, ^^^ 
< '«>hiniliu<«. for a reasonable eom|M*ns:ition, an<l c«>m- *"i"'i'^'- 
|ti'lle4l all ]H*nMin<» rt*4pitn*d for the Si*rvii*e to end Kirk in it on 
Miitable iKiy. Two thirds of the eivlesiastii'al titlws, the se- 
que'^tertnl pro|KTty of b;uli^htHl tlews, and otlR*r resources were 
M-t apart to nu*4*t thest* exiH.*ns4»s, and the tn*asurpr was author- 
iietl to c«in tract a loan, if n«'ees>ary. To eke out tlie resourt*es, 
thi!» last was re-Mirt***! t4i, and />.0(N),(K)<) niaravtHlis were borroweil 
fn>ni the Ihikfof Metlina-Sitlonia. .Ml the transa4-t ions n*la ting 
U* thr pnHMirtni: and dis|N'nMn;; of nion4*ys hail lK*<*n contidetl 
to a tn*a^un*r. FraneiMui Pinflo ; with the aid of an atvountant« 
Juan de S»ria. Kverything w;is hurrii*4lly gatheretl for the 
armanirnt, f<ir it \%as of the iitmo-t iin|M>rtan«v that the prefia- 
ration** f«lii»idd inovi* faster than the wat4*hing diploinaey. 

.\rtillenk' i»hieh had U^i'n in use on shipUtanl for nit»n* than 
A ct'ntur}' and a half \ia-<« s|H.*<*dily amxHse<l. The anpiebuM*. 
howrvrr, hail not alt4igethcr been supplaiiti^tl by the matchlock* 


rhollv on its emotional and int4>llectual side. She had been 
n*atly «*n^n>HSiHl with the Mpiritual welfare of the In- iMteite*t 
cliaii*« wli4iin Coliinihus had taken to Itan^elona. Their '"**'^- 
li:i|)ti<*iii had taken placi* with (^at Htate and eereniony, the 

Kin;:, (jiii't'ii, and rriiuv Juan ofiiriatin;^ as Hponsors. i ^^ 

It waH intiMidetl that thev rilumkl reenibark with the ^^"^ 
nt*>» i*x|HHlitii>n. Prini*e Juan, however, picked out one of these 
Indians for hi^ |H*rsonal servii^e, and when the fellow died, two 
years later, it was a soun*e of ^ratitu-ation, as llerrera tells uts 
that at la<»t (»ne of his jtjlvk* had t*ntere<l the gateM of heaven ! 
t hily four of till' six ever reached their native country. We 
know notliiui: of the fate of those left sick at Palos. 

The P«»lK*. to further all uietlKMls for the extensiou of the 
faith, had ouinnis^itined (June *1\) a I^*nedietine 
tui»nk. IV*rnard<* Huil (^I(oyle ). of Catalonia* to lie his 
a|»ii<«tolie viear in the new world, and this priest was to be ao* 
oiiii|k;ini(sl liy eleven hnithers of the onler. The Queen in- 
trusted to tilt 'in the saeriMl vesst*ls and vestments from her «iwn 
ahar. Tli<* instruct ions which Columbus recvivetl were to deal 
Li\in::ly ^^ith thi* {NHir natives. We sliall see hoM faithful he 

nian to tilt* )if|ir*4t. 

UaU'lLi'** inii^iiiLTs \vrn» not, however, all so ]»iously e«mfimHi. 
Slif \irnt«' t«> < 'oliitiit»n-» fi'tini Si*;;ovia in Aui^u^t. n^ipiirin*; him 
t«> uiakf provisions fm* lii'in;:in': l»a«'k to Spain s]i«M*imens of 
th«' |>tH*iiliar MnU nf tin- new n*gions, as indicati4»ns of untried 
climat*'- and mm-^mis. 

.V^ain. in uritin;; to ( 'ohiuduiH. Septi^mlior 5, she urged him 
not til rely ulmlly on hi** i»wn ;;n»at knowledge, but to 
takf <«ui-li a <>killful a«>tron«inier t»n his voyage .as Fray mhImtIo. 
Aiitiinio df Marehfiia. — tlie same whom Cctlumbus 
lati-r s|Mike of as iN-in^ one of the two jK'rsons who had never 
ULide him a laui;hinLC-'«t4M-k. Mufioz says the office of astron- 
ouit'r was not tilliMl. 

I Vnling uith the tpicMion of longitude was a matter in which 
th«*re was :it thi<« time little in*«ii:ht, and no general agreement. 
Columbus, as Wf> have seen, sus|HM*te<l the variation of the 
n4*«-dl4* might affonl the basis of a system : but ho gn*w toappre* 
k-mUas he t4-IU \\> in the narrative of his fourth voyage, tliat the 
aAtronomiral nietluNl was the onlv infallible one. but whether his 
lirvference was for the op|M»sition i»f planets, tlie oi*cultations of 


Whether the vrowi-Htaff or Jmclutaff, a seaboard impleineDi 
aoniewhat more convenient than the astrohibe, was known to 
1 oluuilniM is not very clear, — probably it was not ; but the 
iiavipitors that mmu followed hiiu found it more man- 
ai^eable on rolliu}; shijNi tluui tlie older instruments. «DdJ«ek. 
It waH 8im]>ly a stick, along which, after one end of 
it waii placed at the eye, a scaled crossbar was pushed until ita 
two entls touched, tlie lower, the horizon, and the upper, the 
lM*avenIv body whotie altitude was to be taken. A scale on the 
stick then Hhc»we<l, at the ])oint where the bar was left, the 
di^rve of latitude. 

The best of such aids however, did not conduce to great ac- 
curacy, an<l the early nia{M, in oouipariM>u with modem, show 
sometimes several degrct^s of error in stealing from the equator. 
An error once t*ommitte<l wan n^mlily Cf>pi(Hl, and different carto- 
graphical records put in service by the professional map-makers 
came sonietime<« by a pnx'eMM of averages to show some sur- 
pri«iing diversities, with {Kwitive errors of considerable Ermraia 
ext4*nt. The island of C^dHl, for instance* earlv found *^""**- 
place in the cliarts seven and eight degnMvs too far north, with 
ile|iendent islantls in i^^iually wrong )MMitions. 

As the preparations went on, a flet>t of S4*vente(^n vc^ssels, large 
and small, three of which wen* oalknl trans]MirtH, had, acconling 
ii> tlw* l>est estimates, finally Inh^u put in readiness. Scilla4*io 
telU us tliat some of tin* smallest had b«*i*n i*onstructod of light 
draft, <*«*])eeially for exploring s(*rvic*«*. Horses and domestic 
aniniaU of all kinds were at last gathered on boanl. 
Kvi-n* kind of si^hI and agrieidtural implement, stores tm^ii 

of <'«imm(Mlities for l»:irt<*r with the Indians, and all the 
appiirt4*iian(*es of aetive life were atvumulated. Muiloz re- 
mark !< that it \< evident tliat sugar cane, rice^ and vines had not 
U-«-n diH«*«)ven*d or notinl by (\)hnnbus on his tint voyage, or we 
«(»uhl not have foun<l them among the <^mmoilities provident 
fftr the •M»rond. 

In making up the eompany of the ail venturers, there was lit- 
tle nwil of active nieasuti's to indncv reeniits. Many n.^,,,,,^ 
an Ilidalgr> and eavalirr t4M>k serviiv at their own >^***- 
co«t. (ialvano, who nui^t have reei^ivcNl the re|)orts by tradi- 
tion, says tluit such w:is the ** desin* of travel that the men were 




1 into the sea to swim, if it had been possible, into 
luud parts." Traffic, adveuture, luxury, feats of 
sere inducements that lured one individual or au- 
! there were to make names for themselves in their 
V fields. Such was Alonso do Ojeda. a daring youth, 
>ert in all activities, who had served bis ambition in 

wars, and had been particularly favored by the 
aina-Celi, the friend of Columbus. 

others whose names we shall again encounter. 
• brother of Columbus, Diego Colon, had come to 
■ted by the bucccbs of Christopher. The father and 
■lo of Las Casas, from whose conversations with 

Admiral that historian could pi-ofit in the future, 
111 Ponoe de Leon, the later discoverer of Florida, 
[.'osa, whose map Is the first we have of the New 

Dr. Chanca, a physician of Seville, who was peu- 
' Ci-own. and to whom we owe one of the narratives 
■, were also of the company. 

ind persons to which the expe<lition had at first been 
me, under the pressure of eager cavaliers, nearer 
liis number was eventually increased by stowaways 

9 - 


nand and Jolo, the disquiet ended, or at least nothing was done 
(in either Hide. 

At one time Columbus had hoped to embark on the 15th of 
Aupist; but it was six weeks later before eTetything was 

Wliili* i*oliiinhus wan •till in S|kuii, but twfoit* news of hii purpoaet and 
thiir ■iiri*«*Mifiil iviiio luul reftt'biil NurciiilN'rg, a li.*ame<l doctor, Jerome 
Muii/iiMiAttT, of tlmt citj, had written, July 14, HtK), to King John of 
r>irtu);.il, a«»kiu]; liiui to heed the advict* of tla* Kniperor Maximilian, ami 
^rnd Martin li<>huiui ou an fzpcditiou t«» Hnd land at the west. 1 1 in argu- 
inrut% «liM|m'ri| fmni Artatotle, Seneca, D* A illy and others, and fortiBed by 
<t4»ri<'% of «lrift from t\w w(*»t ca«t u|iou tla* Axort^n, were preeiM*ly what 
ro*«*an«*lli hiul ummI iu 1 17 1, iui«i furiii>h further evi«lence of the opinion! 
|irf%:il«'ut ill loiiriutl eiri'les before ColiiiiibuH bej^an hi!t advoi*arT* We 
kiKiw th.«t IWhjiiiii was in NureiiiUT)^, niiikiii)^ hi^i );1oIn*, a little before thia, 
4iid that Miiii/iiici^ter had frinitUy reiulioiiH mith him. There are two 
iiii|M>rt.iut iiifiT«'iic«*H from tliiH letter. Dm* in, that outnide of a narrow 
• iirlr of loeal eiH«mo^r:ipherH and iiitereMeii |M>tentate]«, the return of Co* 
.iitiiliu^ u.i<« liiih' kii«iMii ; and tht* tiiliii);<«of it did not reach (ieriiiaiiy in f«Mir 
iii4iiith!i. li iii.ix Im- ri-iiieiidN-n-d thiit the .VtirrmVr^ ' 'ArfMiii'/^*, profe<giing to 
kiriii;; the world's prof^reMi down to date, liati not matle any entry about 
r.i|:iiiiliii«, tlo-vii to July, \\\K\. The sMvond iiif«'reiiee U, that IWhaini, a 
;i*i)i|e ami «*«MjrtiiT at the l*ortU|;iie<4* (*ourt. ha«l n«>t ktinwii of the i«uit to 
:li«* l'ortu::iii*e kiti*^, of an atlventnn*r like ('olritnliii^. However, the 
f.idiire of the iiii-iitinii nf (*iilumhiiii in the IfttiT (viiiiiot Iw dt^'iiied an 
rioplutie imHif. 'Mif Ii-tlcr in ipiestiitn wa^ printed near the date of it at 
I.. -Urn. but «>nly a <«iiii:lf e«ip\ - ■ in the library iit F*vora. in l*ortuj;al — i« 
-»>w ktHiwn ; :iii<l though tliis has Im-i-u reprinted to answer liN*al inter<*iii ot 
Ute %iMr« in l'«irttii: tl uiid tin* AzMr«*«. it ua*» tM>t till llarrisM* inelude«i it in 
hL« lh*''»rrrti t.f S'irtk .Imrnifi (IM^J) that it eaiiie to tht» attention of 
VmeniMii •»« hi>lat>. 


There wan tho brooding of the ailniiniHtratora, with unsolved 
l»r«>hlemH cif now cM>iiiiiuinities in their heads. There wen* ears 
tli:it aln*:idy euu^ht the sonpi of wilvation from native throats. 
There was C'ohiniliiiH hiuiself, eonihining all aiubitionH in one, 
UM>kin^ amtiiid thin harbor of Cadiz Htudded with his lordly 
Hf*et, ^|>r«*a«lin^ its ereaking Hails lifting its dripping anchors. 
It ^%a*« his («> 4*4>ntraHt it with the Hi*enc at Palos a little over a 
Vi'ar U'fon*. This net»<ly (ien<H»se vested with the viceroyalty 
of a ni'W \v<irhl was more of an ailventurcr than any. coimnbi»'« 
He wa.-^ a s|HH*iilati»r who overstepiKxl them all in au- *''»*'*^'*'- 
da<'ioii:i vi<«ions and golden ex|KH*taneies. He was an adminis- 
trat4»r over a new government, untried and undivined. To his 
eant the hymns of the C'hun^h soaretl with a militant warning, 
d<M»ming the h«*atlien of the Indies, and appsdling the Moslem 
honU'S that im|HTile<l the Holy Sepulehre. 

lender the eye of this one oommanding spirit, the vessels fell 
int4» a <'omin«in n»u^s«^ and wen* wafte<l out u|>on the great 
oi*«*an under the lead of the es<*orting gidleys of the Venetians. 
The n*>|>on>ibility of tht* eaptain-genend of the grt>at armament 
had )N*i:un. He had Ikhmi in^t^uet4*d to steer widely clear of 
thi* I*i>rtuirnrM» eoa-^t. and he Inire awav in th«* Ifad dinn'tlv to 
thi* viiiiliwi-^t. ( )n the s«'venth dav (()rt«ilK»r 1) 
thi'V it'aclic'l thcdran i anaria, when* they tarried \*r\ e*- 
to n-pair a Ifaky Nlilp. On th«' r)tli they anehon'd at 
(ioiiiira. Two ilay*^ w«*n* retpiirrd h«*n» to (*4»mplete some |)arts 
iif thtir iM|iiipni«'nt. for the i'^lands h:Ml aln*atly U^'ome the 
it-ntn* of ;^M-i at industrir^ an«l pnMhieed largely. " They luive 
•■nttrj»ri-ini: iiicreliants who «*arry their <H>mmen*e to many 
'•hofi"*. ' wri»i«' ( 'oMia to SriUaeio. 

Tht-r*' wt-n' Wixnl and wattT to In* taken on InKinl. A variety 

»f i|oiiif<«tit' animals. (*alve^, goats, hheep, and swine : some 

'••uU, and thf <«ittl of man\ orehani and ganlen fruits, oninges, 

*• -niiiiiH, iiifltin^. and thi* liki'. w«*n* gathen-<l from the inhabi- 

lant^ aiitl HtoWf il auay in th«* remaining ^paei's of the ships. 

On the Ttli thf tii-et naih-d, hut it was not till thi* IHth that 
tin* '^tntli* win«U had takrii thnn U'Vond Fern» and 
th** uniMMin«lr«l M*a ua** atniut tht* gn'at Aamiral. lit* it ui ai 
iiiin* awav inui*h nion- H4iiith«*rlv than in his first voy- 
:k)Sk\ so a» to strik«'. if hi* rotdil. tht* i<-Iand.s that wen* so con- 
stantly K|M>k«*n <if, the pn*vious \«*ar, as lying s4Mith«*asterly from 



ite port was, of course, the harbor of La Navidad, 
isuwi sealed iustriictiona to all his commanders, to 
11! who should part company with the fleet. The 
fuvoruble, but the dull sailiug of the Admiral's 
■d the rest. lu ten days they had overshot the lon- 

8:irgaaso Sea without seeing it, leaving its floating 
north. In a few days more they experienced heavy 

pests. They gathered confidence from an old be- 
, when thtiy saw St. Elmo waving bis lambent 

the u]>per rigging, while they greeted his pi-esenoe 
lyers and songs. 

; is certain,'' says Coma, " that two lights shone 
laifeness of the night on the topmast of the Admi- 
''orthwith the tempest began to abate, the sea to 
y, the waves their violence, and the surface of the 
J as smooth as polished marble." This sudden gale 
' dnration came on St. Simon's eve. 
lutliority represents that the protraeted voyage had 
wattr to run low, for the Admiral, confident of hia 
ind. and partly to reassure the timid, had caused it 
instintingly. " You might compare him to Moses." 


1 " 

mral hMiner in token nf )>o!UM>K)ii(>n of thf f^rnup, — for be had 
wra ui ulanilit. — nml i*>iuf;ht for inh.tliitnntfl. He could find 
•one, DOT nay ngn* of utfiiiuition. Thi'H! wax iiothinf; bnt k 
tao|^ of wikhI in evi-r^- dircolion. a iiparkling maas of luafage, 



luxurious tx^auty and giving o£f odors of spioe. 
neii tiistfd an unknown fruit, and suffered an im- 
iiniatiou about the fat'«, which it required remedies 
isuagc. The next morning Columbus was attracted 
he lufty volcautc peak of another island, and, sail- 
up to it, he could 8ee cascades on the sides of this 

hose who viewed this marvelous phenomena at a 
L tlie ships," says Coma, " it was at first a subject 
ether it were light reflected from masses of com- 
■ the bi'oad surface of a smooth-worn road. At 
m prevailed that it was a vast river." 
lemcmbered that he had promised the monks of 
Guadaluupe, in Estremadui'a, Ui place some token 
licm in this strange world, and so he gave this isl- 
the name of Guadaloupe. Landing the next day, 
nders followetl. 

ing parties found the first village abandoned ; 
jccn done so hastily that some young children had 
ud. Those tfiey decked with hawks' bells, to win 
g parents. One place showed a public square sur- 

77/*; sKroyn I'OiAnK 






t day they captured a youth and some women, but 
[(led them. Culumbua was uow fully convinced that 
ist discovered the cauuibals, and when it was fouxid 
■ his ciiptaina and eight men had not retnrned to 

he was under great appreheusious. He sent ex- 
ties into the woods. They haUooed and fired their 

but to no avail. As they threaded their way 
- thickets, they came upon some ^-illages, but the in- 
Itd, leaving their meals half cooked ; and they were 
liey saw human Qesh on the spit and in the pot£. 

l>arty was absent, some wonten belonging to the 
r islands, captives of this savage people, came off to 
id sought protection. Columbus decked them widi 
tils, and forced them ashore, while they beggwl to ro- 
: islanders stripped off their ornaments, and allowed 
urn for more. These women said that the chief oi 
md most of the warriors were absent on a predatory 

y seardiing for the lost men returned without sue 
ss, when Alonso de Ojeda offered to lead forty men 
to the interior for a more thorough search. This 


rant a retaliatory mercilessnesii. IIiHtorianB have not wholly de- 
oidi*«l that thiii im enou(;h to acooiint for the luoMt |KMttivi* Ktato- 
uii*iitH about man-eating tribes. Feam and prejudicen might do 
much to raiiie such a lM*lit*f, or at leant t«> magnify the liabitH. 
Irving remarks that the preservation of |mrtH of the human 
IkmIv, among the natives of HH|iailola« was l(N>ked u|Nm aH a votive 
8«*rvii*e to ani^estorM, and it may Imve nee<l(*d only pn*judice tc 
convert suoli a rustom into cannilNilism when foun«l 
with tho C'aribs. Tlu* a«lventurouHneHM of the nature 
of this tierce |»eoph* and their wanderings in warn naturally 
served to shar|H.*n their intidlects U^yond the |Hiiwive untilwer- 
vaniv of the pai*ific tribes on whi(*h they preyed ; so they be- 
caiut* more reatlily, for this reason, the |K>ssessors of any |Wftsion 
or viee that the Kun»{H*an instinct craved to fasten somewhere 
u|Min a strange |H'ople. 

Tlie contiguity of these two races, the fierce Carib and the 
timid tril»es of the nion* northern islands, has long rwiteMi 
puz/lf*il the i'thnologi««t. Irving indulge<l in some *^"y"^ 
rambling notions <»f the origin of the Carib, derived from ob- 
Hfrvation«« of the earlv students of the obscure relations of the 
Anit'tiean |H-ople?«. larger inquiry and more scientific olmcrva- 
tiou ha** •'iiKf Irving*s time lieen given t4» the subj«H-t, r*till with- 
out briii::iii;: th** 4|ue««tit>n to n-ciignizable b«'aring««. I'hi* rrant- 
•iltr^\ iif th«' < ^aribi in M*antily knov^n, and tht-n- in much yet 
to U- ilivul:^'i'd. The rai*e in itn purity lia.** long Ijitrn extinct. 
Lu(-i«*ii lie Kn-ny. in an anthni|Kilogieal study of the Antille«i 
publi-^hetl by thf Fn*neh SMM^-ty of Ethnology iu 1886, ha* 
auuLHM-il om-iderabb* data for future de«luc*tion*%. It is a ques- 
tion with •M>iii*' nioileni ezamineni if tlie distinction Letwi«u 
tb^-« insular |w<ipb-!i lAas not one of accident and sumjunding>» 
rath*-r tli:iii of blufMl. 

Wh'-n < '•liiiribu^ <iil»*<{ from Guadalnupe on November 10. 
he fcte* r*^l n''rth«*'<«t f ^r K«|>:ftn«»la. tbi»ugh his raptiv«^ 
trild hirii th-it t})*- ii;:iiiilan«i lay to th** M>iitb. lie »» »dwK 
pQuww-d \an'-t« i»:;iri'I«. I 'it flid not i'a«t aur-hor till tb«f !»*•««*■» 
14ih. «bMi b*- r*'a< b'^1 \\f i«lantl naiu*^l by him Santa 
< niz, aii'i f'Mj'i 1: -till a r»-.'i*«M of <*ariJi«. It wa- her** tb*- 
^paxiiari* iii I tlirir !:r-t fi^'bt with tbi* ti^-p** ]m'*^^^l•' in trying 
U» cmpcun ai '-jTi'*- !ill»^l with \\t*ni TKt whiu- uj*«n raxiiifi«'d 


I'lied the hollowed log ; but the Indians foagfat in the 
Bmrageously that some of the Spanish bucklers were 
li the native poisoned arrows, and one of the Span- 
, died of such a wound inflicted bj one of the savage 
\\\ the Carlbs, however, were finally oajitured and 
1 board ship. One was so badly wounded that 
J;is not thought possible, and he was thrown over- 
lie fellow struck for the shore, and was killed by the 
The accounts describe their ferocious aspect, 
: hair, their eyes circled with red paint, and the mna- 
I of their limbs artificially extended by tight bands 

jt^ thence and passing a group of wild and craggy 

]i he named after St. Ursula and her Eleven Thousand 

inbus at last reached the island now caUed Porto 

lico, which his captives pointed out to him as th^ 

^>iue and the usual field of the Carib incursions. 

struck the strangers by its size, its beautiful woods 

irbors, in one of which, at its west end, they finally 

|There was a. village close by, which, by their accounts, 

t without some pretensions to skill in laying 


On the 26th, while the fleet was at anchor at Monle Chriito, 
where Columbns had foandgoU in the river daring hie 
first Toyage, the eailort diioovered some deoompoeed 
bodtea, one of them showing a beard, which tmised apprehensioiia 
uf the fate of the men left at La Naridad. The nei|^boring 
nati\*es came aboard for traflBo with so mooh readiness, however, 
that it did much to allay suspicion. It was the 27th i^g^ g^ 
when, after dark, Columbus cast anchor <qiposite the oaLTa*-' 
fort, about a league from land. It was too late to see ^**^ 
anything; more than the outline of the hills. Elzpeoting a re- 
Hponsie from the fort, he fired two cannons ; but there was no 
sound except the ech«)e8. The Spaniards looked in vain for lights 
on the shore. The darkness was mysterious and painful. Before 
midnight a canoe was heard approaching, and a native twice 
asked for thi* Admiral. A boat was lowered from one of the 
veMels, and tuwed the canoe to the flag-ship. The natives were 
not willing to board her till Columbus himself appeared at the 
waist, and by the light of a lantern revealed his countenance to 
them. Thiri reassured them. Their leader brought presents 
— some accounts say ewers of gold, others say masks oma- 
mente<l with gold — from the cacique, (iuacanagari, whose 
friendly aH8it«tani*e had been counted upon so much to befriend 
the littk> garrison at La Navidad. 

TIh*m* formalities over, Columbus inquired for Diego de 
Arana and hirt men. The young Lucayan, now Columbus's only 
interpn*t«*r. ditl the l>est he oould with a dialect not his own to 
make a (*onne(*tftHl story out of the replies, which was in effect 
that MirkneHs and <lisfiension, together with the withdrawal of 
some to otbrr parts of the island* hail n*dnced the ranks of the 
garriwrn, when the fort as well as the neighboring village of 
Guacanagari was nutldenly attacked by a mountain chieftain, 
CaonalMi, who hunted Imtli fort and village. Those of the Span* 
iards who wore n<»t driven into the sea to perish had |^, 
been put to death. In this fight the friendly cacique 
had been woundeil. The visitors said that this chieftain's hurt 
bail prevent4*«l his coming with them to greet the Admiral ; bat 
that he would come in the morning. Coma, in his acooont of 
this midnight int4>rview, is not so explicit, and leaves the reader 
to infer that (\>lunibiui did not get quite so clear an apprehen- 
sion of the fat4* of his colony. 


le dawn came, the harbor appeared desolate. Not 
a seen where so mauy sped about in the previous 
oat was sent ashore, and found every sign that the 
en sacked as well as destroyed. Fi-agments of cloth- 
i of nierchandiae were scattered amid its blackened 
;re were Indians lurking behind distant trees, but no 
^hed, and as the cacique had not kept the word which 
of coming himself in the morning, snspicions began 
t tlie story of its destruction had not been lioneatlj 
<; new-comers passed a disturbed night with increas- 
it. and the next morning Columbus landed and saw 
self. He traveled farther away from the shore than 

lie story in finding the village of tlie cacique a oiass of 
■uins. Cannon were again discharged, in the hopes 
reverberating echoes might reach the ears of those 
lid to have abandoned the fort before the massacre. 
id ditch were cleaned out to see if any treasure had 
ito it. as Columbus had directed in case of disaster. 
IS found, and tliis seemed to confirm tlie tale of tlie 
.if the attack. Columbus and his men went still far- 


deter them fiom the meet foolhanly risks while awmy fram the 
fort*s protection. Those who had been appointed to soooeed 
Armnm, if there were an oocasionf revolted against him, and, 
heing unsuooessf ul in overthrowing him, they went off with their 
adherents in search of the mines of Cibao. This car- 
ried them beyond the protection of Gnacanagari, and So 
into the territory of his enemy, Caonabo, a wandering 
Carib who had offered himself to the interior natives as their 
chieftain, and who had acquired a great ascendency in the isl- 
and. Tills leader, who had learned of the dissensions among 
the Spanianlit, was no sooner informed of the coming of these 
renegatles within his reach than he caused them to be seised 
and killed. This emboldened him to join forces with another 
rai*ii|U(*, a nei^hlmr of (luacanagari, and to attempt to drive the 
Spanianis from the iHland, since they had become a standing 
menai*e to \\\a {Mwcr, as he reasone«L The confederates marched 
stealUiily, and Htole into the vicinity of the fort in the night. 
.\rana had but ten men within the stockade, and they kept no 
wati*h. Other S|mniards were quartered in the atljatwnt rillage. 
The iinnet was sudden and effective, and the dismal ruins of the 
fort and villa^> were thought to confirm the story. 

Other i*ontiriii:itii>UH followed. A canivel was sent to explore 
eauterly, an<l w:im soon lioanhHl by two Indians from the shore, 
who invit4Hl the captain, Maldonado, to visit the cacique, who 
lay ill at a iu*i;;hl>orin[; village. The captain went, and found 
(iua(*an.i<::iri laid up with a bandaf^inl leg. The savage told a 
story whirh .ignHnl with the one just relate<I, and on its being 
repeated to Columbus, the Admiral himself, with an imposing 
train, went to see the cacique. Guacanagari seemed anxious, in 
repeating the st4>ry, to convince the Admiral of his own loy- 
alty to the S|ianianls, and pointed to his wounds and to those 
of some of his |)eople as proof. There was the usual intei^ 
rhangc of pn*sents, hawks* bells for gold, and similar reckonings. 
Before leaving, (\>lumbus asked to have his surgeon examine 
the wound, which the cacique said had been occasioned by a 
stone striking tiie leg. To get more light, the chieftain went ooi» 
of-doors, kmning u|)on the Admiral*s arm. When the bandage 
was removetl, there was no external sign of hurt ; but the caeiqne 
winced if the flesh was touched. Father Boyle, who was in the 
Admiral** train, thought the wound a pretense, and the stoij 


conceal the perfidy of the cacique, and urged Co- 
ke an instant example of the traitor. The Admi- 
M ootifideut afl the priest, and at all events he 
i-ae of pacification and procrastination was the bet- 
\a interview did not end, according to Coaia, witb- 
inge manifestations on the part of the cacique, 

Spaniards for a moment to fear that a trial of 
)me. Tho chief was not indisposed to try hU l^s 
irn with the Admiral to his ship that very evening, 
the Carib prisoners, and the accounts tell us how 
at the sight of them. He wondered at the horses 
nge creatures which were shown to hnn. Coma 
he Icdians thought that the horses were fed on 

The women who had been rescued from the 
ted, perhaps, even more the attentiou of the sav- 

and particularly a lofty ci-eature among them, 
u the Spaniards had named Doila Cataliua. Gu- 
observeil to talk with her more confidingly than 
e others. 
■le urged upon the Admiral that a duress simi- 

Cataliua was none too good for the perfidious 


tho veMerB aide, and Btniek out for thi* iihore. The watch di 
i*tivi*rt*d the efK*ai>e, but not in time to prevent the women hav- 
xik^ a i*onsidi*rahK* MUirt. Itoats |>ursuetl, but the swimmers 
t4>u(*hed thi* beach Hrnt. Four of them, however, were eaughtp 
but Catalina and the others eM*a|»ed. 

Whi*ii« the next inoniin<^, Cohinibus sent a demand for the 
fiiptivcH, it was found that Uuac*ana|^ri had moved his houae- 
linkl and all his offi*(*tM into tiie interior of the island. The 
M4»ry pit its tittin<^ climax in the suspicious minds of the Span- 
Lirdrt, when they HUpi)08(*<l that the fuf^tive beauty was with 
hiiu. Here was only a fresh instance of the savage^s perfidy. 

Columbu.H hiul Iwfon* this nuuie up his mind that the vicinity 
of his liaplcHs fort was not a i;inx1 site for the town 
which he intcndi*<l to build. The ground was low, •>■■* »■■ ^ 
moisU and unhealthy. There were no building stones 
near at hand. There was net*d of haste in a decision. The 
men were weary of their i*ontinement on shipboard. The horses 
and other animals sufforetl from a like restraint. Acconlingly 
e\|)editionH wen* s^-nt to explore the cumst^ i\m\ it soon became 
evident that tliey must move bi^yontl the limits of (i uacanagari^s 
t«'rrit4irv. if tliev would find the conditions demanded. Melchior 
Maltlonatlo. in (*omm:ind of one of thest* ex|MMitii»ns« had gone 
I'ustwanl until lie «Mi2ist4Hl the c<juntry of an(»ther cacique. 
This chief at first nIiowihI hostility, but was won at last by 
:unicablc si<^is. Fr<»ni htm they leanunl that (luacanagari had 
•^ne to the mountains. Fn»m anoth«*r they got the story of 
the nKiss:icn* of the fort, almost entirelv aceonlant with what 
tlM*v hail alrea«lv diMM>vi*rt*«l. 

Not one of the re|N«rts from them* minor explorations was 
<iatisfactory. :ind IKhm^uiImt 7, the entire tleet weighinl anchor 
to pn>ce4*«l farther east. Stn*Hsof weather caustnl them t4> put 
int^i a harlnir. which on examination seemetl favorable for their 
building pnije«'t. The ni:id stead was wide. A rtK*ky point 
offeree! a site fur a «'ita4h*l. There were two rivers \^jt»v^ 
winding el«»<M* li\ in an attnu'tive <*« Mint ry, and ca|»able ' 
of running niilU. Natun*, as they s:iw it. was varicgat«*d and 
allurin;;. Fl<iW4>r^ and fruits were in abundam*e. "Ciarden 

m^nIh came nil in live davs after thev wert* sown.** savs (\>iua of 

■ • • • 

their trial «if the S4>il. ** ami iIm* i^arilens w<*re s|M*edily clotiied 


in green, producing plentifully onions and pumpkins, radishes 
and beets." ^^ Vegetables/' wrote Dr. Chanca, *^ attain a more 
luxuriant growth here in eight days than they would in Spain 
in twenty." It was also learned that the gold mines of the 
cibMgoid Cibao mountains were inland from the spot, at no 
°**'*^ great distance. 

The disembarkation began. Days of busy exertion followed. 
Horses, livestock, provisions, munitions, and the varied mer- 
chandise were the centre of a lively scene about their encamp- 
ment. This they established near a sheet of water. Artificers, 
herdsmen, cavaliers, priests, laborers, and placemen made up 
the motley groups which were seen on all sides. 

In later years, the Spaniards regulated all the formalities 
and prescribed with precision the proceedings in the laying 
out of towns in the New World, but Columbus had no such 
directions. The planting of a settlement was a novel and un- 
tried method. It was a natural thought to commemomte in 
the new Christian city the great patroness of his undertaking, 
and the settlement bore from the first the name of Isabella. 
His engineers laid out square and street. A site for the church 
was marked, another for a public storehouse, another for the 
house of the Admiral, — all of stone. The ruins of these three 
buildings are the most conspicuous relics in the present soli- 
tary waste. The great mass of tenements, which were stretched 
along the streets back from the public square, where the main 
edifice stood, were as hastily run up as possible, to cover in the 
colony. It was time enough for solider structures later to take 
their places. Parties were occupied in clearing fields and set- 
ting out orchards. There were landing piers to be made at 
the shore. So everybody tasked bodily strength in rival en- 
deavors. The natural results followed in so incongruous a 
crowd. Those not accustomed to labor broke down from its 
hardships. The seekers for pleasure, not finding it in the com- 
mon toil, rushed into excesses, and imperiled all. The little 
lake, so attractive to the inexperienced, was soon, with its night 
sicknew In vapors, the source of disease. Few knew how to pro- 
the colony. ^^^ themsclvcs f rom the insidious malaria. Discom- 
fort induced discouragement, and the mental firmness so neces- 
sary in facing strange and exacting circumstances gave way. 
Forebodings added greater energy to the disease. It was not 


long before the colony was a camp of hospitals, about one half 

the people beiug incapacitated for labor. In the midst of all 

this downheartetlneHS Columbus himself succumbed, 

and for some weeks was unable to direct the trying 

state of affairs, except as he could do so in the intervab of hia 


But as the weeks went on a better condition was appaient. 
Work took a more steady aspect. The ships had discharged 
their burdeuM. They lay ready for the return voyage. 

i*olumbus had depended on the exertions of the little colony 
at La Navidoil to amass a store of gold and other precious com* 
moditii'8 with which to laden the returning vessels. He knew 
the disap|K>intment which would arise if they should carry little 
else than tlie dismal talc of disaster. Nothing lay upon hia 
mind more woightilv tlian this mortification and mis- 
fortune. There was nothing to be done but to seek toanktM 
the mines of Cibao« for tlie chance of tending more en- 
couraging reports. Ciokl had indeed been brought in to the 
settlement, but only scantily ; and its quantity was not suited 
U> make real the gorgeous dreams of the East with which 
S|Kitii wart too familiiir. 

So .111 4*x|KHlitioii t4> Ciliao was organixe<l. and Ojeda was 
plaiH*<l in «*oninianii. The force assigntnl to him was but fifteen 
men in all, Imt eaA*li was well arme<l and courageous. They ez- 
pcctotl |)erilH« for they had to invade the territoty of Caonabo» 
thi* (IcHtrover of I^ Navidad. 

The march liegan early in January, 1494 ; perhaps just after 
tlM>y liail «H»lebrate4l their first solemn mass in a tem- 
|K>rary «-Ii.i|M'1 on January 6. For two days their prog- Miy. fin* 
nesrt W.-1.4 itl«»w and toilmime, through forests without 
a Aipi of human lift*, for the savage deniiens had moved badt 
f nmi tli4* vii-inity of the S|Muiiards. The men encamped, the second 
nii;lit, on tin* t«ip of a iiiountiin, and when the dawn broke they 
kMikitl down on its furthi*r side over a broad valley, with its 
iicatt«>n*il villap*!4. Tliey Imldly descended, and met nothing bat 
hiMpitality fn>ui the villagi^m. Their course now lay towards 
and up tin* opimsitA^ slo|ie of the valley. They pushed on with- 
out an olntai'le. TIm* nitie inhabitants of the mountains were 
as friendly as tho4e of the valley. They did not see nor dU 
they hear anything of the great Caonabo. Every stream they 


passed glittered with particles of gold in its sand. The natives 
had an expert way of separating the metal, and the Spaniards 
flattered them for their skill. Occasionally a nugget 
was found. Ojeda picked up a lump which weighed 
nine ounces, and Peter Martyr looked upon it wonderingly 
when it reached Spain. If all this was found on the surface, what 
must be the wealth in the bowels of these astounding mountains ? 
The obvious answer was what Ojeda hastened back to make to 
^i^^-^u^i. Columbus. A similar story was got from a young cav- 
ezpeditioD. yliev^ Gorvalan, who had been dispatched in another 
direction with another force. There was in all this the foun- 
dation of miracles for the glib tongue and lively imagination. 
One of these exuberant stories reached Coma, and Scillacio 
makes him say that ^^ the most splendid thing of all (which I 
should be ashamed to commit to writing, if I had not received 
it from a trustworthy source) is that, a rock adjacent to a moun- 
tain being struck with a club, a large quantity of gold burst out, 
and particles of gold of indescribable brightness glittered all 
around the spot. Ojeda was loaded down by means of this out- 
burst." It was stories like these which prepared the way for 
the future reaction in Spain. 

There was material now to give spirit to the dispatch to his 

sovereigns, and Columbus sat down to write it. It 

writMto'tiie has come down to us, and is printed in Navarrete's 

«>Tereigii«. (.Qjig^j^jiQn^ j^gt j^ Jt was pcruscd by the King and 

Queen, who entered in the margins their comments and orders. 
Columbus refers at the beginning to letters already written to 
their Highnesses, and mentions others addressed to Father 
Buele and to the treasurer, but they are not known. Then, 
speaking of the expeditions of Ojeda and Gorvalan, he begs 
the sovereii^s to satisfy themselves of the hopeful prospects 
for gold by questioning Gorvalan, who was to return with the 
ships. He advises their Highnesses to return thanks to God 
for all this. Those personages write in the margin, " Their High- 
nesses return thanks to God ! " He then explains his embarrass- 
ment from the sickness of his men, — the " greater part of all,'' 
as he adds, — and says that the Indians are very familiar, ram- 
bling about the settlement both day and night, necessitating a 
constant watch. As he makes excuses and gives his reasons for 
not doing this or that, the compliant monarchs as constantly 


write agminat the pftragrmphfl* ** He hat done welL** Columbus 
nayii he is buildiug iitone bulwarks for defeuae, and when this 
ia done he shall provide for aoenmulating gokL ^ Esuctly as 
idiould be done,*' chime in the monaroha. He then aaka for 
freah pniviMiona to be aent to himi and tella how mooh thej 
have done in planting. *^ Fonaeca haa been ordered to aend 
further aeeda,** ia the comment. He oomplaina that the wine 
caHkii hail been badly coopered at Seville, and that the wine had 
all run out, ao that wine waa their prime neoeaaily. He nigea 
that calvea, Iwifera, naaoa, working marea, be aent to them ; 
and that above all, to prevent diaoouragementi the anppliea 
iihould arrive at laabella by May, and that particularly mod* 
icinen alioultl come, aa their atock waa exhauated. He then re- 
fers to the cannibals whom he would aend back, and aaka that 
they nuiy be made acquainte«l with the true futh and tan^t 
the Sivininh tongue. '' Ilia suggestions are good," b the ma^ 
ginal rf>yal comment. 

Now eoiues the vital point of his dispatch. We want eat» 
tie, he Hayit. They can be paid for in Carib slaves. Let yearfy 
caraveLi conduct this traile. It will be easy, with the 
UiatA which are building* to capture a plenty of these 
Mivages. Duties can be levied on thcite importa- ******* 
tiou!» of !«Uve!4. On this |M>int he urges a reply. The monaroha 
««ee the fatiility of the step, and, acconlin^ to the marginal com* 
lurnt. *«us|it*n(l judgment and ask tlie Admirars furtlier thoughts. 
** A niiirt* iliMtinct HUj^^^^stion for the establishment of a alav<e 
t ratio wa.H never pro|NMed,'* is the modem comment of Arthor 
llfips. C'oiumbiH tlM*n adds that he haa bought for the nae of 
thi* iMiliiiiy «-ertain «>f the veaseis which brought them oat, and 
the.M.* would lie retained at Isabella, and uaed in making farther 
diiHHivfrii*!*. The tsnnnient is that Fonseca will pay the own- 
era. ilo thru intinmtes tlmt more care should be exereiaed in 
the M'U'ltiiti «if pl:u*«inen M*nt ti> the colony, for the enterpriae 
ha«l MilTiTcil air%*;uly fn>ni unfitness in such matters. The moD- 
an*h<* |>ninii<H* amends. lie ctimplains that the Granada lanoe- 
uu*n. wlio offrretl themselves in Seville nuHintod on fine horaea* 
IumI Atib*M*i|iit.ntly exriianpHl tlK*se animals to their own personal 
advanta;;e for inferior horm^K. He says tlie footmen made simi- 
lar exrhan^*H to till their own poi*kets. 

Si. dating this memorial on January SO, 1494, the osaa who 


was ambitious to become the first slave-driver of the New World 
1494. j»n- ^^^ down his quill, praising God, as he asked his 
BiS»kii sovereigns to do. The poor creatures who wandered 
****"• in and about among the cabins of the Spaniards were 

fast forming their own comments, which were quite as astute 
as those of the Admiral's royal masters. Holding up a piece of 
gold, the natives learned to say, — and Columbus had given 

them their first lesson in such philosophy, — ^^ Behold 
ChriatiauB* the Christians' God ! " Benzoni, the first traveler 

who came among them with his eyes open, and daring 
to record the truth, heard them say this. Intrusting his memo- 
rial to Antonio de Torres, and putting him in command of the 
1494. Feb- twclvc ships that were to return to Spain, Columbus 
JffiJiuS' saw the fleet sail away on February 2, 1494. There 
to Spain. would sccm to havc been committed to some one on the 
ships two other accounts of the results of this second voyage 
up to this time, which have come down to us. One of these is 
ohanca^i * narrative by Dr. Chanca, the physician of the col- 
"■*™*'^* ony, whom Columbus, in his memorial to the mon- 
archs, credits with doing good service in his profession at a 
sacrifice of the larger emoluments which the practice of it had 
brought to him in Seville. The narrative of Chanca had been 
sent by him to the cathedral chapter of Seville. The original 
is thought to be lost ; but Navarrete used a transcript which 
belonged to a collection formed by Father Antonio de Aspa, 
a monk of the monastery of the Mejorada, where Columbus is 
known to have deposited some of his papers. Major has given 
us an English translation of it in his Select Letters of Colum- 
bus. Major's text will also be found in the late James Lenox's 
English version of the other account, which he. gave to scholars 
in 1859. 

There is a curious misconception in this last document, which 
represents that Columbus had reached these new regions by the 
African route of the Portuguese, — a confusion doubtless arising 
from the imperfect knowledge which the Italian translator. 
Coma's nar- Nicholas SciUacio, had of the current geographical de- 
rative. vclopmcnts. A Spaniard, Guglielmo Coma, seems to 

have written about the new discoveries in some letters, appar- 
ently revived in some way from somebody's personal observa- 
tion, which Scillacio put into a Latin dress, and ])ublished at 


Favia, or possibly at I^aa. This litUe traot is of the ntmosl 
rarity, and Mr. Lenox, considering the suggestion of Konchini, 
that the blunder of Scillaoio may have caused the destruction 
of the edition, replies by calling attention to the fact that it is 
scarcely rarer than nuuiy other of the contemporary tracts of 
( olumbus*M voyage, about which there exists no such reasoo. 

We get also some reports by Torres himself on the affairs of 
the colony in various letters of a Florentine merchant, 
Simone Verde, to whom he had communicated them. 
These letters have been recently (1875) found in the archives 
of Florence, and have been made better known still later bj 


wlien% on the next day, ho sought shelter and an 
> careen a leaky ship. Here the shore swarmed 
painted men, and some canoes with feathered 
■iors advanced to oppose a landing. They hurled 
witliout effect, and filled the air with their 
whoops. Cohunbus then sent In his boats nearer 
a his ships could go, and under cover of a dia- 
lis bombards a party landed, and with their erosa- 
s put the Indians to flight Bemaldez tells that 
)g was let loose upon the savages, and this is the 
on of that canine warfare which the Spaniards 

sanguinary. Columbus now landed and took pos- 
uju of the island under the name of Santiago, but 
mime did not supplant the native Jamaica. The 
n had its effect, and the nest day some envoys of 
if the region made offers of amity, which were 
lid. For three days this friendly iuterconrse was 

the customary exchange of gifts. The Spaniards 
d but observe a marked difference in the character 
lis new peojile. They were more martial and better 
ny they had seen since they left the Carib islands. 


Keacbing now the extreme westerly end of Jamaica, and ftnd- 
ing the wind setting right for Cuba, ColuuibuM shifted coinmbw 
his course thither, and bore away to the north. On c!f£|[**** 
the 18th of May, he was once more on its coast. The i^m. umy 
people were everywhere friendly. They told him that '^ 
Cuba was an island, but of such extent that they had never 
M*«*n the end of it. This did not convince Columbus that it was 
other than the mainland. So he went on towards the west, in 
full oontid<*m*e that ho would i*onie to Cathay, or at least, such 
««eem4*«l IiIm ex[MH*tation. He presently rounded a point, and saw 
b(*fon* him a large an'hi|M4ago. He was now at that |M>int 
where the C*abi> de la Cruz on the south and this archipelago 
in the northwest rnibay a broail gulf. The islands seemed almost 
without number, ami they studdtnl the sea with verdant spots. 
He calle<l tliem tlu* Quern's (lardens. He c*ould get 
better !(eaway by standing further south, and so pass 
lieyontl the islands ; but sus|>ecting that they were the very 
islands whirli lay in ni:isses along the coast of (.^athay, as Marco 
Po|«> and Mandrville had said, he was prompttnl to risk the in- 
trirai-irs of their navigation ; so he clung t4> tlit* sliore, luid felt 
that without doubt he was verging on the territories of tht* (ireat 
Khun, lie l>egan s4M>n t4> apprehend his risks. The channels 
\»en» devious. The shi»:ils |)er]>lex(Hl him. Then* was oft4*n m> 
ro«iui t4> wear ^liip, und the IxKits had Ui tf>w tht^ caravels at 
int4*rvals to elearer water. T\w\ 4'ould not priH^WNl at all with- 
out tlin»wiiig the lead. The wind w:is capricious, and whirle<i 
HMiiid tlie (H>in|> with the sun. Sudden tempests threatened 

With all tliis suixiety, there was much to lieguile. Every as- 
|MN*t of natun* was like the descriptions of the East in the trav- 
elent* tales. The S|>aniartls looktnl for inhabitants, but none 
were to 1m* se<'n. .\t last tliev espietl a village on one of the 
inlantls, but on lan<ling ( May 22), not a soul could be found, — 
only tht* spoils of tht* S4*a which a fishing people would be likely 
to gather, .\nother day. they met a canoe fnun which some 
natives were tishing. The nM*n came on l>aanl without trepida- 
tion and gave the S}Kiniards what fish they wanted. They hail 
a wonderful wav of eatehin^; fish. Thev used a live fish much 
as a falcon is um.n1 in thatching its quarry. This fish would 
fasten itself to its prey by suckers growing about the head. 


implements. A mass of the natives hovered about the pro- 

Their progress was as martial as it could be made. Banners 
were flaunted. Drums and trumpets were sounded. Their 
armor was made to glisten. Crossing the low land, they came 
to a defile in the mountain. There was nothing before them but 
a tortuous native trail winding upward among the rocks and 
through tangled forest. It was ill suited for the passage of a 
heavily burdened force. Some of the younger cavaliers sprang 
to the front, and gathering around them woodmen and 
iDAkeia pioneers, they opened the way; and thus a road was 
constructed through the pass, the first made in the New 
World. This work of the proud cavaliers was called El puerto 
de los Hidalgos, The summit of the mountain afforded afresh 
the grateful view of the luxuriant valley which had delighted 
The Vega Ojcda, — royally rich as it was in every aspect, and 
^^^ deserving the name which Columbus now gave it of 

the Vega Real. 

Here, on the summit of Santo Cerro, the tradition of the 
island goes that Columbus caused that cross to be erected 
which the traveler to-day looks upon in one of the side chapels 
of the cathedral at Santo Domingo. It stood long enough 
Erecua *^ perform many miracles, as the believers tell us, 
^"^ and was miraculously saved in an earthquake. De 

Lorgues does not dare to connect the actual erection with the 
holy trophy of the cathedral. Descending to the lowlands, the 
little army and its followers attracted the notice of the amazed 
natives by clangor and parade. This display was made more 
astounding whenever the horses were set to prancing, as they ap- 
proached and passed a native hamlet. Las Casas tells us that 
the first horseman who dismounted was thought by the natives 
to have parceled out a single creature into convenient parts. 
The Indians, timid at first, were enticed by a show of trinkets, 
and played upon by the interpreters. Thus they gradually 
were won over to repay all kindnesses with food and drink, 
while they rendered many other kindly services. The army 
came to a large stream, and Columbus called it the River of 
fleeds. It was the same which, the year before, knowing it 
only where it emptied into the sea, he had called the River of 
Gold, because he had been struck with the shining particles 


Keaching now the extreme westerly end of Jamaica, and Hnd- 
ing the winii i»etting right for Cuba, ColuuibuM shifted coinmbw 
his course thither, and bore away to the north. On c!f£|[**** 
the 18th of May, he was once more on its coast. The i^m. tUf 
ptHiple were everywhere friendly. They told him that '^ 
('ul>a was an island, but of such extent that they had never 
!>Mt*n the end of it. This did not convince Columbus that it was 
othor than the mainland. So he went on towards the wesU in 
full c<mtid(*m'e that ho would i*ome to Cathay, or at least, such 
leemt^l his ex[MH*tation. lie presently rounded a |K>int, and saw 
befon* hiui a large an*hi|M*lag(>. He was now at that point 
where the Cabo de la (Vuz on tlie south and this archipelago 
in the northwest emlwy a broad gulf. The islands tteemed almost 
without number, antl tliov studdtHl the sea with verdant spots. 
He callotl them the Qurrn's (lardens. He i*<iuld get 
better st»away by stantling further south, and so pass 
U^yond tlie islan«ls ; but suH|)ecting that they were the very 
islands wliirh lay in masses along tlie coast of (^athay, as Marco 
P(»lo and Mandfville liad said, lie was pnmiptiHl to risk the in- 
tnra4*i(\s 4>f tlu»ir navigation ; so he clung t4> tht* shore, and felt 
tluit without doubt lie was verging tin the territories of tht* (ireat 
Khan. lit* l)eg«in S4H)n t4i apprehend his rinks. The channels 
wfn» d4«vious. The slio.'ils |>er])lex(Mi him. There was oft4*n no 
ro«ini t4i wear ship, aiul th<* boats hail t4) tf»w the caravels at 
intervals to eleanT water. They «»oiild not pnH*tNNl at all witli- 
«>ut throwing the lea<l. The wind w:i.s capricious, an«l whirlMi 
niuntl the t^mipass with the sun. Snthlen tempests threatened 

With all this anxiety, there was much to beguile. Every as- 
{MH*t of nature was like the descriptitms of the East in the trav- 
elers* taK*s. Tlie S|)aniartls hwktnl for inhabitants, but none 
were to Im* sc*en. .\t hist they espied a village on one of the 
inlands, but on landing ( May 22 ), not a soul (*ould be found, — 
imly the s|M>ils (if the m*:i wliieh a fishing people wouhl be likely 
t4> gather, .\nother ilay. they met a canoe frr>m which some 
nativt*H wen) fi>hing. Tli«* men came on boanl without trepida- 
tion and gave the S}Kiniards what fish they wante<I. They hail 
a wonderful wav of catehin;' fish. Thev used a live fish much 
as a falcon is us4'<l in eatching its quarry. This fish would 
fasten itself to its pn^y by suckers growing about the head. 


all these bits, could be found. Columbus began to wonder whj^ 
he never reached the best places. 

The Spaniards soon got to know the region better. Juan de 
coontiy Luxan, who had been sent out with a party to see 
examiiMML what he could find, reported that the region was moun- 
tainous and in its upper parts sterile, to be sure, but that there 
were delicious valleys, and plenty of land to cultivate, and pas- 
turing enough for herds. When he came back with these re- 
ports, the men put a good deal of heart in the work which they 
were bestowing on the citadel of St. Thomas, so that it wa& 
soon done. Pedro Margarite was placed in command 
raturnsto with fifty-six men, and then Columbus started to re- 

laabella. z. 

turn to isabeila. 

When the Admiral reached the valley, he met a train of sup- 
plies going forward to St. Thomas, and as there were difficulties 
of fording and other obstacles, he spent some time in examining 
the country and marking out lines of communication. This 
NatiTM of brought him into contact with the villages of the val- 
tbe vaUey. j^y^ ^j^j j^^ g|.ew better informed of the kind of peo- 
ple among whom his colonists were to live. He did not, how- 
ever, discern that under a usually pacific demeanor there was no 
lack of vigorous determination in this people, wliich it might 
not be so wise to irritate to the point of vengeance. He found, 
too, that they had a religion, perhaps prompting to some virtues 
he little suspected in his own, and that they jealously guarded 
their idols. He discovered that experience had given them no 
near acquaintance with the medicinal properties of the native 
herbs and trees. They associated myths with places, and would 
tell yon that the sun and moon were but creatures of their isl- 
and wliicli had esca|)ed from one of their caverns, and that 
mankind had sprung from the crannies of their rocky places. 
The bounteousness of nature, causing little care for the future, 
had spread among them a love of hospitality, and Columbus 
found himself welcome everywhere, and continued to be so till 
he and his abused their privileges. 

On the 29th of March, Columbus was back in Isabella, to 
1494. March ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^'^^ plautiugs of January were already yield- 
bL in^il^ i"F^ fruits, and the colony, in its agricultural aspects, 
^"'*' at least, was promising, for the small areas that had 

already been cultivated. But the tidings from the new fort in 


Irviiij>, and Ilumbolclt telLi us there is enough in his ezperieui*e 
with the habits of these birds to make it certain that the inter- 
pretation is warranted. 

Still the Admiral went on westerly, opening communication 
oei*asionally with the shore, but to little advantage in gathering 
information, for the ex|HHlition hxul gone beyond the range of 
•iiali*cts where thi.* Luoayan interpreter eould be of service. 
The sliore ])e«iple i^mtinued to point west, and the most that 
could bo made of their sigiiH was that a |>owerful king reigned 
in tluit dini*tuiii, and tluit he wore white rubes. This is the 
story as lii*rn:ddoz gives it ; and Columbus very likely thought 
it a premonition of Prester John. The coast still stretclied to 
tht' M4*tting Muuif C\»himbus divined the native signs aright, but 
no one i*ould tell how far. The sea again be(*anie shallow, and 
the keels of tlit* caravels stirred up the bottom. The accounts 
!»|N-ak of wonderful crowds of tortoises covering the water, pi- 
ge4»n.*« darkening the sky, and gautly butt4*rflies swe(*ping about 
in cl«»udH. The shore was t<Mi low for habitation ; but tliey saw 
'^nmke and otlier signs of life in the high lands of tin* coiambM 
int4*ri«>r. When the I'oast line bi^gan to trencl to the IZ-'rihT^ 
Miuthwest, — it was Mart*o Polo whi> siiid it would, — ri!"»*«». 
tlienM«onld Ik* little doubt that the (iolden ('hfrs«iiiesiis ***** 
• if the an«'ients, whi«'h we know to-day as the Malacca |>enin- 
^iihi, must In* lM*vontl. 

What ni*xt'.' wa: the thought which passtnl thniugh the 
frven^l bniin of the Admiral. He iia«i an answer in his mind, 
anil it woulil make a new M*ns:ition for his |MM)r colony at Isa- 
U*lla to hear of him in S|>:iin. P:issin;; the (tolden Chersone- 
!iii.*«, hail he not the alternative of st4H*ring honi«*wanl br«|,iri, ^ 
bv way f»f Ceylon an«l the VvL\ye of (iotMl 1Io|ms and rjo^io"*^ 
•«ti astound tilt* Portugues«* m«>rt* than he did when he ^^^ 
^'WU'TvA the Ta;:us? Or, abandoning the Indian (X^ean and 
••iit«*ring the Ked S<*:i, 4*onld he not pnK*t*ed t4> its northern ex- 
tremity, and tlif*n*, des«*rting his ships, join a cam van passing 
thniugh •leru«alom anil JaflTsu and so emiiark a;;ain on the 
Mi-fliterranean and sail into Itanvlona, a more wonderful ex- 
pli»n»r than U»fore? 

Tbes«* wen* the sublimating thoughts that now buoyed the 
Admiral, as h«* hM»ke<I along the far-stretehing coant. — or at 
least his frien«l liernaldez g«>t this impression fnim his inter- 
ooume with (Vilumbus after his retuni to S|)ain. 


to St. Thomas, which post he was to govern while Margarite 
took the expeditionary party and scoured the country. Nayar- 
rete has preserved for us the instructions which Columbus im« 
parted. They counseled a considerate regard for the natives, 
who must, however, be made to furnish all necessaries at fair 
prices. Above all, every Spaniard must be prevented from en* 
g&gii^g ii^ private trade, since the profits of such bartering were 
reserved to the Crown, and it did not help Columbus in his deal- 
ings with the refractory colonists to have it known that a for- 
eign interloper, like himself, shared this profit with the Crown. 
Margarite was also told that he must capture, by force or strata 
agem, the cacique Caonabo and his brothers. 

When Ojeda, who had started on April 9, reached the Vega- 
1494. Keal, he learned that three Spaniards, returning from 

Aprils. g|.^ Thomas, had been robbed by a party of Indians,, 
people of a neighboring cacique. Ojeda seized the offenders,, 
the ears of one of whom he cut off, and then capturing the 
cacique himself and some of his family, he sent the whole 
party to Isabella. Columbus took prompt revenge, or made 
the show of doing so ; but just as the senteuce of execution was- 
to be inflicted, he yielded to the importimities of another ca>- 
cique, and thought to keep by it his reputation for clemency. 
Presently another horseman came in from St, Thomas, who, on 
his way, had rescued, single-handed and with the aid of the ter- 
ror which his animal inspired, another party of five Spaniards,, 
whom he had found in the hands of the same tribe. 

Such easy conquests convinced Columbus that only proper 
prudence was demanded to maintain the Spanish supremacy 
with even a diminished force. He had not forgotten the fears 
of the Portuguese which were harassing the Spanish Court 
when he left Seville, and, to anticipate them, he was anxious to 
make a more thorough examination of Cuba, which was a part 
of the neighboring main of Cathay, as he was ready to suppose. 
He therefore commissioned a sort of junto to rule, while in 
person he should conduct such an expedition by water. His- 
nieifo and brother Diego was placed in command during his ab-- 
the junto. gcnce, and he gave him for counselors, Father Boyle, 
Pedro Fernandez Coronel, Alonso Sanchez Carvajal, and Juan 
de Luxan. He took three caravels, the smallest of his little 
fleet, as better suited to explore, and left the two large onea^ 


fnim this belief, the miserable skeptic, if an officer, nhuuld be 
Hued 10,000 luaravedis ; and if a sailor, he should receive a hun- 
dred laches and have his tongue pulled out Such were the 
M*an*ely heroic ni(*asures that Columbus thought it necessary to 
«*iiipioy if he would dispel any belief that all these islands of 
the hiilies were but an ocean archi|)elago after all, and that the 
v%idth of th«* unknown void Ix^tween Kurope and Asia, which he 
^vait HO (confident ho had traversed, was yet undetermined. To 
uiake Cuba a <Hiutinent bv affidavit was oasv ; to make 

• .*. * w that Ci 

it ap|H*ar the identical kingdom of the Great Khan, u • 
he h4>|MHl would follow. During his first voyage, so 
far as lie iH»uld make out an intelligible statement from what 
thr nativ«*s indicateil, he was of the opinion tliat Culm was an 
inland. It is t4> be feareil that he Imd now reached a state of 
mind in which lit' did not dare to think it an island. 

If u«> bi'licve the //i/t/oriV, — or some {)aHHages in it, at least, 
— writtt-n, as wr know, after the geography of the New Work! 
w:is fairly undcrstooil. and if w«* accept the evidence of the, Ilcrn^ra, Columbus never really sup|)osed he was in 
Asia. If this is true, he took marvelous |>aiiis to deceive others 
by apivariii;; to Im> dc<vivcd liiuiHolf, as this notarial exhibition 
an«l his soh^mn ass4*vcnition to th«* P«i)m» in 1*>02 show. The 
writ«»rs jiiHt riti'd say that ln» simply jug^^htl the worhi by giv- 
ing the name India t4i tlicM* n'gitms, as lM*tt4*r suited to allure 
i*mit:nition. Such testimony, if a<Mvpt4Hi, i*stablishes the fraud- 
idciit ciiar.u'trr of thcs4* notarial pnteotMlings. It is fair to say, 
however, that he wrote to IVt4»r Martyr, just after the return of 
tlu* caravels to IsaU*lla, expressing a <*onlident belief in his 
having t*ome near to the region t>f the (tangos : and divesting 
the te->timony of all the jugglery with which others have invested 
it, there Hcoins little doubt that in this belief, at least, 1 olum- 
»U4 was hin4*ere. 

( >n the next (lay, (^>lumbus, standing to the southeast, reached 
a large island, tin* pres4*nt Isle 4>f Pines, whic^h he ,|^ j,^ 
(*all«N| Kvan;;elista. In endeav4>ring to skirt it 4m the *^ 
MMith, he wasentanghnl 4>n4v more in a way that maile him aban- 
tlon the ho|M* 4)f a 4lire4*ter passage t4i Ks|iaftt>la that way, and 
to resolve to follow the «'o:ist ba4*k i\s he had (*ome. He lost ten 
4lays in theiM* un(*«'rtaiii i'f forts, whic h, with his provisions rap- 


in the harbor, where, on the next day, he sought shelter and an 
opportunity to careen a leaky ship. Here the shore swarmed 
NatiTMof ^^h painted men, and some canoes with feathered 
Jamaica. warrfors advanccd to oppose a landing. They hurled 
their javelins without efPect, and filled the air with their 
screams and whoops. Columbus then sent in his boats nearer 
the shore than his ships could go, and under cover of a dis- 
charge from his bombards a party landed, and with their cross- 
Adogaefe bows put the Indians to flight. Bemaldez tells that 
'von them. ^ ^^g ^^ ^Qt loosc upou the savagcs, and this is the 
earliest mention of that canine warfare which the Spaniards 
later made so sanguinary. Columbus now landed and took pos- 
Santiago or s^ssion of the islaud under the name of Santiago, but 
Jamaica. ^j^^ name did not supplant the native Jamaica. The 
warning lesson had its efPect, and the next day some envoys of 
the cacique of the region made ofPers of amity, which were 
readily accepted. For three days this friendly intercourse was 
kept up, with the customary exchange of gifts. The Spaniards 
chanoter of ^ould but obscrvc a marked difPerence in the character 
"^'^ of this new people. They were more martial and better 
sailors than any they had seen since they left the Carib islands. 
The enormous mahogany-trees of the islands furnished them 
with trunks, out of which they constructed the largest canoes. 
Columbus saw one which was ninety-six feet long and eight 
broad. There was also in these people a degi*ee of merriment 
such as the Spaniards had not noticed before, more docility 
and quick apprehension, and Peter Martyr gathered from those 
with whom be had talked that in almost all ways they seemed 
a manlier and experter race. Their cloth, utensils, and imple- 
ments were of a character not differing from others the explorers 
had seen, but of better handiwork. 

As soon as he floated his ship, Columbus again stretched his 
course to the west, finding no further show of resistance. The 
native dugout sallied forth to trade from ever/ little inlet which 
was passed. Finally, a youth came off and begged to be taken to 
the Spaniards' home, and the IliMorie tells us tliat it was not 
without a scene of distress that he bade his kinsfolk good-by, 
in spite of all their endeavors to reclaim him. Columbus was 
struck with the courage and confidence of the youth, and ordered 
special kindnesses to be shown to him. We hear nothing more 
of the lad. 


idly iiitniuiHhing, did not conduce to reassure his crew. On Jane 
S0« trying to follow the intricacies of the channoln ,4^ ^^ 
whioh luui ]M*r])lc*x(Hl him before, the Admirars »hip ^'' 
got a rtovere thump on the bottom, which for a while threatened 
diftaMtcr. She wan pulled through, however, by main force, and 
afu*r a while was H|>e«^ing east in clear water. Tliey had now 
iiaih*<i beyond those manthv reaches of the i-oast, where they wi>re 
eut off from intercourMc with tlie shore, and hoped Mion to find 
a liarbor, whcrt* focNi and rcHt might restore the strength of tlie 
cn»w. Their daily allowance ha<l been reduced to a |M>und of 
mouliiy bread :<!:«• a swall«>w or two of wine. It was the ,4J^ 
T..ii «it tlulv when tiiey unchortMl in an acct*ptablu harbor. ^^' ' 
Hen* they lantletl, and interehangtHi the customary jilctlges of 
amity witii a ear i« pie who presented himself on the sliore. 
Men having Ikmmi siMit to cut down siime trees, a large cross was 
matie, and ereet4*«l in a gri>ve, and on this s|)ot, with a crowd of 
natives KNiking on, the Spaniani celebrated high mass. A ven- 
erable Indian, wlio wat(*iied all the ceremonials with close atten- 
tion, divining their religious nature, maile known to the Admiral, 
through the Lucayan interpreter, something f>f the sustaining 
belief of his own |H*ople, in words that wen* impressive. Co- 
lumbuH*!i eontiileutM* in tiie incapacity «>f the native mind for 
such hii:h conceptions as tliin ]MNir Indian nianifentM nnvived 
agrat4*ful HhiM*k mIh'ii the old man, gnive in his manner and nn- 
couiM'ious in his dignity, pictunsl the opposite rewanls of the 
good ami XvaA in amither w«irld. Then turning to the Admiral, 
h«* remind«'<l him that wnuig u|»on the unoffending was no pass- 
port t4> the bieisings of the future. The historian who tells os 
this story, an«l nH*ounts how it impressed the Admiral, does not 
say that its warnings troublinl him much in the tim«^ to come, 
when the unoff«'n«ling wen* grievously wnmged. Perhaps there 
w:lh Homething of thin forgi*tful spirit in the taking of a vonng 
Indian away fn»m his friends, as the ehnmiclcrs say hi* did, 
in this very harlM>r. 

On July l(i, (*olumbus left the harlmr, and steering off shore 
to ciM'aiN* the intrieate cliannels of the Queen*s (iar- n^^ j^ 
liens whii'h he was now r(vapproa<*hing, he sofin found '^ 
iit*aruciin. and lM>n> away t<iwani Ks|>aflola. A gale f*oming on, 
the c*»ravelH wen* fonM^l in nhore, and disco vere«l an ,1^ j^ 
aiM*h«>rage under C*abo de (^ruz. Here they remained "* 



The native fishermen let it out vith a line attached to its tail, 
and pulled in both the catcher and the caught when the prey 
had been seised. These people also told the Hauiu story of Uia 
inteniiinable extent westerly of the Cuban coast. 

Columbus now passed out from amoug these islands and 
steered towards a mountainous region, whei'e he again landed 
i«w. ^iitl opened intercourse with a pacific tribe ou June 3. 

juoes. ^jj p]j ca^jiqye repeated the same story of the illim- 
itable land, and referred to the province of Mangon as lying 
farther west. This name was enough to rekindle the imagina- 
tion of the Admiral. Was not Mangi the richest of the prov- 
inces that Sir John MaudeviUe had spoken of? He learned 
Mmviui ^^*> '''i^t' ^ people with tails lived there, just as titat 
•""* veracious narrator had described, and they wore long 

garments to conceal that apiiendage. What a sight a proces- 
sion of these Asiatics would make in another reception at tlu> 
Spanish Court I 

There was nothing now to impede the progress of the eara- 
»els, and on the vessels went in their westward course. Every 
day the crews got fresh fruits from the friendly canoes. They 
paid nothing for the balmy odors from the laud. They next 
agi(g[ came to the Gulf of Xagua, and passing this tliey 
''*™' again sailed into shallow waters, whitened with the 
floating sand, which the waves kept in suspension. The course 
of the ships was tortuous among the bars, and tliey felt relieved 
when at last they found a place where their anchors would hold. 
To make sure that a way through this labyrinth could be found, 
Columbus sent his smallest caravel ahead, and then following her 
guidance, the little fleet, with great difficulty, and not without 
much danger at times, came out into clearer water. Later, he 
saw a deep bay on his right, and tacking across the opening he 
lay his course for some distant mountains. Here he anchored 
to replenish his water-casks. An archer straying into the forest 
wiiiie-robod ^^106 back on the run, saying that he had seen white- 
"°" rohed people. Here, then, thought Columbus, were 

the people who were concealing their tails ! He sent out two 
parties to reconnoitre. They found nothing hut a tangled wil- 
derness. It has been suggested that the timorous and orfldu< 
loua archer had got half a sight of a flock of white cranes feed- 
ing iu a savanna. Such is the interpretation of this story by 


idly JiiniuiMhing, did not oonduoe to reassure his crew. On Jane 
30« trying to follow the intricat'ica of the chanm*lH ^^/^ ^^ 
which luul |)eq>lexiHl him before, the Admiral*^ lihip ^'' 
got a rtevere thump on the botUim, which for a while threatened 
difiaHtcr. She was pulled through, however, by main force, and 
after a while was MiHM'ding east iu clear water. Tliey liad now 
iiaileil bevond thoMe manthv reaches of the coast, where thev were 
cut off from iutercourHc with tlie shore, and ho|)ed soon to find 
a liarbor, where food and rest might restore the strength of tlie 
cn*w. Their daily allowance had been reduced to a |>ound of 
mouldy bread itr.t! a swallow or two of wine. It was the 14;^ 
T»Ai oi July when they anchonnl in an acceptable harbor. ^**'' ' 
Hen- they l:intl«Hl, and iuten*han;;(Hl the custonmry jiledges of 
amity with a cai*it|ue wiio presented himself on the sliore. 
Men liaving l>een sent to cut down some trci^s, a large cross was 
made, and eret*t«*«l in a };n»ve, ami on this H|)ot, with a crowd of 
natives Icnikinj; on, ilie S|)anianl ci*lebrated high mass. A ven- 
erable Indian, who wiitched all the ceremonials with eh>se atten- 
tion, diviuin;; their religious nature, made known to the Admiral, 
through the Lucayan interpn^ter, Mimething of the sustaining 
belief of his own ]NMipl«', in words that wen* impressive. Co^ 
lum bus's contidcucf iu the incapacity of the native mind for 
such hii:li (*ontvptii>ns as this )M)or Indian nianifestiHl nnvived 
a grati'ful >h«H*k mIu'M the old man, grave iu his manner and nn- 
eonseious in his dignity, picturi*d the opposite re wants of the 
good and IkuI in another world. Then turning to the Admiral, 
he remindetl him that wrong U|>«in the unoffending was no pass- 
port ti> the blessings of the future. The historian who tells os 
this story, an«l reiNmnts how it impressed the Admiral, does not 
■ay that its warnings tmubltHl him much in the times to come, 
when tiM* unoffen«liug were grievously wnmged. Perhaps there 
W.-IS simiething of this forgetful spirit in the taking of a young 
Indian away fnim his friends, as the ehrunielers say he <lid, 
in this ver}' harlMir. 

<>n July lt>, Columbus left the harlior, and steering off shore 
to r«'a|N* the intri«*ate rhann«*ls of tlu* Queen*s (iar- 14^ j^ 
dens which he was now rivapproa<*hing, h«' scmiu found '^ 
st*ar«Mim. and bore away towanl Ks|Kiflohi. A gale t*oming on, 
ibe caravels were foriMtl in Hhore, and disco vere«l an ,|.^ j^ 
aiirliorage umlcr I'abo de Cruz, Hen* they remained '" 


If the compliant spirit of his crew had not been exhausted. 
Hit crew ^^ would pcrhaps have gone on, and would have been 
'^ forced by developments to a revision of his geographic 

cal faith. His vessels, unfortunately, were strained in all their 
seams. Their leaks had spoiled his provisions. Incessant la- 
bor had begun to tell upon the health of the crew. They much 
preferred the chances of a return to Isabella, with all its haz- 
ards, than a sight of Jaffa and the Mediterranean, with the un- 
told dangers of getting there. 

The Admiral, however, still pursued his course for a few 
days more to a point, as Humboldt holds, opposite the St. 
PhUip Keys, when, finding the coast trending sharply to the 
southwest, and his crew becoming clamorous, he determined to 
go no farther. 

It was now the 12th of June, 1494, and if we had nothing but 

the Historie to euide us, we should be iraorant of the 

12. Hetanu singular turn which affairs took. Whoever wrote that 


book had, by the time it was written, become conscious 
that obliviousness was sometimes necessary to preserve the rep- 
utation of the Admiral. The strange document which inter- 
ests us, however, has not been lost, and we can read it in 

It is not difficult to understand the disquietude of Columbus's 
mind. He had determined to find Cathay as a counterpoise to 
the troubled conditions at Isabella, both to assuage the gloomy 
forebodings of the colonists and to reassure the public mind in 
Spain, which might receive, as he knew, a shock by the reports 
which Ton'es's fleet had carried to Europe. He had been forced 
by a mutinous crew to a determination to turn back, but his dis- 
contented companions might be complacent enough to express 
an opinion, if not complacent enough to run farther hazards. 
So Columbus committed himself to the last resort of deluded 
minds, when dealing with geographical or historical problems, 
— that of seeking to establish the truth by building monu- 
ments, placing inscriptions, and certifications under oath. He 

caused the eighty men who constituted the crew of 
oath upon his little squadrou — and we find their name in Duro's 

Colon y Pinzon — to swear before a notary that it 
was possible to go from Cuba to Spain by land, across Asia. It 
was solemnly affirmed by this official that if any should swerve 


the wemtber forced him to remain for eight days. The Admi- 
rmlV vessel had succeeded in entering a roadstead, bat the others 
iky outside, buffeting the storm, — naturally a source of constant 
anxiety to him. 

It was while in this suspense that Columbus took advantage 
of an ecii|>Me of the moon, to ascertain his longitude. ooiaabM 
His i!aloulations made him five liours and a half west j^jj^^ 
of Seville, — an hour and a quarter too much, making ^^^'^^ 
an error of eighteen degrees. This mistake was quite as likely 
owing to the rudenesH of his method as to the pardonable errors 
of the lunar Uibles of Ueg^omontanus (Venice, 1492), then in 
use. These tables followed methods which had more or less 
ooiitrolled calcuhitions from the time of Ilipparchus. 

The error of Columbus is not surprising. Even a oentoiy 
later, when K(»lK*rt Hues published his treatise on the MoU- 
neaux gl(»l)e (l/>92), the difficulties were in large part unoon- 
tniUable. ^^ Tlie most certain of all for this pur|)ose,** says this 
mathematician. ^' is iH>nfeHsed by all writers to be by eclipses of 
the moon. But now tliese eclipses happen but seldom, but are 
more st*]d<>m M^n, yet most seldom and in ver}' few places ob- 
served by tlie skillful artists in this sciences So that there are 
but few longitudes of plant's desigiuMi out by tiiis means. But 
this is an uii(M*rtain and tirklish way. and Hubj«^t t4) many diffi- 
cMilties. OtliiTs liave gone other ways t4> W(»rk. as, namely, by 
oiNUTving tbe H]>a«H» of the e(|uino<*tial hours lN*twixt the men- 
dian*^ of two phu^t^s^ which they «H)noeive may Ih* taken by the 
help of sundials, or elooks, or hourglasses, either with water or 
HaiKl or tbe like. But all thes4' i*oneeits, long sinct* devised, hav- 
ing lMN*n nion' strirtly and aoeurately examined, have lieen dis- 
alli>wtNl an«l n-jci'ted by all leamcHl men — at least those of 
rip(*r judgments — as Inking alt4>gi»ther unable to perform that 
\«hieh in nHpiirtsl of tli«*ni. I shall niit stand here to dis4*over 
tilt* errors and untvrUiinties of these instruments. Away witli 
all surh triHiii;;, eliratin;; ras(*als ! ** 

The W(*ath(*r nio<lerating, Columbus stood out of the channel 
of Saona on S4*pt4*mlN*r 24, and nuH*ting the other car- ,^^ g^. 
avt*U, which had weatlnTi*d the st4>nn. he still st«H»red •^i^^^'*- 
to the east. They n*ache<l the farthest end of Ksjmnola oppo- 
site Porto KiiH>, and mn «>ut to the island of Mona, in the 
t*hannel )K!twe4*n the two larger islands. Shortly after leaving 



It wma the 2\hh of Soptoiiilicr, 1494, when the "^ Nina,** with 

the* iioiisk*loHH Ailminil on iMiard, and her frail consorts i^^ 

hUmnI into the harbor of IiialN^lhi. Taken ashore, the coiuBibvita 
«irk man found no restorative like the presence of his '^^"''^ 
brother Itartholomew, who had reached Isabella during the Ad- 
mi mrs absi*niv. yiBih Bw. 
Si*veral years iiad ela)ui4Kl since the two coni^nial {J3I3S 
bnithrrn hacl parUnl. We have seen that this brother ^^*^ 
hat! pnibiibiy beer, with Bartholomew Diaz when he discov- 
i-red the Afri(*an ca]>e. It is Hup|MMkHl, from tlie inscriptions 
iiu it« that tilt* map delivorcMl by I^irtholoniew to Henry VII. 
h.iii «hown the results of Diazes dis(*ovories. This chart had 
U-en t.«iken to Kn;;lantl, when Ilartholoni(*w hail pme thither, 
til <*n^ii;e the inten*Ht of Henry VII. in (\dunibuM*s liehalf. 
Tlirrt* in Home ribtouritv al»out the movements of Dartholomew 
at thin time, but there is thou<<:ht bv some to lie 
r«*a<uin to U'Heve that he finally pot sufficient en- ■•'•••< 
i*<itinii:i*nient from that Tudor prince to start for 
S{i.iiii with offt'rH for bin brother. The IliMnrie tells us that 
th** pni|MMitionH of liartbolomew were spee<lily accepted bj 
111 riry, and tlii** statement prevails in the earlier Kn^^lish 
writern, like Hukliivt anii Kacon : but Ovie«Io sa^'s the schema 
wa.'« fh'ridtsK ami <i«*nildini savs it was d«*cline<l. Rartholomew 
n^arh***! PariH junt at the time when wonl had come there of 
t'«>bHnbuH*s n*tuni fn>m his first voyap^. His kinship to the 
Aiimind, and his own ex|)o*«itionH of the fveopraphieai problem 
th**n attra4*tiui; so much attention, drew him within the influ- 
••mv of the Fn'ni*Ii court, and (liarles VIII. is said to have far^ 
ninhcd him tin* means — as Rartholomew was then low in pui 


for three days, but the wind still blowing from the east, Colum- 
bus thought it a good opportunity to complete the circuit of 
oatiiecoMt Jamaica. He accordingly stood across towards that 
ocjamaica. igj^md. He was a moudi in beating to the eastward 
along its southern coast, for the winds were very capricious. 
Every night he anchored under the land, and the natives sup- 
plied him with provisions. At one place, a cacique presented 
' himself in much feathered finery, accompanied by his wife and 
relatives, with a retinue bedizened in the native fashion, and 
doing homage to the Admiral. It was shown how effective the 
Lucayan's pictures of Spanish glory and prowess had been, 
when the cacique proposed to put himself and all his train in 
the Admiral's charge for passage to the great country of the 
Spanish King. The offer was rather embarrassing to the Ad- 
miral, with his provisions running low, and his ships not of the 
largest. He relieved himself by promising to conform to the 
wishes of the cacique at a more opportune moment. 

By the 19th of August, Columbus had passed the easternmost 
149^ extremity of Jamaica, and on the next day he was 

Angiut 19. skirting the long peninsula which juts from the soutb- 
westem angle of Espaflola. He was not, however, aware of 
j^j^j^]^ his position till on the 23d a cacique came off to the 
14M. caravels, and addressed Columbus by his title, with 

^'*°**^ some words of Castilian interlarded in his speech. It 
was now made clear that the ships had nearly reached their 
goal, and nothing was left but to follow the circuit of the isl- 
and. It was no easy task to do so with a wornout crew and 
crazy ships. The little fleet was separated in a gale, and when 
Columbus made the lofty rocky island which is now 
known as Alto Velo, resembling as it does in outline 
a tall ship under sail, he ran under its lee, and sent a boat 
' ashori*, with orders for the men to scale its heights, to learn if 
the missing caravels were anywhere to be seen. This endeavor 
was without result, but it was not long before the fleet was re- 
united. Further on, the Admiral learned from the natives that 
some of the Spaniards had been in that part of the island, 
coming from the other side. Finding thus through the native 
reports that all was quiet at Isabella, he landed nine men to 
push across the island and report his coming. Somewhat fur- 
ther to the east, a storm impending, he found a harbor, where 


to forestall what he feared the Portuguese might be led to 
attempt io the Haine directiou, for he had not been unaware of 
the disturbance in the court at Lisbon which the papal line of 
dfwarcation had created. He was glad now to learn from his 
brother that his own fleet had hardly got to sea from Cadix, in 
St^pteniber, 1493, when the Pope^ by another bull on the 26th of 
that month, h:ul declared tliat all countries of the eastern Indies 
whirh the Spaniards might Hnd, in cai^e they were not already 
in Christian liands, should l>e inrluded in the grant made to 
Spain. Tliin Hull of Extension, :iM it was called, was p^^B^of 
a new thorn in the .nide of Portugal, and time would ''*"^**" 
rt'voal itH effei't. Alexander ha<l resisteii all importunities to 
recetle from hin |K>sition, taken in May. 

I^*t us look now at what had luip])ened in KspaAola during 
the absence* of Columtni.s : but in the tirst pla(*e, we 


niuAt mark out the native division of the island with 

whose history C^oIuml>us*H oan*er is so associated. Just ahMMof 

back of IsaU'lla, and aliout tlie Vega Keal, whose U*- 
wildcriii*; lH*auties of grove and savanna have exoitinl the ad- 
miration «>f nuKlern visitors, lav the t4'rriton' tributary to a 
c*ai*ique nauHnl (tuarionex, which was iMiunded ^M)Uth by Xhvt 
C^ilmn gold mountains. S<iuth of i\\vM' interior ridges and ex- 
tending to the southern short* of the island lay the region (Ma- 
guiuia > nf the most warlike of all the native princess, C'aonabo, 
whoH<* wife, Aiia4*:iona, was a sister of l^hei*hio, who governed 
Xarugua, :ui the larger part <»f the southern cHKist, westward of 
C*aonalM>'H domain, ineluding the long mmthwestem peninsula, 
was ealletl. The northeastern |)art of the island (Marien) was 
subject to (fua4*anagari, the eaeique neighboring to La Nari- 
tlad. The «*astern end ( iliguay) of the island was under the 
dominati<»n <»f a ehief nanunl (\>tabanana. 

It will Ik* n*nieinlM*n*4l that l>efon* starting for Cuba the 
.\dmiral had «*<}uip|H*d an <*xiMHlition, which, when it arrivetl at 
St- Thomas, was to Im» (H)nsigne<l to the cliarge of Petlro Mar- 
garite. This oftieer ha<l instnu'tions to explore the mountains 
i>f (^ibao, and map out its n*Houn*es. lie was not to harass the 
natives by im|M>sitioiiH, but h«* was to make them f4*ar his 
power. It was also his business to avoid nnlucing the colony's 
MippUea by making the natives support this exploring forct*. 




I i 

I !:■: 





i ■. 

J •■ 


Mona, Columbus, worn with the anxieties of a five 
voyage, in which his nervous excitement and high h< 
sustained him wonderfully, began to feel the reacti 
near approach to Isabella accelerated this recoil, till 1 
system suddenly succumbed. He lay in a stupor, 
little, remembering nothing, his eyes dim an< 
oozing. Under other command, the little flee 

fully, but gladly, entered the harbor of Isabe 
Our most effective source for the history of this 
cruise is the work of Bemaldez, already referred to. 

Harrisse has recently (1892) brought forward a contempon 
script account of the second voyage, lately discovered in the libi 
University of Bologna. Its author, Michael de Cnneo, was < 
eighty unfortunates who took, at Columbus's bidding, the oath tha 
reached the coast of Asia. Cuneo says that a '* majority " thui 
themselves under the threats of the Admiral, and that a certa 
cosmographer among them was so pronounced in his distrust that 
took steps to prevent his returning to Spain, lest he might pre 
Admiral's interests. 


**M thoroughly ba«e and treacherous as oould well be imag- 
ineci/* says 11c1{ns and the reader can sec them in Navarrete. 

This commander had spent his time mainly among the luxu- 
rious scenes of the Vega KeaU despoiling its tribes of their pro- 
viftiouis and squandering the energies of his men in sensual 
ill versions. The natives, who ought to have been his helpers, 
Uvamt* irritated at his extortions and indignant at the invasion 
I if their household happiness. The condition in the tribes which 
this riot«ius (^induct hail induced looked so threatening that 
Diego CiJunibus, as president of the council, wrote to Margarite 
in rcmonstnimv, and reminded him of the Adniiral*rt instruc- 
tions to explore the mountains. 

The haughty Spaniard, taking umbrage at what he deemed 
an interfereni*e with his indep(*ndent command, read- 
ily lent himself to the fa<*tion inimical to Columbus. 
With his aid and with that of Father Doyle, a brother Catalo- 
nian, who had proved fals«* to his offii*e as a member of the 
ruling coimeil and even liiially disn'gardful of the royal wishes 
tliat he <«honl«l remain in the colony, an uneasy |>arty was soon 
liandtnl together in Is:il)olIa. The mcMlem French canoniiers, 
in onler to n*(Hini*iIe the choice by the p4>|H* of this recusant 
prifiit, claim tluit his Holiness, or the king for him, confounded 
a lWne«iirtini* ancl FranciM*an priest <if the same name, and 
that tli«- IttMUMlii'tinc was an unlucky <*liangrling — perha))S even 
purpos«*ly - • for the true monk of the Fninei scans. 

In the fa«'e of I)ie;:o. thi.H calml found little difficultv in 
planning to leav«* the islan«l for Spain in the Khi|)s which had 
i^ime with Ikirtholomew Cohunbus. Diego had no {lower to 
nit*«*t with <*oinpulHi«»n tlw detianct* of these niutim^ers, and was 
^tiibjiftetl to the sore mortitication of s(*t>ing the rel>els sail out 
i*f tlu* harUir for Spain. Then* was left to Diego, htiwever, 
•Minie satisfaction in fe«*ling that such dangi*rous ringleaders 
mere gfine : but it wa.H not unac<Nini|Minied with anxiety to know 
wliat effiH't their n*pn*sentations would have at (\)urt. A like 
anxiety now l>ecame |Miignant in the AdmiralV mind, on his re- 

Th«* stories which Diegit an«l liartholomew were compelled to 
U-U Columbus of the s^^piel of this violent ab:indonment of the 
colony were sa«l ones. The li(*ense which Pe<lm Margarite had 
pcmiitled became more extended, when the little armed force 


— to pnrsoe his way to Spain. He was, however, too late to 
see the Admiral, who had already departed from Cadiz on this 
second voyage. Finding that it had been arranged for his 
brother's sons to be pages at Court, he sought them, and in com- 
pany with them he presented himself before the Spanish mon- 
archs at Valladolid. These sovereims were about fit- 
ting out a supply fleet for E^pailola, and Bartholomew 
was put in command of an advance section of it. Sailing from 
Cadiz on April 30, 1494, with three caravels, he reached Isa- 
bella On St. John's Day, after the Admiral had left for his 
western cruise. 

If it was prudent for Columbus to bring another foreigner to 
his aid, he found in Bartholomew a fitter and more courageous 
spirit than Diego possessed. The Admiral was pretty sure now 
Hischanc ^ hsk^Q an activc and fearless deputy, sterner, indeed, 
^' in his habitual bearing than Columbus, and with a har- 

dihood both of spirit and body that fitted him for command. 
These qualities were not suited to pacify the haughty hidalgos, 
but they were merits which rendered him able to confront the 
discontent of all settlers, and gave him the temper to stand 
in no fear of them. He brought to the government of an ill- 
assorted community a good deal that the Admiral lacked. He 
was soberer in his imagination ; not so prone to let his wishes 
figure the future ; more practiced, if we may believe Las Casas, 
in the arts of composition, and able to speak and write much 
more directly and comprehensibly than his brother. He man- 
aged men better, and business proceeded more regularly under 
his control, and he contrived to save what was possible from the 
wreck of disorder into which his brother's unfitness for com- 
mand had thrown the colony. This is the man whom Las Casas 
enables us to understand, through the traits of character which 
Created ^® dcpicts. Columbus was now to create this brother 
Adeiantado. j^jg representative, in certain ways, with the title of 

It was also no small satisfaction to the Admiral, in his present 
weakness, to learn of the well-being of his children, and of the 
continued favor with which he was held at Court, little antici- 
pating the resentment of Ferdinand that an office of the rank of 
Adelantado should be created by any delegated authority. Co- 
lumbus had pursued his recent explorations in some measure 


^MB thoroughly base and treacherous as oould well be imag- 
ined/* says llol|)s, and the rvader can sec them in Navarrete. 

This commander had spent his time mainly among the luxu- 
rious scenes of the Wga Keal, despoiling its tribes of their pro- 
Ti^ionis and squandering the energies of his men in sensual 
diversions. The natives, who ought to have been his helpers, 
lMH*anie irritatc«l at his extortions and indignant at the invasion 
of their household happiness. The condition in the tribes which 
this rioUius i*onduct had imiuced looked so threatening thai 
Di(*go C4>lunil)u.s aM prettident of the council, wrote to Margarite 
in rcnionstRiniv, and reminded him of the Admiral's instruc- 
tions to explore the mountains. 

The haughty S|)aniard, taking umbrage at what he deemed 
an interferemn* with his inde|NMKlent command, read- 
ilv lent himsi-lf to the fat'tiou ininiicsd to Columbus. 
With his aid and with that of Father Koyle, a brother Ci 
nian, who had prove<l falM^ to his oflii-e as a member of the 
ruling council and even finally disn^ganlful of the royal wishes 
that he ^hoidil remain in the i^dony, an uneasy party was soon 
liandeil togt*tlier in Is;i)iclla. The modern French canonisers, 
in onler to rfcom-ile tlic choice by the P«i|H' of this recusant 
prii-}«t, claim that his Holiness, or the king for him, i*onfounded 
a Kenetlii'tiiii* and Franciscan priest of the same name, and 
tliat tilt* llcii«'<li4*tin«* was an unlucky chang«-ling — perha)M even 
purpfMM'ly - - for the trui* monk of the Franciscans. 

In the face of l)ie;;o. this cabal fi»und little difficultv in 
planning: to l«*avi* the island for S|Kiiii in the ships which had 
c«»me with Iktrtholoni«*w Columbus. Diego had no |M>wer to 
m«*ct with ('(impulsion tlie dcliance of these mutineers, and was 
<«ubjii>t«*«l to tlie sore mortification of 84*eing the rel>els sail out 
of tlu* liarUir for S|)ain. Then* was left to Diego, however, 
•Mime satisfaction in feeling that sui*h dangerous ringleaders 
men* gone : but it was not unaci*om{)anied with anxiety to know 
wliat effei*t their n* presentations would have at (\iurt. A like 
anxiety now liecame |Niignant in the AdmiraFs mind, on his re- 

The stories wliich Diep> and liartholomew were compelled to 
tc-ll Columbus of the setpiel of this violent aluindonment of the 
colony were soaI ones. The lii^nse which Pedro Margarite had 
permitled became more extended, when the little armed force 


If he could Dot get this support by fair means, he was to i 
foul means. Such instructiouB were hazardous enough ; bo) 


Margarite was not the man to soften their application. He 
had even failed to grasp the spirit of the instruotiona which 
had been given by Columbus to ensnare Caonabo, which were 



THE sKi'oM» vorAah:. 309 

tlif S|KiiiianN liail |HMu*trat4Ml, tlioy Ii:mI tiiriitHi the frit*iiiUieAt 
ftM'liii;:^^ into hat riMl, and in n*motf |Kirt.s of thi* iMlantl tlic* re- 
|Nirt'« of till- S|K*hiAh Riva*ri*s st^rvtHl, ahiiost vts inuoh oh thu ex- 
|H'rienri* of them, to rin1»ittt*r the sava;]^^*. It was no Hiiudl 
^ULVt••i.H for ('aonalM> t4) uiaki* tliu othiT caci(|U08 believv that thu 
!«u|H*rnatiiral oharaf't«'r of tlu* S|KinianlM would not protect Uieiu 
if a 4*«>inl>inril attack should Im* arRinpnl. lie |H.*rHuadiHl all of 
tiirni lint (inarana;;;ari, f«>r that rarlifst friend of l*oIuiiibuM re- 
m:iint*d linn in liis drV4»tion Ut the SjianianlK. The Aduiiral*tt 
itintidrnrc in hiui had n<»t Ihtu niis|iliu*ed. lie was snl>je<*ted 
to atta4*kH l»v the < it her 4*hieft^iin!i. hut his eonstanev Hurvi^'ecl 
tlii'ni all. In tIn'M* ineursitms of lii.s neighbors, hih wives were 
kiUetl anil ea|itured, and aini»n;^ them the dauntless l^ataliDa, an 
i-> aflirmiHl : hut lii«« zeal for his white nei^hlnirs did m»t almtt*. 

Wiicn ( I uae:inai;ari luNinl that Columhua had r(*turne«l, he 
n'lKiiriMl to ls:il)ella, and from this faithful ally the 
Adniinil learned of the plan<4 whieh were only waitin«; au<itfliw. 
further dfvelopments for privipitate action. 

i 'oiuiidius, thus fon'warniHl, was eap*r to hrcak any eonfecl- 
eniry of the Imlian** lH*fore it eouM pit her stn'U^^h. lie ha«l 
lianily a leaih-r 4li<«4«n;:^i;;tHl whom he 4*f>uhl M*nd on the war* 
|i:iih. It was M*arrely |N»|itie to )da4*e ll;irthoh>niew in any 
Mifh e«»nunanil over the f«'W n*mainiii;; Spanish eavaliers whom 
?«ptrit wan N4I neee-i<«arv to anv miliUirv a4iventun*. II«* M.*nt a 
|k;irty, luiwi-ver, to ii'lieve a small ;;arrison near the villages of 
I itiati::uana, a triliutarv ehii'f to the ;;ri*at eaeitpie (iuarionex; 
liiit the party n'Mirt4Nl to the tdii i'\ivss(*s« and c*ame near de- 
fiMiiii;; the pur|K)se!^ «if (\»lumhus. (inat iguana wan prevaileil 
n|Nin, lio\i('ven t4i eonie to the S|)anish Hettlenient, and I'olum- 
lius, to s4-al lii*« a^nH'Uwnt of amity with him, {lersuaded him to 
li't th«* Lui-ayan int4'rpn'ter marry his «langliter. To thin dip- 
lomat ie arran;:i-nifnt the Ail mind addetl the more |Hiwerful 
ar;;umi*nt of a fort, «*all(il I^i l\mee|icion, whieh Ih' p,^ 
lati*r huilt where it omhl 4?onimanil the Vega Keal. *"■"*•*•■■ 

It wa.*» not long U'fon* four ships, with Ant4mio Torres in 
ciinimand, arrived from Spain, hringing a new stiire 
of proviAiiiiiN. another phx^ieian. and mon* nii'ilirines. ahii^ «■ 
and. Hliat w.\«< niueh needed. artitiivr<« and num«*n>ns 
ganli*ni-rt. Then' \ia<« xnne Iii»|n* now that the miiI i*ould be 
inade to do il«* part in the sup|»ort of the i*ohiny. 

h ) 


J , 

vu cuA agreemenc, wliicli 
7. Tre^jof 7, 1494, to move the lint 

ther as to fall 370 leagu 
Islands. Each country then boui 
rights under the bull thus modil 
this diplomatic controversy over tl 
is much embarrassed by the lack < 
correspondence carried on by Spai 

This letter of August 16 must 
The ■orer- Columbus. Their Majes 
t?coii^" principal reasons of the 
^~» was that they felt it all 

verance, and that the events had ju 
their expectations. So now, in th 
line of demarcation, and in the ho 
run through some ocean island, v 
erected, they turned to him for a 
that if he could not return to assi 
he would dispatch to them some on 
with the geographical problem. 

Torres had also brought a gene 
•Dd to the colonists, commanding the 
«*"**^ to bow to the authority 
his lack of responsibility, in some ] 
doubted commercial failure of the < 
in any degree commensurate both 
could not fail, as he well underst 
both on the spirit of thp rtt^r^t^^r. 


and needing his brother Bartholomew to act during this 
«>f bin in<*a[>ac*ity, there was no one he could spare so ngg, ^^^ 
well to meet the wishes of the sovereigns as his other SmTsmim. 
Iin>tber. So armed with maps and instructions, and \^Si^ 
with the further mission of protecting the AdroinJ*s 
interest at Court, Diego embarketl in one of the caravels. All 
the gold which bad been collected was consigned to Diego*t 
i-art*, but it was only a sorry show, after all. There had been a 
variety of new fruits and spices, and samples of baser metals 
gatheretl, an<l these hel[)ed to complete the lading. There was 
one resource left. He had intimated his readiness to avail him* 
self of it in the communication of his views to the cwryiM 
sovereigns, which Torres had already conveyed to them. ■'••^ 
lit* now gave the plan the full force of an ex|)eriment, and 
liacked int4) tlie little caravels full five hundred of the unhappy 
natives, to be sold as slaves. **The very ship,** says Helps, 
** which bn>u;:ht that admirable reply from Ferdinand and Is»- 
liclla to C ohunbus, begging him to seek some other way to 
Christianity than through slavery, even for wild man-devouring 
C*aribs, sliould go biu^k full of slaves taken fn)m among the mild 
islanders (»f IIis|)aniola.** The act was a long step in the mi»» 
crable tlc^radation whicli Columbus put u)H>n those poor crea- 
tures \»hi>se fxistenct* he liad matle known to the worhl. Almost 
in th«* same bn*ath, as in his letter to SantangeU he had suj^ 
;;;f!»te<l the future of a slave traffic out of that very existence. 
It is an obvious pica in his defense that the example of the 
chun*ii and of kiii;;s h;ul nvjuXe sucli heartless conduct a comrooQ 
resort to meet the tinancial bunlens of conquchit. The PortiK 
guese hail tlone it in Africa; the S|)aniards had done it in 
%*^|iain. The con tern |>orar^' history of that age may be 
(«aid to ring with the wails and moans of such negro 
and Moorish victims. A Holy Religion had unblushingly been 
ma4le the tfionsiir for su(*l) a crime. TlieoK>gians had proved 
that tlR* Word of (i(m1 iMuld onlain miser}* in this world, if only 
the n*<*<mi|»(*n'H* came - or be Hup]M>setl to come — in a passport 
tt> the ( 'hriitiairs heaven. 

The merit wlii<*h Cohimbus arrogated to himsi'lf was that he 
was sn|M*rior to the (N»Hfiio«^raphical knowledge of his time. It 
was the merit of L:ih C:i<<is that he thrt*w u]Min the reeking pas> 
saons of the rn«klaver the light of a religion that was above 


To the Admiral came a letter, dated August 16, from Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella, giving him notice that all the difficulties 
with Portugal had been amicably adjusted. The court of Lis- 
bon, finding that Pope Alexander was not inclined to recede 
from his position, and Spain not courting any difference that 
would lead to hostilities, both countries had easily been brought 
to an agreement, which was made at Tordesillas, June 
7. Tra«ty of 7, 1494, to movc the line of demarcation so much far- 
ther as to fall 370 leagues west of the Cape de Verde 
Islands. Each country then bound itself to respect its granted 
rights under the bull thus modified. The historical study of 
this diplomatic controversy over the papal division of the world 
is much embarrassed by the lack of documentary records of the 
correspondence carried on by Spain, Portugal, and the Pope. 

This letter of August 16 must have been very gratifying to 
The aorer. Columbus. Their Majestics told him that one of the 
to^oimS*' principal reasons of their rejoicing in his discoveries 
^*^ was that they felt it all due to his genius and perse- 

verance, and that the events had justified his foreknowledge and 
their expectations. So now, in their desire to define the new 
line of demarcation, and in the hope that it might be found to 
run through some ocean island, where a monument could be 
erected, they turned to him for assistance, and they expected 
that if he could not return to assist in these final negotiations, 
he would dispatch to them some one who was competent to deal 
with the geographical problem. 

Torres had also brought a general letter of counsel to the 
and to the colonists, Commanding them to obey all the wishes and 
coiouista. ^ Yiow to the authority of the Admiral. Whatever 
his lack of responsibility, in some measure at least, for the im- 
doubted commercial failure of the colony, its want of a product 
in any degree commensurate both with expectation and outlay 
could not fail, as he well understood, to have a strong effect 
both on the spirit of the people and on the constancy of his 
royal patrons, who might, under the urging of Margarite and his 
abettors, have already swerved from his support. 

Reasons of this kind made it imperative that the newly ar- 
rived ships should be returned without delay, and with such 
reassuring messages and returns as could be furnished. The 
fleet departed on February 24, 1495. Himself stiU prostrate, 


April 2'». 1495, \» a central |Miint in a soinewhat bewildering 
tan^K* <if e^viit.s sui our aiithuritii*s relaU* tlivni, ho that n^. Apni 
it i^not easy in all caiten to edtabliHli tliuir Hi*<{ueni*e. 


The c|ut*Hti«)n of dealing with CVinalio was still the most iin- 
jMirtiint i>f all. It was solvitl liy the eunnin|^ and dash of Ojeda. 
Prf*M*ntin^ Iiih plan to tlH* Admiral, he was eoniniande<l to earry 
it out. Takin;; ten men whom he could truKt, ()jt>«la Uddly 
Hiiu^ht the villa^* when* (*aonabo w:ui (piarteretU ami 
with as nnirh intrepidity at euunin*; put himself in r«|4iii«dbj 
thf |Miwrr of that eaeupie. The ehieftain was not with- 
out ehivulry, and the e«>nfidenet* and au«la(*ity of Ojetia won 
him. ll«>spitality was extemleil, and thr e<intideni*eM of a mutual 
reH|»(H*t MMin ensued. Ojt^ila prt>|N»s<Hl that l*aiinalN> should ao- 
i*tim|iany him t4> I.vilN'lla, to make a i*«>m|iaet of friendHliip with 
tlie Viei*n»y. All thfu wouhl lie |>i*:u*eful. l*a4>nalK), who had 
often wondi*n*il at the udkin*; of the ^n*at 1m*11 in the eha|iel at 
IssdM^la, :is he had hcanl it when skulking alNiut the settle* 
nient, eagerly sprang to tht* Inn*, when Ojinla prtimisiHl that he 
should have the U-ll. Ojinht, eon^nitu kiting hims4*lf on the suc- 
(VHsof his halt, was diMNiu<vrt«N| whiMi In* fi>und that thi* i*:iei<|ue 
int«*nd«Ml that a lar;;<* fonv of armed follow«*rs should iiiaki* the 
vi^it \iith him. T<» pr«*vi'nt tlii'«, njrda n*Mirted to a stnita;;eni, 
whii*h \^ ii'lati'il hv I^is ( 'asi.H. who .<«:iy<« it was oftiMi s|M»ki'n of 
wlirii that prii'Ht liiM eame ii» th«* island, six \ears later. Mun«»x 
wa<« nitt l»n»n;^ht to Udirvi* thf tal*- ; hut llolps s«*es no ohstaele 
to ;;ivini; it ert'dfuei*. 

Th** Spaniards an«l the Indians wrn* all on the march to- 
srethiT, and hail i'neam|M'd hy a rivi*r. Ojinla prtMluitnl a ik*t of 
|iunii**he«i ^t«i-l iuaiia«'li's. ami t«ihl the eaeiipie that they were 
ornanifntH siu'h an tin- Kin«; i>f S|i;iin won* on solemn 4M.*easion8, 
ami that In* had In^i'U «*ommaudi*4l t4i ^ive them to the nu»st dis- 
tiiii;ui<*hiil nativi* prim'i*. lie first pn>|Nis«*4l a liatli in the river. 
Till* <«wim oviT. ('.iiiiiaiMi wan pn*vaili*«l u|nui to In* put Indiind 
t ^jtila aMriili* thf ^luiw hors«'. Then tlu* shinini: luiuldes were 
ailju'«t«*«l. appamitlx \«iih<Mit rxritin;; Mispirioii, amid tin* elation 
c»f thi« *»avai:r at IiIh li'i^h *»f:it ii|miii tin* woinlnuiH lN*ast. A few 
tiwi-fpiu:; ;:alltip'« «if tin- Ihmm*. ^ui(h*i| hy Ojrda, and followed 
liv tht* oihiT mnnntiMJ *»|M':iMiirn. M*attfn*d tin- ama/i*^! eniwd of 
Um- eaciipit'*^ :itti'ntLiiit*». Thfu at a ttinv«>iiii*nt f^ap in tin* ein*le 



.1 : 


sophistry and purer than cupidity. The existence of I 
is the arraignment of Columbus. 

It may be indeed asking too much of weak humai 
good in all things, and therein rests the pitiful plea fo 
bus, the originator of American slavery. 

Events soon became ominous. A savage host began 
in the Vega Real, and all that Columbus, now i*ecov( 
strength, could marshal in his defense was about two 
foot and twenty horse, but they were cased in steel, 
natives were naked. In this respect, the fight was une 

the more so that the Spaniards were now abl< 
uood- ^ into the field a pack of twenty implacable bloo 

The bare bodies of the Indians had no f 
against their insatiate thirst. 

It was the 27th of March, 1495, when Columbus, at 

of this little army, marched forth from Isa 
27. Goium- confront a force of the natives, which, if v 

bus nuurcbeSi ii* i/* i • it 

to believe the figures that are given by \j\ 

amounted to 100,000 men, massed under the command 

icaotex. The whites climbed the Pass of the Hidalg 

I \ \ Columbus had opened the way the year before, and d 

into that lovely valley, no longer a hospitable parac 
they approached the hostile horde, details were sent 
the attacks various and simultaneous. The Indians 
prised at the flashes of the arquebuses from every q 
the woody covert, and the clang of their enemies' drum 
bray of their trumpets drowned the savage yells. Ti 
army had already begun to stagger in their wonder and 

ity, when Ojeda, seizing the opportune momen 
theVeg» with his moimtcd lancemen right into the 

the dusky mass. The bloodhounds rushed 
sanguinary work on his flanks. The task was soon do 
woods were filled with flying and shrieking savag 
league of the caciques was broken, and it was only lei 
conquerors to gather up their prisoners. Guaeanagari, 
followed the white army with a train of bis subject 
on with the same wonder which struck the Indians 
beaten. There was no oppoi-tunity for him to fight at ; 
rout had been complete. This notable conflict taking 

» ■■ k 


inoraliicd the lives of maHter and slave. AVben prinoners were 
^atbereil in surh numbers tbat to guard tiiem was a burtlen« 
tlM*rt> could be but little delay in fon*ing the issue of the slave 
trade u|x>n the Crown as a ]>art of an establishtnl policy. To 
the mind of C olumbus, there was now some chance of repelling 
tin* acfMisiitions of Margarite and Father Boyle by palpable 
n*tunis of olive flesh and shining metal. A scheme of enforced 
cimtribution of g<»ld was accordingly planned. Each native 
above the age of fourte<*n was nnpiired to pay every three 
months into the S|Kinish coffers, his share of gold, measured 
by the ca|>a4*ity of a liawk*s U'll for the common |>erson, and 
by tliat of a calal>ash for the c:u*ique. In the regions distant 
from the gidtl <le|H)sits, cott4Hi wus accepted as a substitute^ 
twcnty-tive |M)unds for eai*h |>er8on. A copper medal was put 
on the neck of every Indian for each |)ayment, and new exao- 
tions were levitnl u|)on those who failed to show the medals. 
The amount of this tribute wus more than the poor natives 
(N»uld And, and (iuarion«'X triiMl to have it commuted for grain; 
but the golden gree<l (»f Columbus was inexorable. He pre> 
ferreil to n»<lure the nMpiirements rather than vary the kind. 
A half of a liawk*s In'11 <if gold was lN>tt4*r than stores of gniin. 
" It is a curious cin'uiiistani'e/* savs Irvin^r. "that the misi^ries 
of the [>oor natives shoulil thus W niea^^iireil out. as it were, by 
tin* \vv\ baubles which fir^t faM'inate^l them." 

1*0 niakf this payMi«*nt sun*, it wan n«H*esH:iry to est^iblish other 
annitl |x»sts tliroii<;h the country : and there wen* 
•i|»««Mlily built that of Mai^daK'ua in the Vega, one 
calh*«i K^|)er.iii7Ji in Cibao. another naniiHl Catalina, beside La 
(\ini*«'|M*itiii. H|ii«*h has alr«'ady U^eii mention«Hl. 

Th«* chaiii^e \%liirh eiiHUtul in the lives of the natives was 
pitiablf. The laUir of sifting the sands (»f the streams TWnattw. 
for >:f»l»l, which they \\i\i\ heret4)fore made a mere juis- '*''*«*• 
time to MHMin* bit** t4i {xmnd into oniaments, lNK*anie a depresa- 
in^ tank. T«*» \%ork tifhU under a tropi4*al sun, where tliey had 
lia^kiil fi»r ^iMirtive n»'*t, iMnivrrtiMl their native J4iy(mHm*Hs into 
de«|iair. TIh'V vm*^ thrir i;rirf in nielan4'h4>Iy S4»ngs, as Peter 
Mart\r t4-IK ii<. <tniiliiall\ thev with<lri*w from thi*ir old 
haunts an4l by hidiiii: in th«* mountains, they Hou«;ht t4» av4>id 
the exaetii>fis ami t4> forc«* thf SpanianU, tlin*« no l«>nger sup- 
plietl by nativt> hiUir uith focMl, t4i aban4l4>n their posts and re* 


Ojeda spurred his steed, and the whole mounted party dashed 
into the forest and away. The party drew up only when they 
had got beyond pursuit, in order to bind the cacique faster in 
his seat. So in due time, this little cavalcade galloped into Isa- 
beUa with its manacled prisoner. 

The meeting of Columbus and his captive was one of very 
MeetoCo- different emotions in the two, — the Admiral rejoi- 
inmbiu. ^jQg ^^^ ]jjg Q^Qgt active foe was in his power, and the 

cacique abating nothing of the defiance which belonged to his 
freedom. Las Casas tells us that, as Caonabo lay in his shackles 
in an outer apartment of the Admiral's house, the people came 
and looked at him. He also relates that the bold Ojeda was 
the only one toward whom the prisoner manifested any respect, 
acknowledging in this way his admiration for his audacity. He 
would maintain only an indifferent haughtiness toward the Ad- 
miral, who had not, as he said, the courage to do himself what 
he left to the bravery of his lieutenant. 

Ojeda presently returned to his command at St. Thomas, 
only to find that a brother of Caonabo had gathered the Indians 
for an assault. Dauntless audacity again saved him. He had 
brought with him some new men, and so, leaving a garrison in 
the fort, he sallied forth with his horsemen and with 
tftcka the as many foot as he could muster and attacked the ap- 
proaching host. A charge of the glittering horse, 
with the flashing of sabres, broke the dusky line. The savages 
fled, leaving their commander a prisoner in Ojeda's hands. 

Columbus followed up these triumphs by a march through 
the country. Every opposition needed scarce more than a dash 
of Ojeda's cavalry to break it. The Vega was once more quiet 
with a sullen submission. The confederated caciques all sued 
for peace, except Behechio, who ruled the southwestern corner 
of the island. The whites had not yet invaded his territory, 
and he retired morosely, taking with him his sister, Anacaona, 
the wife of the imprisoned Caonabo. 

The battle and the succeeding collapse had settled the fate of 
the poor natives. The policy of subjecting men by violence to 
Reparti- V^Y ^^® tHbutc of their lives and property to Span- 
^^com^en^^ ish cupidity was begun in earnest, and it was shortly 
^*"* after made to include the labor on the Spanish farms, 

which, under the names of repartimientos and encomiendas, de« 

THE SKCnXn VnYAfiK. 317 

U*on iiiHtitiiUsI at ovuHi (April 7, 141**'>) to Rucvor the coloiiy liy 
tlie iniiiu^iliatt* di<i|>:itrli of Hupplies, it w:ui two days later a^^'ed 
with lioRuH — the same with whom Vcs)ni('iii8 iuid lN5eu aMk>- 
riat4Nl, as we have Heeii — U} furnish twelve 8hi|M for KH|Kiriola. 
The rt*H(>liitii»ti was then taken to nend an agent U) investigate 
the affairs of the eolonv. If he shouhl tind the Admiral still 
al>s4*nt« — for the lent^th of his eniisi* t4> Culia ha^l alrea^Iy, at 
that time, 1>egiin to i*xeit«* a|>|>n*iu*nsion of his safety, — thin satne 
agfnt was to sii|H*riiiteiid the distribution of the supplies which 
ht' was to Uike. At this juncture, in April, 149o, Torres, arriv- 
iii;^ with his Hi'«*t, n»|N>rt4'd th«' Admirars safe return, and Mub- 
mitt4*«l tht' Udtarial d<MMinu*nt, in which Columlms had uiatle it 
clear to his own H:itisf:u*tion that the (lolden Chcrsonesus wasi 
in sijrht. Whctlier tliat fn^ak of g«M>grapliieal prescience threw 
a)M)ut his cx|HHlition a t(*m|M>rary splendor, and again wakened 
the gratittuh' of th«* S4»vcrt>igns, as Irving says it did, may be 
h*ft to th«* ima;;ination ; Imt the fa(*t remains that the sover- 
I'igns did not swrrvc fn>in their pur|M>s4> to send an ^^^^., „^ 
inipii*«it4ir to the colony, and the s;ime Juan Aguailo '" '^'*^*^*- 
wlio had cHHiif hack with cn*dentials fn>m the Admiral himscdf 
wa** -M'hM't^il for the mission. 

There wt-re some re<-ciit «>nlers <if the(*i*o\\n which Aguado 
w:i.<« to hrt'ak to the Adminil, fn>m wiiicli ( \ihiml>us c«»uld not 
fail t4> dis«'over that the «*\cltir*iv('neHH of hi^ imwi-r-^ 

w;f» M-riiMi^h iinpaireil. On the loth of April, 141*r>, i- ah 

•.111 1 II. • I .^' -1 ^i*'""''' ••• 

It ii;ul Ih'««ii ont*Tt'<i that anv nativ«*-lMirii >iianiartl i-wi i'>r». 

I'oiiM iit\:idt' til*- '««-:i'« uliieli had liet'ii hi-ld to 1h» aiv 

|Nirti«*ii*t| to ( oliiiiiliiiH. that Hiirh iia\i^at«>r might dis4*over what 

li*' <*tiiild. and t\en s4-ttle, if In- liketl, in KN|i:in«>la. This onlcr 

\%a** a ground of ^frioits (H»mplaint hy Columhus at a later day, 

for th«* n*a«M)ii that thi*« Iic«*ns4> w:is avaihnl of 1>v unworthv 

iiit<*rlo|M'r>i. lli> ih'elan*** that after the way had Uvn shown 

♦•ven tin- \erv tail«»rs tiirneil explorers. It seems t4derahlv e'er- 

tain that this irri"«|HiiiHiii|f voyai:ing. which cNintinutnl till Co- 

ItimhiM indiiei'tl th*- iiii»nareliH to rf*S4*iiid the order in June, 

WJI, workfii d*'ve|opiiii;titH ill the current cartoi^raphy «»f the 

n«»w n*;;ion<» wliieh it i** ditlitMilt to tra4*e to tht-ir di^tiiK't •Miun'es. 

<f<imani intimatf^ that .liitiiii: thii |i»'ri«Ml thtTi* wrn* >^,j.,i,^ 

naniele<«<« voyaijfr*», of w lio-r exploit'* \\v have no •>•<"• 

n-<*ortl l»v whii'h to i<I«iitit\ them, antl Navarn*te ami llumlioldt 


tire to Isabella, if not to leave the island. Scant fare for them- 
selves and the misery of dank lurking-places were preferable 
to the heavy burdens of the taskmasters. They died in their 
retreats rather than return to their miserable labors. Even the 
long-tried friend of the Spaniards, Guacanagari, was made no 
exception. He and his people suffered every exaction with the 
Gkuosnagari ^^t of their couutrymcn. The cacique himself is said 
dia^peus. eventually to have buried himself in despair in the 
mountain fastnesses, and so passed from the sight of men. 

The Spaniards were not so easily to be thwarted. They 
hunted the poor creatures like game, and, under the goading of 
lashes, such as survived were in time returned to their slavery. 
So thoroughly was every instinct of vengeance rooted out of the 
naturally timid nature of the Indians that a Spaniard might, as 
Las Casas tells us, march solemnly like an army through the 
most solitary parts of the island and receive tribute at every 

It is time to watch the effect of the representations of Mar- 
garite and Father Boyle at the Spanish Court. Columbus had 
been doubtless impelled, in these schemes of cruel ex- 
interestsiD action, by the fear of their influence, and with the 
^**°' hope of meeting their sneers at his ill success with 

substantial tribute to the Crown. The charges against Colum- 
bus and his policy and against his misrepresentation had all 
the immediate effect of accusations which are supported by one-* 
sided witnesses. Every sentiment of jealousy and pride was 
played upon, and every circumstance of palliation and modifica- 
tion was ignored. The suspicious reservation which had more 
or less characterized the bearing of Ferdinand towards the trans- 
actions of the hero could become a background to the newer 
emotions. Fonseca and the comptroller Juan de Soria are 
charged with an easy acceptance of every insinuation against 
the Viceroy. The canonizers cannot execrate Fonseca enough. 
They make him alternately the creature and beguiler of the 
King. His subserviency, his trading in bishoprics, and his alleged 
hatred of Columbus are features of all their j)ortraits of him. 

The case against the Admiral was thus successfully argued. 
Testimony like that of the receiver of the Crown taxes in re- 
buttal of charges seemed to weigli little. Movements having 


the influence of Isabella, thiH order had l>eeu MUHjwnded, till 
an in(|uiry could Ur nuule into the eauHe of the rapture of the 
Imliuns, and until the tht^ologians (*ould de(*ide u|K)n the juA- 
titiabic*nesM of such a sale. If we may believe I)t*maldex, who 
pictures their misery, they were subsetiuently sold in Seville. 
Mufioz, however, Havii tluit he (*ouId not find that the trouble 
which lianissed the tlieoKigians was ever decided. Such heai- 
tan(*y wa» eali*ulate<l Xk% present a cruel dilemma U> the Vic(»roy, 
siiii*t* the <inly way in whi(*h the clamor of the Court for fj^ld 
iNiuId U' pniuiptly ap|M*asiHl came near l»ein|; prohibitetl by 
what Ciilumbus must have calhnl the misapplieii mercy of the 
C^iu^*n. lie failtnl to m'c, :is Mufloz suggests, why vassals of 
the Crown, ent4*ring uiK>n acts of resistsinoe. should not be sub- 
j«*«'C4*«l to every sort of cruelty. llumUddt wonders at any hf*si- 
biucy when the grand incpiisitor, Tonpienuula, was burning her- 
etics s«> tien*ely at this time that such expiations of the |ioor 
M<M»rs ami Jews numlN'n*<l 8,800 l>etW4H5n 1481 and 14i>8 ! 

A;:uado, with fiuir caravels, and Diego Columbus aecom|mny- 
ing him, having sailed fnmi C^idiz hite in August^ nry. f^_ 
14i».'>. n*ach«Hl the harlstr of IsaU^lla some time in Oc- aIJIILiou 
t*»U»r. The new coiiiniiHsioner found the Admiral al>- '■•**"^ 
M'lit, oc«*upi«*«l with a(Taii-s in other parts of th«' i>land. Agiiado 
-4NIII niaile known hi< authority. It was embraivd in a brief 
mi^i^ive, dated April i^ 14t*r>, :in«l .T*i Irving tr«inslatt*s it^ it 
n*ad : ** ( *avaliers. rstpiin^s, and other |M*rs<ins, who l»y our orders 
are in the Iii«li«**i. we M'ud t(» yi»u .liian Aguad«i, our groom of the 
c*hamlH*rs, \»h«i will s|M*ak t4» y<»u on our |»art. We command you 
to ;rive jiim faith and cn'dit.'* The ffticaA*v of such an order 
d«'|M*n«l«'d (in the myal pur|M>H«> that was behind it, and on the 
will of the «Hiuimi<^ioner. which might or might not ctmform to 
that piir|M»M>. It has In -en a ph*a of Irving and others tluit 
Airuadii. flat4Nl Itv » tran**ient authority, tnins4*ende<l the inten- 
liitU'* of th«* moiian*liH. It !•<» not €*asv to find a deHnite tieter- 
mination of -uch a •pif'^tion. It ap|N-ars that when the instru- 
mi*nt W.1S pnH-laiiiiiMl )iy tniin|H>t. the gem^ral opinion did not 
int«T]»r%*t the ordrr as a -ii-^pviisinii of tin* Viceroy's | towers. 
Tlif Adi'lantado, wlm ua^ ^oviTnini; in ( *olumbu*«*H absenc*e, 
ivaw the neu coninii<»sionrr ordt-r arrfMn, cnimtiTiiiand din*c- 
tioiK, an«l in various \\a\H a****!!!!!!* tlif finiction<« (if a srovernor 
liartholonifw wa« in no 4'ondition to do ni<»re than mildlv renum- 


find eyidenoeB of ezplorations wliioh cannot otherwise be ae- 
counted for. 

How far this condition of affairs was brought about bjr the 
,^ importunities of the enemies of Columbus is not clear. 

The surviving Finzons are said to have been in part 
those who influenced the monarchs, but doubtless a share of 
profits, which the Crown required from all such private specu- 
lation, was quite as string an incentive as any importunities of 
eager mariners. The burdens of the official expeditions were 
onerous for an exhausted treasury, and any resource to replen- 
ish its coffers was not very narrowly scrutinised in the light-of 
the pledges which Columbus had exacted from a Crown that 
was beg^ning to understand the impolicy of such concessions. 
There was also at this time a passage of words between Fon- 

seca and Diego Colon that was not without irritating 
andnkfo elements. The Admiral's brother had brought some 

gold with him, which he claimed as his own. Fonseoa 
withheld it, but in the end obeyed the sovereign's order and 
released it. It was no time to add to the complications of the 
Crown's relations with the distant Viceroy. 

Aguado bore a royal letter, which commanded Columbus to 

reduce the dependents of the colony to five hundred, 
tertoOo. as a necessary retrenchment. There had previously 

been a thousand. Directions were also given to con- 
trol the apportionment of rations. A new metallurgist and 
master-miner, Pablo Belvis, was sent out, and extraordinary 
privileges in the working of the mines were given to him. 
Mufioz says that he introduced there the quicksilver process of 
separating the gold from the sand. A number of new priests 
were collected to take the place of those who had returned, or 
who desired to come back. 

Such were the companions and instructions that Aguado was 
commissioned to bear to Columbus. There was still another 
movement in the policy of the Crown that offered the Viceroy 
little ground for reassurance. The prisoners which he had sent 
by the ships raised a serious question. It was determined that 
coiumbu» ^^y transaction looking to the making slaves of them 
and aiaYery. ]^ ^^^ heeu authorized ; but the desire of Columbus 
80 to treat them had at first been met by a royal order directing 
their sale in the marts of Andalusia. A few days later, under 

77/ii HhXuXIt yoyAUK. 321 

hhijNi Nliiultloml at tlivir aiivlioruge ; vablvit snapped : three ear- 
avi-U !>uiik, ami tin- ivitt Wftv tlanhc*! on tliu Iwat-li. Tliv tumult 
lasUtl [or tlint: liuur^t, ami tlu-ii tliv sun shuae upun the bat'oe. 

TIh'R wan Itiil Hill- vi-«'M>l li-fl ill tli(> liikrUir. am) nlie wait h 
l«ml. It w.i« till- " Sitiit," wliii-h luul lH>rni> ('•liinnlm^ in hin 
wpnlen cnii**!. An mhih an tliti little i-uluny nruvent) itc M'mtnw 


strate. It was clearly not safe for him to provoke tihe great 
body of the discontented colonists, who professed now to find a 
champion sent to them by royal order. 

Columbus heard of Aguado's arrival, and at once returned to 
Isabella. Aguado, who had started to find him with an escort 
of horse, missed him on the road, and this delayed their meet- 
Meets Co- '^^S * little. When the conference came, Columbus, 
himbufl. ^j^jj ^ dignified and courteous air, bowed to a superior 
authority. It has passed into history that Aguado was disap- 
pointed at this quiet submission, and had hoped for an alterca- 
tion, which might warrant some peremptory force. It is also 
said that later he endeavoi*ed to make it appear how Columbus 
had not been so complacent as was becoming. 

It was soon apparent that this displacement of the Admiral 
was restoring even the natives to hope, and their caciques were 
not slow in presenting complaints, not certainly without reason, 
to the ascendant power, and against the merciless extortions of 
the Admiral. 

The budget of accusations which Aguado had accumulated 

AocuMM was now full enough, and he ordered the vessels to 
coiumbu.. n^^jjg ^^3^y ^ ^j.j.y jjjjjj jj^j^ ^ Spain. The situa- 
tion for Columbus was a serious one. He had in all this trial 
experienced the results of the intrigues of Margarite and Father 
Boyle. He knew of the damaging persuasiveness of the Pin- 
zons. He had not much to expect from the advocacy of Diego. 
There was nothing for him to do but to face in person the 
charges as veenforced by Aguado. He resolved to return in 
the ships. " It is not one of the least singular traits in his his- 
tory," says Irving, " that after having been so many years in 
persuading mankind that there was a new world to be dis- 
covered, he had almost an equal trouble in proving to them the 
advantage of the discovery." He himself never did prove it. 
The ships were ready. They lay at anchor in the roadstead. 

A cloud of vapor and dust was seen in the east. It 
wrecked ill was bome headlong before a hurricane such as the 

Spaniards had never seen, and the natives could not 
remember its equal. It cut a track through the forests. It 
lashed the sea until its expanse seethed and writhed and sent 
its harried waters tossing in a seeming fright. The uplifted 
surges broke the natural barriers and started inland. The 


iihi]»i rtliwldeml at tlivir aucliorage ; vMvn snipped : three cmr- 
uvfU mink, uml tlu> n-iit wvre ilaHhitl oil tlie Wacli. Tliv tumult 
laiit^tl for tlitvv luiun. ami (Ik-h thv sun ahuue upon tbe havoc. 

Tht'TV wan liut iiiif vi-tM'l left iit lliv IiarUir, aiul she wa: 

Icnnl. It wait ll Niiiii," Mhicli iuul iMiriif ('ulutiilnH in hin 

wraten cniiiie. Ah mmm M the littlv i-uluny rei-uverMl its M>nM>ft. 


men were set to work repairing the solitary caravel, and ooH' 
structing another out of the remnants of the wrecks. 

While this was going on, a young Spaniard, Miguel Diaz by 
MiffoeiDias name, presented himself in Isabella. He had been 
find* gold, jjj ijJj^ service of the Adelantado, and was not unrecog- 
nized. He was one who had some time before wounded another 
Spaniard in a duel, and, supposing that the wound was mortal^ 
he had, with a few friends, fled into the woods and wandered 
away till he came to the banks of the Ozema, a river on t&e 
southern coast of the island, at the mouth of which the city of 
Santo Domingo now stands. Here, as he said, he had attracted 
the attention of a female cacique, there reigning, and had b^ 
come her lover. She confided to him the fact that there were 
rich gold mines in her territory, and to make him more content 
in her company, she suggested that perhaps the Admiral, if 
he knew of the mines, would abandon the low site of Isabella^ 
and find a better one on the Ozema. Acting on this suggestion, 
Diaz, with some guides, returned to the neighborhood of Isa- 
bella, and lingered in concealment till he learned that his an- 
tagonist had survived his wound. Then, making bold, he entered 
the town, as we have seen. His story was a welcome one, and 
the Adelantado was dispatched with a force to verify the adven- 
turer's statement. In due time, the party returned, and reported 
H, that at a river named Hayna they had found such 

"****■• stores of gold that Cibao was poor in comparison. 

The explorers had seen the metal in all the streams ; they 
observed it in the hillsides. They had discovered two deep 
excavations, which looked as if the mines had been worked at 
some time by a more enterprising people, since of these great 
holes the natives could give no account. Once more the Admi- 
soiomon'B v2iVf^ imagination was fired. He felt sure that he had 
ophir. come upon the Ophir of Solomon. These ancient 

mines must have yielded the gold which covered the great Tem- 
ple. Had the Admiral not discovered already the course of the 
ships which sought it? Did they not come from the Persian 
gulf, round the Golden Chersonesus, and so easterly, as he him- 
self had in the reverse way tracked the very course ? Here waa 
a new splendor for the Court of Spain. If the name of India 
was redolent of spices, that of Ophir could but be resplendent 
with gold ! That was a message worth taking to Europe. 


The two caravels were now ready. The Adelantado was left 
in comniand, witli Diego to succeed in case of hii death. Fran* 
cisKX) Kcddan was coiuiuissioned as chief magistrate, aud the 
Fathers f I nan Uensogiiou and lioiuan Pane remained behind to 
pursue missionary labors among the natives. Instructions were 
l«*ft that the valley of the Uiema shoukl lie occupied, and a fort 
built iu it. Diaz, with his queenly Catalina, had become im- 

There was a motley ctmiiKiny of about two hundred and fifty 
)K*rMins, larp*ly disiHiiitt*nts and vagabonds, crowded into the 
two ships. l\>Iuinbus was in one, and Aguado in the ^^^ 
othf r. So thev starteil on their a*lventurous and i«- «>* 

biW MM 

wfar\iii;; vova;'i» on Man*h 10, 149G. They carried Afujj»«fl 

^ • f* ' ^ for Spate, 

alxiut thirty Indians in conlinement, and among them «j|nrfcgi 
thi* iii.inai*l«Nl ('aonabo« with some of his relatives. 
Columbus told B(*nialdez that he took the chieftain over to im* 
pre**! him with S|Kinish |>ower, and that he intendeti to send him 
b:irk and rt*K*ase him in the end. His release came otherwise. 
Th«*rt? is some disagn*ement of testimony on the |K)int, some 
alli*;:iiig that he was drowne<l during the hurricane in the 
harl>ur, but tin* bettor opinion seems to t)c that ht- dietl im the 
vi>y »;;«■« «if a broken spirit. At any rate, he never reached 
Spain, and wc hear of him only omv while on shiplMtanl. 

\Vi* have s«*t*n that on his rt*turn vova;:«* iu 141^2 Columbus 
liail pU'«hi*4l north lH*f on* turniii;; i*:ist. It does not ap|)ear how 
mui'h he hail leaniiHl of the «*x|MTien(*t* of Ti>rres*s easterly pas- 
sages. Perhaps it was only t4i make a new trial tluit he now 
^t^-eretl direetlv east. He met the tnule winds and the calms of 
the tnipie-s and had Invu alniii^t a mouth at sea when, i^g^ 
on April (i. In* found hims«*If still neighboring to the ^^^^ 
i<«IanilH of tli«* Caribs. His erew n«HNled rt*st and provisions, 
and h«* bon- away to se«*k them. He anehon*d for a while at 
Marii::ilante. and thi'U p:isMMl on to (tuadaloupe. 

Hi- had Mime ilitVii'iilty in landim:. as a wild, s<*n*aming mass 
uf natives wa** '^atlifrrd %\\\ th«* U*ae1i in a ho<»tiIe AtOnkdA- 
mannrr. \ ili^'har'^i* uf the S|»anish anpiebuM*M ^"""^^ 
«*lean*«l the way. anil latrr a party M*ouring the wimmIs captured 
«ome of the <'«iur:ii:i*iMi'« wnnii-n of the trilic. These were all 
ndeaseii, however, i-xci'pt a .ntning, |»owerful woman, who, with a 
(laughter, refuse^I to be left, for the reason, as the story g(N*s, 


that she had conceived a passion for Caonabo. By the 20th, the 
ships again set sail ; but the same easterly trades baffled them, 
and another month was passed without moch progress. 

By the b^;inning of June, provisions were so reduced 
that there were fears of famine, and it began to be considered 
whecber the voyagers might not emulate the Caribs and eat the 
Indians. G>lumbus interfered, on the plea that the poor crea- 
tures were Christian enough to be protected from such a fate ; 
but as it turned out, they were not Christian enough to be saved 
from the slave-block in Andalusia. The alert senses of Cdam- 
bus had convinced him that land could not be far distant, and 
he was confirmed in this by his reckoning. These opinions of 
Columbus were questioned, however, and it was not at all clear 
in the minds of some, even of the experienced pilots who were 
(m board, that they were so near the latitude of Cape St. Vin- 
cent as the Admiral affirmed. Some of these navigators put 
the ships as far north as the Bay of Biscay, others even as far 
as the English ChanneL Columbus one night ordered sail to 
be taken in. They were too near the land to proceed. In the 
MOO. Jane moming, they saw land in the neighborhood of Cape 
11. cmUs. gj. Vincent. On June 11, they entered the harbor 
of Cadiz. 


IN SPAUf, 1406-1488. 

** Tn£ wretched men crawled forth/* as Irving tells us of 
debarkation, *^ emaciated by the diseases of the ^^gg^ q^ 
colony and the hardshi|M of the voyage, who carried ^J!^*^ 
in their yellow countenances* Mays an old writer, a ^^'^^ 
mockery of tliat ^Id which had been the object of their search, 
ami wht» had nothing to relate of the New World but tales of 
sickncHis |iovi*rty, and diHa|)|>ointment/* ThiM is the key to the 
contrasts in the prcMMit reception of the adventurers with thai 
whirh ^nN*t<*<l (\ihiinhus on his return t4) Palos. 

When i\>hiinbuA landed at C'atlis, he was clothed with the 
rolN* and j;inlU*<l with the curd of the Franci^4oans. His face 
^as un^imven. Whether t hi. s was in {K'namv, or an assump- 
ti<>n of {lirty to s<*rvt» as a lure, is not cl«*ar. Ovieilo says it 
wa4 t«i express bin lunnility ; anti his humbled pride needed 
iMtine Hucli i*xpn*4sioii. 

lit* found in the harlMtr three i*araveL( just about starting for 
EspaAola with tiniy supplies. It ha<l bet*n intended to send 
Mime in January ; but the ships wliieh started with them suf- 
feretl wre<*k on the nei^rhUiring tHNists. He had only to aak 
I*edni Al«His4> Niflo, the i*onimander of this little fleet, for his 
<lis|uiti*hes, to tin«l the (*<»nditiitn of feeling which he was to en- 
(x>unU*r in S|iain. They ^ve him a sense, more than ^^ y^,^ 
ever befon*, of the urgent necessity of making the {f^tTtL 
i^lonv tributan* to the treasure* of the (^rown. It was p*^*^"'»4. 
rli*ar that dis4\inl an«l un prod net iveness were not much longer 
^l lie endure<I. S> he wrote a Iett4*r to the Adelantado. which 
was to go by the Rhi|M, urpn;; expedition in quieting the life 
of the colonists, ami in brin<^ng the resources of the island 
under such ctmtnil tiiat it ft»uld be made to vield a steady flow 
of treasure. To this end, tiM' ue«' mines of Hayna must be fur- 


ther ezplorecL and the working of them started with diligence. 

A port of shipment should be found in their neigh- 

17. coiuin. borhood, he adds. With such instructions to Bartholo- 

to Barthoio- mcw, the caravcls sailed on June 17, 1496. It must 

have been with some trepidation that Columbus for- 
warded to the Court the tidings of his arrival If the two dis- 
patches which he sent could have been preserved, we might 
better understand his mental condition. 

As soon as the messages of Columbus reached their Majesties, 
loTitad to ^^^ ^^ Almazan, they sent, July 12, 1496, a letter in- 
^^^'^^^ viting him to Court, and reassuring him in his de- 
spondency by expressions of kindness. So he started to join the 
Court in a somewhat better frame of mind. He led some of his 
bedecked Indians in his train, not forgetting ^^ in the towns " 
to make a cacique among them wear conspicuously a golden 

Bernaldez tells us that it was in this wily fashion that Co- 
lumbus made his journey into the country of Castile, — *'*' the 
which collar," that writer adds, ^^ I have seen and held in these 
hands ; " and he goes on to describe the other precious orna- 
ments of the natives, which Columbus took care that the gaping 
crowds should see on this wandering mission. 

It is one of the anachronisms of the Historie of 1571 that it 
places the Court at this time at Burgos, and makes it there to 
celebrate the marriage of the crown prince with Margaret of 
Austria. The author of that book speaks of seeing the festivi- 
ties himself, then in attendance as a page upon Don Juan. It 
was a singular lapse of memory in Ferdinand Columbus — if 
this statement is his — to make two events like the arrival of 
his father at Court, with all the incidental parade as described 
in the book, and the ceremonies of that wedding festival iden- 
tical in time. The wedding was in fact nine months later, in 
April, 1497. 

Columbus's reception, wherever it was, seems to have been 
„ . . ^ gracious, and he made the most of the amenities of the 

Received by *^ , , • i • -i 

theiiover. occasion to picturc, m his old exaggerating way, the 
wealth of the Ophir mines. He was encouraged by 
the effect which his enthusiasm had produced to ask to be sup- 
Makes new plied with another fleet, partly to send additional sup- 
demands. ^\\q^ to Espauola, but mainly to enable him to dis- 

IN SPAIN. 1496-1498. 827 

ooTer that continental land farther south, of which he had so 
constantly heard reports. 

It wan easy for the monarchs to give fair promises, and quite 
as eauy to forget them, for a while at least, in the busy scenes 
which their political ambitions were producing. Belligerent 
n*lationA with France necessitated a vigilant watch about the 
l\n*mH*)i. There were fleets to be maintained to resist, both in 
{lie Mediterranean and on tlie Atlantic coast, attacks which 
iiii^ht uiicx|>ccUHlly fall. An ]m|>o8ing armada was preparing 
to g<i to Flanders to carrb' thither the Princess Juaiia to her 
ej«|>«»us:il with Philip of Austria. The same fleet was to bring 
baA*k rhiIip*H siitter Margaret to lieoome the bride of Prince 
Juan, in thiMi* ceremonials to which reference has already been 

TlioHe events were too engrossing for the monarchs to give 
much attention to the wishes of Columbus, and it was not till 
the autumn of 14% that an appropriation was made ^^ ^^ 
to «M|uip another little M)uatlron for him. The hopes 1^*^,.^ 

-- i '-'-M 

it raistnl wen* soon dashe<I, for having some occasiim 
ti» ui'ihI nionoy promptly, at a crisis of the contest which the 
Kiii*^ w:iH wa^in:: with France, the UKmey wliirli had been in- 
t«-niiiMl for (*oliinibus was divert«Nl to the new exigency. What 
wa** wfirM* in the eyes of Colunihns, it was to In* paid out of 
<M>nie <;old wlii(*h it was sup|NwiHl tliat Nii&o had brought liack 
from th(* mines of llayna. Tlii;« otlictT on arriving at Cadix 
ha«l S4'nt to the Court some Iniastful messages about his golden 
lading, which were not confirmed when in DiH>ember tlie sober 
diH|»ateh of the A<Ielanta<lo, which Niilo had kept back, came 
to Im* n*ad. The neart*st appn»a4*h to gold which the caravels 
brought wnA amtther (*niwd of dusky slaves, and the dispatches 
i»f Rirtlioltiiiiew pieture<l the colony in the same c^mditions of 
ii*'4titiition as tn^fon*. There was no stimulant in such re]K>rts 
either for tin* Adminil or for the Court, and the New World 
WA"* a;;ain diMuisSinl from the mimis of all, ort*onsigned to their 

When the spring months of 1497 arrive*!, there were new 
hoiif^ Till* withling of Prin«» Juan at Burgos was 
over, and the l^ii«*«*n was left mon* at lilierty to think SfirW. c«- 
of her imtronap* of the new dis«*overieH. The King r%htorMf. 
growing mort: and more apathetic, and some of 



the leadiiig npiritH of tbe Court were inimical, either actively 
or reservedly. By the Queen's influence, the old i-igbts bestowed 
npOD Columbus were reaffirmed (April 23, 1497), and he s 
offered a large landed estate in Espanola, with a new territorial 
title ; but he was wise enough to see that to accept it wonlj 
complicate his affairs beyond their present entanglement. Ho 
was solicitous, however, to remove some of his present pecuniary 
embarrassments, and it was arranged that he should be relievt 
from bearing an eighth of the cost of the ventures c^ 
the last three years, and that lii; should surrender a 
rights to the profits: wlii!, foi- llir lliivf years to come ha 

should have .in eiglith of the gross income, and a further t 
of the net proceeds. Later, the original agreement was t 
restored. His brother Bartholomew was created Adelantado, 
giving thus the royal sanction to the earlier act of the AdmiraL 
In the letters patent made out previous to Columbus's aecoad 

ly SPA IX. nsm-HM. **» 

Toymge, the Crown diatinctljr raaerred the r^;bt to gnat other 
licenses, and inveatod Fonseca with the power to do n^as* 
ao, allowing to Columbiu nothing more than one JjH^iT 
vighth of the tonnage ; and in the ordinance of June ""'" 
'i, 1497, in which they now revoked all prerioui lioeoset, tfaa 
reTOcatton was oonlined to such things as were repugnant to tha 
rights of Columbus. It was also i^rnwl that the Crown aboold 

muiiUiu for hini a IhhIv i>f tUr<H> hundnvl and thirtr gentlemen, 
pHiMii-ni, nnil lii'lfivrM. tn »■■<■« iiiiian; him oii hi* iit-w expedition, 
and thi* niiiiilwr iimld U- incrfiiM-il. if the profltit of the colony 
warrant«><l the cxjM-D'Hture. Power wnn <;iv(<n to him to grant 
land bi mich a.-t woiiM tiiltivaN- the wiil for four yrarN ; but all 
bnutl-wood and itK'tuli wi-n- to U- rviiervcd for tlie Crowu. 


emed to indicate that the complaints which had 
i^ainst the oppressive sternness of the Admiral's 
as yet broken down the barriers of the Queen's 
Indeed, we find up to this time no record of any 
ion at Court of his authority, and Irving thinka 
.';itea any symptom of the royal diacouteut except 
I injunctions, iu the orders given to him respecting 
ind the colonists, that leniency should govern his 
i- as was safe. 

l>eing given to him to entail his estates, he marked 
in a testamentai-y document Cl'^hruary 22, 1498) 
succession of Iiis heirs, — male beirs, with Ferdi- 
d's rights protected, if Diego's line ran out ; then 
bis brotbcrs ; and if all male heirs failed, then the 
o descend by the female line. The title Admiral 
a paramount honor, and to be the perpetual dls- 
lis representatives. The entail was to furnish 
th of its revenues to charitable uses. Genoa was 
ularly under the patronage of his succeeding rep. 
with injunctions always to do that city service, as 
iteresta of tbe Church and the Spanish Crown 

IN SPAIN, i4Mi-J4!Mt. 3S1 

IM one solution : iS'rrric/c/r vim Altezan nacraa^ Christo^ Maria 
y»abd^ in auotlier : and theae are not all. 

Tlie complaoeucy of the Queen was soothing ; her appoint- 
ment of his son Ferdinand as her page (February 18« 1498) 
was gratifying, but it could not wholly compensate Columbus for 
the condition of the public niind« of which he was in 
every way forcibly n*minde<l. Tlierc were botli the uyof C9> 
wliiH|ier of detraction Npn*ading abroad, and the out- 
s|M)kenobjurg:ition. The phvHieal debility of his returned com- 
psiiiions was made a strong i*ontnist ti» his reiterated storicH of 
I'anulise. Fortunes wrei*ked« labor waste<I, and lives lost had 
found but a pitiable coni|)enH:ition in a few cargoi*s of miserable 
slaves. The |NM>ple IukI heanl of his enchanting Iandsca|iea, 
but tiiev had found his aloes and niantic of no \'alue. Ilidal- 
go(*s said tliere was nothing of the luxury th<*y had been toU 
to ex|NH't. The gorgeous eities of the Great Khan had not 
been found. Such were the kind of taunts to which he waa 

Columbus* during this {lericMl of his s<ijourn in S]iain, spent 
a i*4»nsidenible iiit4*rv:il under the roof of Aiidn*s Iter- 
n.ildi*?.. and we get in liis hision' of the Spanisli kings »itii iCT" 
the advanUigi* (»f the talks which the two friends had 

The Admiral is kmiwn Uy have left with Hemaldex Tarioas 
ilfx*uments which wen* given t^i him in the presence of Juan de 
FonscHra. From the way in which I^Tualdex speaks of these 
pa Iters, they would seem t4i have l»een accounts of the voyage of 
(%ilumbuH then aln*a<ly made, and it was upon these do(*unienta 
that H«*nial«lez savs he basetl his own narratives. 

Tliis e<*(*h-siastie luul known (^oluuibus at an earlier day, 
whiMi thi* (lenoese wan a vender of books in Andalu- 
sia, as lie says : in eharaeterixing him, he calls his 
friend in aiuuher plmn* a man i»f an ingenious turn, but not of 
mu4'h learning, and he leaves one t<) infer that the liook- vender 
was nut much Hus|MH*t4*4l of gr«*at familiarity with hiH wares. 

We sr<'t as elearlv fnim R«*maltlez as from anv other source 
the measun* nf the disapiMiintment which the public slmreil as 
respects the c*<mHpiruous failure «if these voyiigv?* i»f (\ilninbus 
IB their pecuniary n*lations. 


aj-e suDimed up by that histortan to show that tba 
>yage8 had been no great and the returns so small 
. it caiue to be believed that there was in the new 
oQH no gold to speak of. Taking the first voyage, 
,iid the second was hardly better, oonsideriog the 
unities, — Hai-i-isse has collated, for instance, all 
! to what gold Columbus may have gathered ; and 
lire some contradictory rejJorts, the weight of tea- 

to contine the amount to an inconsiderable sum, 
ad in the main of personal ornaments. There are 
e gold brought to Spain fi-om this voyage being 
palaces and churehes, to make altar ornaments for 

at Toledo, to serve as gifts of homage to the 

may safely say that no reputable authority sup- 
li statements. 

oding this seeming royal content of which the 
L'cn given, there was, by ^■irtue of a discontented 

giublic sentiment, a course open to Columbus in 
to fit out his new exjiedition which was far from 

was so much disiucliuatiou Iti the mei-chants to 

IN SPAIN, H96't^, S88 

hanuMing delays yet in store for Columbus before be could de- 
part with the rest of his fleet These delays^ as we shall see, 
enabled another people, under the lead of another Italian, to 
precede hiui and make the first disoovery of the mainland. The 
Queen was cordial, but an affliction came to distract her, in the 
dfath of Prince Juan. Fonseca, who was now in charge of the 

fitting out of the caravels, seems to have lacked heart 

in the enterprise ; but it serves the purpose of Colnm- iMkor 
bus*s adulatory biographers to give that agent of the 
Crown the character of a determined enemy of Columbus. 

Even the prinons did not disgorge their vermin, as he had 
wisbtnl, and his oomi>any gathered very slowly, and never be> 
cume full. Lan Casas tells us that troubles followed him eveo 
to the doi*k« The accountant of Fonseca, one Ximeno de Bre- 
viesira, got into an altercation with the Admiral, who 
knocked him down and exhibited other marks of i)as- aiuira 
sion. Las Casas further tells us that this violence. 


thnuigh the n*presentations of it which Fonseca made, 
produceil a gn^atcr cffe(*t on the monarchs than all the allege 
tionn of the Adiiiinir.H cruelty and vindictiveness which his 
ai*f Misers from Ks|):inola hiul constantly bn>u;;ht forwanl, and 
thiAt it wan the iinuHMliatc cause of the clian*^' of royal senti- 
ment tiiwartU him, whi(*h Hoon afterwards apiM^aretl. (.^olum* 
bii<t M*<*tii.H t4) liavc (liH4*ovenNl the mistake he hail ma^le ver}' 
pn>iiiptly, anil wn>te t4> tlir inonan'hs to iMtunteract its effei*t. It 
wa.H ther«*f«»re with tliis new anxiety u|n)ii his mind tliat he for 
the thini time c^onnnitttHl hinis«'lf to his career of ailventure 
aiiii t'xplonition. The eanonizers would have it that their 
saintt^l liero found it niH^*Hs:iry t4» prove by his energy* in per- 
sflHial violi'net* tliat age luul not impaired his manhooil for the 
trials Ik* fori* him ! 

K'fore fi»llowinf; (\>IumimH on this voyage, the reader must 
take a i;lan(*4* at the conditittn** of dis<*overv elst^whert*, for these 
other eventH were intiniatelv c<»nneet<Hl with the si;niificance of 
l*olumbus*s own vovavriii;:'*. 

The pn»M«*ni whieli the Portupiesi* had undertaken t4> solve 
was, as has U'^n M»#*n, tlie passap^e to India by the ^»«m«.'« 
Stormy Ca|>e t»f Africa. Kven U^fore ColunibuH hail jtrifrtii 
naikni <»n his fir*t voyap*, won! hail <*ome in 14!H) to *"*•* 



encmnige King .logo II. His emissaries in Cairo had learn 
from the Arab Bailors that the passage of the cape was pra 
uable on the side uf the Indian Ocean. The success of 1 
Sjuinish livals under Culumbus in due tiuiii encouraged I 
Portuguese king still more, or at lea^t piqued him to : 

VaDco da Gama was finally put in command of a Seet i 
cially equipped, 
was now some yt 
since his pilot, Fi 
de Alemqner, hi 
carried Diaz well off 
the cape. On Sun- 
day, July 8, 149? 
Da Gama 
from below Lis! 
and ou Novemb 
22 bet passed wil 
full cauvafi the fa 
miilable cape. ', 
was not, howevA 
til] December I 
that he reached t 
point where Di 
bad turned 
His further prOf 
I does not concern 
\\r.i\> v\ l,^^[^ here. Suffice it 

fhor at Calient May 20. 1498, and India was reached 
inrtMv soi t«n clays Iwfore Columbus started a third time to set- 

ify hia own beliefs, but really to find them errors. 
Towards the end of August, or perhaps early in SeptemI 
of the nest year (1499). Da Gama arrived at Lisbon on 
return voyage, anticipated, indeed, by one of hb oarav 
which, separated from the commander in April or" May, 1 
pushed aheatl and reached home ou the 10th of July. Poi 
gal at (jnce resounded with jubilation. The tleet had retun 
crippled with disabled crews, and half tlie vessels had dia 
peai-ed ; but the solution of a great problem had been 

/jv SPAIN. a» 

The vojrage of Ds Gaina, opening a tnule eagerly ponnad 
and eaf^rly met, ofTcrei), as we shall nee, a great oontrast tu 
ttM- «niall immetliate resalta which came from the futile efforts 
of ( olumbiu to find a weHtem way to the ume regions. 

There have bifii Htiulcnbt of these ciirly i-xphnent who have 
raatawlad that, while (.'oluinbuii wan liaraiuted in Spain with 



these delays in preparing for bis third voyage, the Florend 
Vespucius, whom we have eacountered already 
helping Berardi in the equipment of Columbn 
fleets, had, in a voyage of which we have some a 





















fased cliroiiology, already in 1497 discoverexl and coursed 1 
northern shores of the mainland south of the Carihbean Sea. 
Bernaldez tells us tliat. during the interval between the a 
ond and third voyages of Columbus, the Admiral "accordi 
permission to other captains to make discoveries at the m 
who went and discovered various islands." Whether we ( 

IN SPAIN, J4iHi-J49S. 887 

connect this statement with any such voyage as is now to be 
considered is a matter of dispute. 

This question of the first discovery of the mainland of South 
America, — we shall see that North America's mainland had al- 
reaiiy been discovered. — whether by Columbus or Ves- 
i>tu*ius, is one which lias loni^ vexed the historian and •nd Soatu 
Still d«)eM per])lex him, though the general consensus 
of opinion at tlie prestMit day is in favor of Columbus, while 
pursuing the voyage through which we are soon to follow him. 
The question is much complicated by the uncertainties and con- 
fanion of the narratives which art* our only guides. The dis- 
covery, if not olainicd by VeMpucius, has U'en vigorously claimed 
for liini. Its particulars are also made a |)art of the doubt which 
has cloude<l the recitals concerning the voyage of Pinxon and 
S>lis to the Ilondunis coiist, whi(*h are usually placed later; but 
by Ovie<lo and (tomara this voyage is said to have preceded that 
of Columbus. 

The* claim for Vespncius is at the best but an enforced 
metlHMl of clarifying the publisluHl texts conc4»rning <'ui,p^ i,^ 
th4* voyages, in the h<)|K»s of finding something like ^••p"^*^ 
ci»n*iiHt«*m*v in their dates. Anv cm >nun«Mi tutor who undertakes 
til gi*t at th<* truth must nocesssmly give hiiiiM>lf u]» to s<mie sort 
nt c«mje<'tun\ not only as resjHM»ts the varied ineonsistencies of 
th«* narrative, but also as n*g:inls the manifold blunders of the 
printer of the little lNM>k whieli nvonls the voyagi^s. MuQox 
Iia4l it in mind, it is und<*rst4MNl, to prove that Vespueius could 
not have Imhmi on the (*o:ist at tin* date of his alleged discovery ; 
but in tlie «>pini<»ns of some the dot^uments do not j rove all that 
Mufioau Navarrete, ami Humboldt have claimed, while tlie advo> 
caey of Vanihag(*n in favor of Vespueius does not allow tluu 
writi*r to M«e what he ap|Kin'ntly does not desire to see. Tho 
ro«Mt. |M*rlu|»s, tliat we cim say is that the proof against the 
vi«*w of Vamhagi*n» who is in favor of such a voyage in 1497, 
U not wh«»llv substantiat4Hl. The fact seems to l)e, so far as 


ran be ma<le out, that Vespueius |Kissed from one commander*s 
employ t^) another's, at a «Iate wh(»n ()je<la, in 1499, hatl not 
rninplete<l his voyagi*, and when Pinrxm starte<l. So supposing 
a return to Spain in onier for Vespueius t4> restart with PiiUBon, 
it is also sup|>oHable that the year 1499 itself may have seen 
him under two differt*nt leailers. If this is the correct view, it 


I.irries forward the date to a time later than tbe dift- 
Ihe mainland by Columbus. It is nothing but plan- 
re, after all ; but something of tbe nature of ooo- 
lieceasary to dissipate tbe confusion. The belief of 
; of service is tbe best working hypothesis yet de- 
It he question. 

luius was thus with Pinzon, and this latter navigator 

cl:iims, precede Columbus to the mainland, tbece 

If of it to i>revent a marked difference of opinion 

e writers, in that some ignore the Florentine uav- 

reiy, and others confidently construct the story of 

Ity, which has in turn taken root and been widely 

p of 1497 dues not find mention in any of the oon- 
iijKtrary Portuguese cbroniflera. This absence <rf 
I'ference is serious evidence against it. It seems to be 
Irtain that within twenty years of their publication, 
liloubts raised of the veracity of the narratives attnlv 
'[•uciiis, and Sebastian Cabot tells us in 1505 that he 
e them in respect to this one voyage at any rate, 
about as well convinced as Cabot was that the 

IN SPAIN, 1496'H9S, 389 

Undaunted by aU such negative testimony, the Portuguese 
Vamhugen, as early as 1839, began a series of publications 
aimed at rehabilitating the fame of Vespucius, against the 
viewH of all the later writers, Humboldt, Navarrete, Santarem, 
and the rest. Humboldt claimed to adduce evidence to show 
that Ve^pucius was all the while in Europe. Vamhagen finally 
bn>u«;ht himself to the l)elief that in this disputed voyage of 
141*7 VespuciuH, acting under the onlers of Viceute Vaflez Pin- 
ii>n and Juan Diaz de Solis, really reached the main at Hondu- 
raii, whence ht* followed tlie curvatureH of the coast northerly till 
he reaclkHl the ca|>cs of Chesapt^ke. Thence he steered east- 
erly, pasMMl the Bermudas, and arrived at Seville. If this is 
so, he circumnavigated the an*hi|>elago of the Antilles, and dis- 
provetl the i*ontinental connection of Cuba. Vamhagen even 
goes so far as to maintain that Vespucius luul not been deceived 
into sup|>osing the coast was that of Asia, but that he divined 
tilt* truth. Vamhag(*n has nMnaimnl alone in this estimate of 
til*' evideniv, until of hite Professor Fiske lias sup|)orted him. 

Valentini, in our day, has even sup|KMed that the incomplete 
CuIki of the Kuys4li map of 1508 was really the Yucatan shore, 
which Vt»spurius had skirt^nl. 

The claim which some Fn»nch zealots in maritime dist^overy 
hav<' att4Mn]>t4Mi to sustain, of Norman adventun*rs U^in;^ on the 
Brazil coast in 141*7-*.*H, is hanlly worth consideration. 

We turn now to other problems. Tlie Bull of Demarcation 
was far from lH*in<; a(V(M>table as an ultimate decision 
in Kngland, and the spirit of her |XM>ple towards it is yv^^y^ 
Weil sliown in the Western f Plant inf/ of Hakluyt. 
Ttiis chronicler mistrusts that its ^^ certain secret causes**^ 
whieh wonls 1m* h;ul found in the papal bull, probably by using 
an inai'tnirati* vernion — w<>n* no other than ^*the feare and jeK 
<Hj*«ie that Kin;; ll<*nry of Kngland, with whom Bartholomew 
Columbus had Ixvn to deal in this enterprise, and who even 
DOW was n*ady t4) m'iuI him into Spain to call his brother Chris> 
iophor to Kn;;land, should put a foot into this action;*' and so 
the Po|ie, ** fearing that either the Kin;; of Portugal might be 
reooncileil to Columbus, or that he might l>e drawn into Kng* 
land, thought secretly by his unlawful divinion to defraud Eng- 
laod and Portugal of tlmt benefit.** So Kngland and Portugal 


|arries forward the date to a time later than the di*. 

nlaad by Columbus. It is nothiug but plau- 

tture, after all ; but something of the nature of ood- 

^ly to dissipate the confusion. The belief of 

; of service is the best working hypothesis yet de- 

Itbc question. 

leius was thus with Pinzon, and this latter navigator 
Y<\o claims, precede Columbus to the mainland, there 
of it to prevent a marked difference of opinion 
Ihe writers, in that some ignore the Florentine nav- 
Bely, and others confidently construct the story of 
, which has in turn taken root and been widely 

\i of 1497 does not find mention in any of the eon- 
mijorary Portuguese chroniclers. This absence of 
Inference is serious evidence against it. It seems to be 
l-rtain that within twenty years of their publication, 
liioubts raised of the veracity of the narratives attrib- 
;, and Sebastian Cabot tells us in 1-505 that be 
Jlieve them in respect to this one voyage at any rate, 
|if<as is about as well convinced as Cabot was that the 

IN SPAIN, 1496'H9S. 389 

UnclauDted by aU such negative testimony, the Portuguese 
Vamliagen, as early as 1839, began a series of publications 
aimetl at rehabilitating the fame of Vespucius, against the 
views of all the later writers, Humboldt, Navarrete, Santarem, 
ami the rest. Humboldt claimed to adduce evidence to show 
that Vespucius was all the while in Europe. Vamhagen finally 
bn>u^ht himself to the l)elief tliat in this disputed voyage of 
14*JT Vespucius, acting under the ortlers of Vii^ente Vaflez Pin- 
II »n and Juan Diaz de Solis, really reached the main at Hondu- 
ras, wlienc*e he followed tlie curvatures of the coast northerly till 
Ik* reache<i the ca|>es of Chesa|X'ake. Thence he steered east- 
erly, passetl the Bermudas, and arrived at Seville. If this is 
so, he circumnavigatetl the an*lii|>elago of the Antilles, and di»- 
provtHl the c*ontinentul (H>nniH;tion of Cuba. Varnhagen even 
goeii so far as to maintain that Vespuoius liail not been de<*eived 
into sup|K)sin<^ the c*oast was that of Asia, but that he divined 
tli«* truth. Vamhagen has nMuainetl alone in this estimate of 
tin* (*vid<*n4V, until of late Professor Fiske lia.H sup|)orted him. 

Vak^ntini, in our day, has even sup|>osed that the incomplete 
Cnlxi of the Kuystli map of 1508 was really the Yucatan shore, 
which VespuciuH Imd skirt^nl. 

The claim which lionie Fn*nch ze.alots in maritime <lis<»overy 
have att4*mpt4Hi to suHtain, of Norman advrntim^rs Ikmu*^ on the 
Brazil cosiAt in 141^7-1^8, is hanily worth consideration. 

We turn now to other problemn. Tlit» Bull of IX^marcation 
waA far frt>m Itoin;; aiHvptable as an ultiniate decision 
in Kni;land, an«l the spirit of h<*r iMH>pie towanls it is •tpMittina 
mvl\ shown in the We^trrne Plant intj of Hakluyt. 
Ttiis chronicit*r mistrustn that its ^^c*ertain secret causes**^ 
which wonis h<* had found in the papal bull, probably by using 
an inac«*urati* verniim — w«*re no other than ^the feare and jeU 
cNisie that Kin;; llt*nry of Kn^^land, with whom Bartholomew 
Columbus hati Uvn to dral in this enterprise, and who even 
DOW was nnuly t4) Ht»n<i him int4) Spain to call his brother Chris> 
iopb«*r to Kn^land, should put a foot into this action;*^ and so 
the Po|)e, ** fearing that either the Kinj^: of Portugal might be 
reooociltHl to (\)lumbus, or that he nii^^ht l>e drawn into Kng- 
huid, thought secn*tly by his unlawful division to defraud Eng- 
laod and Portugal of tlmt Iwnefit.** So England and Portugal 


it cause is told in the stories of Cabot first, and of 
iter. We will examine at this point the Cabot story 

;i<l long htica the seat of the English commerce with 

>(J3 was th« stockfish, which Cabot was to recognize 
foundland banks. Those stories of the codfish noticed 

I Cabot recalled in the mind of Galvano in 1555, 
;ul again more forcibly to Uakluyt a half century 
iter, when Germany was now found to be not far 
ititude of Baccalaos, that there was a tale of some 
Li, in the time of Frederick Barbai-ossa (a. n. 1153 ). 

II to Lubec in a canoe. 

i> means beyond possibilit}' that the Basque and other 
>f Europe may have already strayed to these fish- 
^ of Newfoundland, at some period anterior to this 
jibot, and even traces of tiieir frequenting the coast 
Bay have been pointed out, but without convincing 
areful student, 
ian named Zuan Caboto. settling in England, and 

IN SPAiy, I4:t6'i4!^. 341 

It in inferred from wbat Beneventanuii says in hiB Ptolemy of 
1508 that Kuyach, who gives us the earliest engraved funtiivwi 
luap of Cabot*s discoveries, was a companion of Cabot ^^*^' 
in this initial voyage. When that editor says that he learned 
from KuvHch of his ex|ieriences in sailing from the south of 
Kngland to a point in 53 degrees of north latitude, and thence 
due west, it may be referred to such partici|uincy in tliis ezpe^ 
dition from BriHtol. We know from a conversation whic*h is 
re imrttnl in Kamusio — unless then' is some mistake in it — 
th:it Calxit a|»pn>h<»nd<Hl the nature of what we call great circle 
ikailini^« and clainiiHl tliat his course to the northwest would open 
In«li.i by a sliorter nnite than the westerly run of Columbus. 

Wli«*n CalM>t ha<l vouture<l westerly 700 leagues, he found 
land, June 24, 141*7. Then* has been some contidencv 
at (liffi*n-nt times, early and lat4\ that the date of this 34. vtb&i 

fir«t (*alM>t voyage was in n^ality three years before 
thi.4. Th«* lN*lief arosi* from the date of HM lieing given in 
what He«*ni to have b«H*n early (*oi>ies of a map aseril)eil 
to S-bantian ( alM>t, whem*e the date 14m was copied vojm^. im 
l»v llakhivt in 1*>H1^ thou^^h eh*ven years kiter he 
ehaiii;ed it to 141*7. It is sutVieient to sjiy that few of the eritii*8 
of our day. ex«*fpt l>*Avez:u% hold to this date of 1491. Major 
ttnp|M»H«*s that the map of ir)44, now in the Paris library and 
a^MTiUiI t4> (*a)Mit, was a nMlniwn draft fnini tht* lost S|)anish 
original, in whieh the tiate in K«iniaii letters, VII, may have 
lie<*n so eande!«sly ni:ule in joinini; the arms of the V that it 
was n*ad III! : and si>me sneh iuf<*n*iiee was ap|>arently in tlie 
mint! of Henry Stevens when he publishetl his little tract on 
S«-li:tHtian (*alMit in 1H70. 

TIm* tHiiiiitry whi<*h ^'al>«»t thus first saw was supposeil by him 
to lie a {Kirt of Asia, and to U* <M*(*upi(*<l, though no inhabitants 
wen* w«en. 

(\iliot wan fi»r over thn*«* hundn*4l years eonsideretl as having 
maalf his landfall on tlie cvKist of Ijabmdor, or at c^imc 
U-a^t wi- tind nt) nn^tnl tliat tlie legi»nd of the map of •■^'•'* 
1.VI4, placing it at Ca|M* nn't4iii. Iiad impressed its4*lf authorita- 
tivtdy u|Mm the miniU of falMtt's con tern |M>niries and succ«»ssor<. 
Kiddlf and IIunilNiIilt. in the early |mrt of the pres(>nt century, 
acr«*pte«l the I^brador landfall witli litth* ipiestion. So it ha|»- 
{■enf-«l that when, in 1H4:{. the ('aliot inappemonde of 1544 


•red, and it was found to place the laodfall at the 
'ape Breton, a certain definiteneas, where there had 
i;ii vagueneas, afforded the student some relief ; but 
Itj of the sensation woi-e off, conlidence was again 
ill aa the various uncertainties of the document give 
id for the rejection of all parts of its testimony at 
til better vouched beliefs. It is quite possible that 
ictory proofs cau be adduced of another region for 
, but none such have yet been presented to scholars, 
imonly held now that, sighting land at Cape Breton, 
;ed northerly, passed the present Prince Edward IsU 
hen sailed out of the Strait of BeUe Isle, — or at 
as reasonable a route to make out of the scant rec- 
. though there is nothing like a commonly received 
his track. There is some ground for thinking that 
t have entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence at all. He 
liere and saw no inhabitants. If he struck the main- 
i probably the coasts of New Brunswick or Labra- 
ing on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The two islands 
observed on his right may have been headlands of 
\nd, seeming to be isf>lat«d. 

IN SPAiN, 2496-1498. 848 

impedMU and his expectation of finding the land of apicet if he 
went muthward from the region of his landfall, were all stories 
cali*ulate<l to incite wonder and spec*ulation« It was not strange, 
then« that England found she had her new sea-hero, as Spain 
had hem in Colambus ; that the king gave him money ^^^ i. 
and a iwnsion ; and that, conscious of a certain dig* *■•'"'■ 
fiity, Cabot went about the city, drawing the attention of the 
•urious by reason of the fine silks in which he arrayed himielf. 

C almt liad no soontT returned than Pedro de Ayala, the 
S|iani»h envoy in London, again entered a protest, and gave 
notice t4» the English king that the land which luul MajMioM 
been dimtjvered l)elonge<l to his master. There is *■■«'■■*• 
some eviilence that S|Nun kept close watch on the country at the 
north through HUi^eeeding years, and even intended wttlement. 

Hum S|ianiHh ambassador wrote home from London, July 25, 
14t*H« that aft4*r his first voyage, Cabot had been in c^w^n m 
Scvilk* and Lislmn. This renders somewhat prol>able ^''^^^ 
tht- ^urtpioion that he may have had conferences with La Cosa 
ami C*«ihimbii!i. 

Tliat Jdhn Calmt, on returning from his first voyage, pro- 
du<*e<l a (*hart wliicli hi* IukI mailc, and that on this and on a 
!i«>lid ^IoIn*. also of his ronst ruction, ho had laid down what he 
ctin*ii.l«*nN( to lie tht* region he had n*:u«h<Ml, now ailniit caboct 
of no doubt. Eon'ign n*sid(*ntN at th«» English court ''•■^ 
n*|>ort4««l KU4*h farts to the courts of Italy and of S|min. In the 
map of I^a Ctna (l.VX)), we find uhat is c*onsidere<I a reflex of 
thin (*alM>t cliart, in the wonis running along a Htretoh of the 
north(*aHt coast of Asia, which announc*e the waters adjacent 
a.0* those visite«l by the FInglish, and a neighlmring headland as 
th«* ( *a|ie of th«* English. Even Ija C\)sa*s use of the Caltot map 
wan loiit Hi;:ht of In* fore long, and this reconi of I^ (\Ma re- 
niainiNl unknown till llumlmldt discovered the map in Paris, in 
l**'t*J, ill thi* libniry of li:in»n Walekenaer, whence it {massed in 
l*^'»«i into the n>val niUMMiiii at Mailrid. The \'iews of Caliot 
r«**«|Mf*ting this re;: ion -ifi'm to have Im*4Mi soon oI>scured by the 
mon* oiirnMit rharts ^howin;; the voyages of the (^ortereals, 
wht-n the C^a|)e of the En^^linh n>ndily tlis:ip|>parc«l in the *M^alN» 
df Portofvpsi,'* a fon*ninner. ver%* likflv. of what we know to- 
day an (*a|ie Itaeo. 

Such an appetising tale as tliat of the first (!abot expedition 


ily to rest without a sequel. Ou the 3d of Febro. 
y. 1497-98, nearly four uioiitlis before Columbua 
iled on liis third voyage, the English king granted 
[luw patiiiit to John Cabot, giving him the right to 
;iu six ships if he could, and in May he was at sea. 
sons were not meutiuned in the patent, it is sup- 
Sebastian Cabot accompanied his father. Oue vessel 
k to Ireland, five others went on, carrying John 
vard somewhere and to oblivion, for we never hear 

ied on the voyage of 1498, whereby Sebastian came 
ml, and so into a prominence in his own recolleotions 
p;e, which may account for tlic obscuration of his 
ticipancy in the enterprise. One of the ships would 
e been commanded by Lanslot Thirkill, of London. 
know of this second voyage are mentions in later 
e iu character, and apparently traceable to what 
:id said of it. and not always clearly, for there is an 
mingling of events of this and of the earlier voyage. 
i:it we know mainly from Peter Martyr, who teUa 
"jt called the I'egion Baccalaos, and from Ramnsi<i. 

IN SPAIN, I4n6-14!M. 345 

tlM* Portuguese map of Cantino — if that proposition is tenable 
— and tlie rival English disc-overeni, of whom Cabot had been 
one« might easily have been held to be beyond the Spanish 
jurisdiction. It is not diflioult to demonstrate in these matters 
the Spanish constant nnrecognition of other national ezplora- 

It has alno sometimes been held that the wild character of 
tlio coast along which Cabot sailed must have convinced him 
tliat he was bordering some continental region intervening be- 
two>en him and the true coast of Ania; that with the ^* great 
displeasure *' he had felt in finding the land running north, 
i?abot. in fact, must have comprehended the geographical prob- 
lem of America long before it was comprehendt*<l by the Span- 
iards. The t(*stiniony of the La Cosa and Kuysch maps is 
not favorable to such a belief. 

It seems |vretty i*ertain that the success of tlie Caliot voyage 
in any worldly gain was not sufficient to move the t^nglish 
again for :i long |K>rio<l. StilK the )M>litical effect was to raise 
a claim for FIngland to a region not then known to Iw a new 
continent, but of an appreciable ai^quisition, and Kng- 
land never aft4>rwardA faileil to rest her rii;)it.H u|>on r^tah^r 
thin claim of <li>M'overy ; and even her Miccess4)rs, the 
American |H.M>|>le, have not lHH*n without 4*auM* to rest valuable 
privilep»«* up«in the )(;inie. The giH>grapliicaI eflfei't was se«»n in 
tlie earlif'Ht map wliieh wc |>os!4t>Hs of the new lands as disco v- 
chnI liy SiKiin and Kngland, the great oxhide map of Juan de 
la (^»9»:u the companion of (\>luiiibuH on hiM second voyage, and 
the enrt<»}^raplier of his diMNiveries, wliieh han alrea<Iy Imm^u men- 
tioned, and of whirh a furtlu^r desc^ription will be given later. 

Why is it that we know no more of these voyages of tlie 
(^abot* ? Tlii*rt* MH*mH t4> Ih* •u>ine ground for the suspicion that 
the *' nia|M and disiNiunu^M ** which Seliastian Calwt left behind 
him in the liands of William Worthington may have fallen, 
thn»ugh the sulNirnation Yiy SjKiin of the latt4*r, int^i the Iwnds 
iif the rivaN of Kn;;land at a )MTi<Ml juHt aft4*r the publication 
(15h:2) of IIakluyt*K Illrrri* Vinjatjrn^ wherein the |MMisession 
of tlieni by Worthingt4in w:lh ma4le known : at least, ^.^^ ^,,^. 
lUiMle has advaii(*<Hl such a theor\', and it haM some {^h]^°' '^ 

4Uppf)rt in what may In* conJ4»4*ture«l of the history of 

the famous il'alMit map of l.'»44, only brought to light thre*> hun- 

h ^^^^^^^1 


nt«r. Here was a raap evidently based in part on 
lation as was known in Spain. It was engraved, aa 
. though purporting to he the work of Cahot, in the 
iw Countries, and was issued without naute of pub- 
lier or placo, as if to elude responsibility. Not- 
tlistauding it was an engraved map, implying niany 
tirely disappeared, and would not have been known 
I'tept that there are references to such a map as 
'^ in the gallery at ^\'hitehall. as used by OiteliuB 
J, and as noted by Sanuto in 1588. So thorongh s 

would seem to imply an effort on the part of the 
liorities to prevent tho world's profiting by the pub- 
maritime knowledge which in some t-landestine way 
i from the Spanish hydrograpliical oflBce. That this 

was in effect nearly successful may be inferred 
ct that but a single copy of the map Inis come down now in the great library at Paris, which was 
>rmany by Von Martins in 1843. 
■s been a good deal done of late years — beginning 
ith Biddie's Svba»tlan Cabot m 1831. a noteworthy 
")k, showing how much the critical spirit can do to 



In following the events of the tliin] voyage* wo have to 
de|)enil niaiuly on two letters written by Columbus bomrw. 
hiniMrlf. One is achln^sseil to the S|Kinish mouarchs, ^^j^^j* 
and i^ preserviHl in a copy luaile by Las Casas. >°"™^ 
What IVt4T Martyr tells us seems to have l)ecn borrowed from 
thi-» l(*tt«*r. The other is aildresseil to the ** nurse *^ of Prince 
•liuin, of whii'li there are eopies in the Columbus Custodia at 
(ien«»a, and in the Mufioz colleetion of the Koyal Aeademy of 
lli<«tory at M:idrid. They an* Iioth printe<I in Navarrete and 
fisi'whcn*, an<l Major in his Sflet't Lrtter^ uf (\tfumhuA gives 
Kn::liHh vi*rsit>ns. 

Tlifrt* an* al>«> some «*videnees that the :u*<*ount of this voy- 
3^** ;;iv«Mi in tli«' It'nt* niritim J^orfui/nh N.siu/ti was liased on 
<*4»lumbuH*H jouriiaK wliit*h I^i.-i Casas is known to have had, 
ami to havtf iis4*«l in his HlMitnn^ :ulding thereto some details 
whirh he got from a rveital by IWriuddo de Ibarra, one of C<^ 
lumbuH\ iNinipanions, ~ indtHnl, his s(*en*tan'. The map which 
aeiH>mpaiiitNl thfse acN'ounts by C^ilumbus is losL We only 
kn«»w its «>ii!%tfiK*e through the use of it made by Ojeda and 

l,As C:Lsas int4-rs|M*ri«il among tlie details which he recorded 
fnini <*olumbus*H journal s^mie {lartieulars which he got fn^m 
Alonsii \\v VaUfjo. Om* of tho pilots, lleman Perez Matlieoa, 
«fual»led Ovittin to ad<I still s«»niething mon» to tlu* other sourcpn; 
ami then we havi* additional light from the mouths of various 
witnfHM>s in tin* (*oIund>u.*t lawsuit. There is a little at s4*«-ond 
hantl, but of small ini|Mirtant*«*. in a lett4*r of Simon Venle 
printa*«l by IlarrtsM*. 


ting sail, Columbus prepared some directious for his 
1 Diego, of which we have only recently had notes, 
-li appearing in the bulletin of the Italian Geo- 
.eiuty for December, 18b!). He commands in these 
that Diego shall have an affectionate regard for 
A hits half-brother Ferdinand, adds some niles for 
' of his bearing towards his sovereigns and his fel- 
1 recommends him to resort to Father Gaspar Gor- 
LT he might feel in need of advice. 

lifted anchor in the port of San Luear de Barra- 
<la on May 30, 1498. He was physicaUy far from 
iug in a good condition for so adventurous an un<ler- 
dng. He Iiad hoped, lie says to his sovereigna. " to 
in Spain ; whereas on the contrary I have expe- 
ing but opposition and vexation." His six vessela 
the southwest, to avoid a French — some say a Por- 
cet which was said to bo cruising near Cape St 
lis plan was a dcBnita one, to keep in a southerly 
ic reached the c(|uatDrial regions, and then to pro- 

By this course, he hoped to strike in that direction 
ital mass of which ho had intimation both from the 


Navarrole prcMorves a letter which wan written to Columbus 
hy Juyine Ferrer, a hipidary of clistiiiction. This jew- j^,^ p„. 
fli*r eouHnued the prevalent notion, and mid that in '*'' 
all hitt interoounte with diHtant nu&rtn, whence Europe derived 
ibi gold and jewelii, he had learned frt>ni their vendon how 
such objet*tH of iH>ninierce usuaUy canie in greatest abundance 
f ruui near the (HjuaUir, while black nu^es were those that pre- 
loniinaUtl near HUi-h HourceH. Therefore, as Ferrer told Colum- 
buA« HUH*r south and Hnd a blat^k nu*e, if you would gpet at such 
npnk»nt abundance. The Adniinil n^inenilwred he had heard 
ill Fsiiafiola of blacks tlmt hail come fnun the south to that 
island in tin* |iaiit, and he had taken to S|>ain some of the metal 
wiiii-h had U*en given to him as of the kind with which their 
javelins had U^en {minted. The SiNUiish assayers had found it 
a <*<»ni|iosition of ^old, cop|)er« and silver. 

S» it was with ex|K*ct£itions like these that C^olumbus now 
worked his way s«>utli. He* touchetl for W(kmI and 


water at Porto Sant4> and Miuleira, and thence nnv i***n 
c«*e«le4l t4i(iouierH. Here, on June lt>, he found a 
Fn*neli itiumt with two S|uinish prizes, but tiie three ^^^ aioJ^ 
**lii|)s clndeil lii<< ^nt<p and p>t to m*u. lie sent thn*o 
earavels in pursuit, and the S|>anish prisoners risinj; cm the crew 
of one of the priz4*s, she was easily eaptun*<l and brought into 

The SfKininh tiei't Hiuh*«l again on .liine 'Jl. The Admiral hail 
detiiih^l tliDM* of his ships to pnM'eml dinH*t t^i tls|)a- 
Aola to tint! tin* nf*w |M>rt on its southern side near the "'■^er^'jr^ 
nitufs of llayna. Their res|»eetive csiptains were to 
cvinimand th«* iittli' sfpiadr<»n su(*cesHivrly a week at a time. 
TheM* men wen*: Ahmso Sanehez de (*arvajal. a man of giNMl 
n^pntatioii ; |N*<lr«i de Arona. a Imitherof IWatrix de llenriquea, 
.%ho had iNtrne Fi*nlinand to the Adminil : and #1 mm Antonio 
' oIouiIk), a (ien4N>sc and distant kinsman c»f the Admiral. 

Parting: with the-M* vess4*]s off Fern». Columbus, with the three 
others, — one of wiiieh, the t1:i:;**hip. I)eing deeked, of a hun- 
dreil tons burthen, and n'<|iiiring thre«- fathoms of water. — 
steere«I for th*' C:i|m? di* Vi-rtlf Islami-i. His stiy here <-,q„,„i„^ 
was not inspirin;^. A tlepn*H<«iiiir flimatf of vajMtr and ^pVCrdT'* 
an arid landsca|>e told upon his health ami u|Mm that '*^*^* 
of his cpTW. F!ne<mnterin;; difReultie^ in (;i*ttin{; fresh prr»- 

1«9H. Jam 


lattle, he sailed again on July 5, standing to the 
Calms and tUe currents among the islands baffled 
!!-, and it was the 7th before the liigh peak of Del 
L-go sank astern. By the 15tli of July he had 
n-hed the latitude of 5° north, ile now within 
the equatoria] calms. The air soon burned every- 
-singly ; the rigging oozed with the running tar ; 
' seams of the vessels opened ; provisions grew 
trid, and the wine casks shrank and leaked. The 
failed for all the constancy of the crew, and the 
Liself needed all the fortitude he eould command to 
face amid the twinges of gout which were prostrat- 
:« changed his course to see if he could not run out 
irable beat, and after a tedious interval, with no 
the humid and enervating air. the ships gradually 
fresher atmosphere. A breeze rippled the wat«r, 
shone the more refreshing for its clearness. He 
due west, hoping to hiid land before his wat«r and 
liled. He did not discover land as soon as he ex- 
ited, and so Iwi-e away to the north, thinking to see 
Lie of the Carib Islands. On July 31 relief came. 


the luouths of the Orinoco. Before long he could see the oppo- 
rtito (HKiHt stretching away fur twenty leagues, but he rim mm 
did not HUHpect it to be other than an island, which ^ 
he named La Isla Santa. 

It wan indeed strange but not suq^rising that Columbus found 
an ijtland of a new continent, and sup|KMed it the mainland of 
the ( )ld Wurld, att happened during his earlier voyages ; and 
e(|ually Htriking it wan that now when he had actually seen the 
main hind nf a new world he did not know it. 

Hy tlio 2a1 of August the Admiral had approached that nar- 
row channel where the Houthwest comer of Trinidad nn. au- 
ooiiii'H nearvst to the mainland, and here he anchoret] . ^*^'^ 
A larp.* cantHs ciintaining live and twenty Indians, put off to* 
wanU bin Hlii|)8, but tiiially it.n oi*GU|iantA lay u|K)n their |iaddles 
a liowshot away. Columbus desiTibes them as comely in sliapeY 
naked but for breeck-clotlts and wearing variegated scarfs about 
tlu'ir hea^ls. Thev wert> li^'bter in skin than any Indians he had 
Been U*fore. This fa^'t was not very pmmising in view of the 
bi*lief that proeious pnxlucts wouhl Ih' found in a c^ountry in* 
h.ibit4Hl bv blai^ks. Tlie men had bucklers, ttNi, a defense he 
had never mhmi liefon* among these new tril)es. He trietl to 
lun* tlieiii <»n UkihI by showing trinkets, and by improvising 
^•nie nni*«ie and «lanf*«'H anionic his ort'w. The hist ex])e<lient 
w.'i?* «*vi4lently l«M»k<Ml ujion as a ehaUen<:«\ and was met by a 
fliirht «»f arn»ws. Two i*rossU»ws wen- dis^*liargetl in retunuand 
tli«- «-auoe ri<*«l. Th«* natives se«*nuHl to have Icas fear of the 
Mnuller c^aniVfU, an«l appnKU'betl near enough for tlic captain 
of one of tluMu to tlin»w s«>me prest*nts tt> them, a ca|>, and a 
mantle. an«l the lik«* : but when the Indians saw that a boat was 
<wnt to th«* Adiiiirars ship, they again fled. 

\Vliil<* hi-re at anrlior. the erow were |M*nnitted to go ashore 
and refn***h tlh*iiiM'lvt*s. They found intk*h delight in the oo«d 
air of tli«* nioniin;; and even in t;, o«)ining aft4*r their experienm-H 
of the torritl HiifTiM«:itii>n of the culm Lititudes. Nature had 
ap|iean*«l U^ them newr s«i fre^h. 

(*4ilunibim gn'w uiit>a4v in hi<» instviire anchorage, for he had 
diM-overi*«l ai» y«*t n«i ni:KKt«-a4l. He saw the current flowing 
bv with a Htn*ii^th tliat :d:irini-<l him. Tlie waters seemed to 
tumble in iNimmotion ima \\\v\ wi*re jammed togi*ther in the nar- 
row iNMi lM*forc him. It was his tint ex|)erience of that 

•rent which, setting across the ocean, plunges here- 

e great gtiif, paasea north in what we know as thfc 
a. Columbus w^a as yet ignorant, too, of the great 
rater wbteh the many mouths of the Orinoco dis- 
g thia tihore ; and when at night a great roaring 
ater came across the channel, — very likely an un- 
le of the river water poui-ed out of a sudden. — and 
9 own ship lifting at her anchor and one of his cara- 
ig her cabh?, he felt himself in the face of new dan- 
forces of nature to which he was not accustomed. 
n's senses not used to such phenomena, the situation 
1 was alarming. Before him was the surging flow 
ent through the narrow pass, whieh he had already 
imed the Mouth of the Serpent (Boca del Sierpe). 
1 attempt its piissage was almost foolhardy. To re- 
;he coast stemming such a current seemed nearly im- 
ie then sent his boata to examine the pass, and they 
water than was supposed, and on the assurances of 
nd the wind favoring, he headed his ships for the 
ies. passed safely through, and soon reached the 

rUE rUlltlt Kyl.lf.i". 353 

into till' i>|N>ii M'Si, III! Hiiw nu iiiluibit;iiit!<. The Im-IieHt vrvt^ 
tiin-^ wliii-li III- nliM-rvtil wcn- tin- < -hat ((.Tin;; imniki-yM. At 
li-ii;:th. the i*<Hiiitry l>iiiiiuiii<r ntoiv luw-1, lie niu iiitu tlu.- uioiith 

iif a tiifr :iii<l <A-t aiK'li.o It u.i> )>.'rli;i)>^ lim- tliat tliu 

■"imiiiiril. lii-t «-t t....i .m iIm- itiii.iii. Tin- iK-cniiitH ur« 

•■>lii<'»li:it iiiiitiwil. uikI ii<-<'<1 >M.iai- liii-iiM.' in ni-um-iliiij; Umin. 
IVi IluI. )n»mI.|>. Ii.n.l.'.l .-iirli.r. 


vith three Datives now came out to the caravel oeoi^ 
The Spanish captain secured the men by a clever 

their boat, and jumping violently on its gunwale, 
■d it. The occupants were easily captured in tha 
ig taken on board the flagship, the inevitable hawks' 
ited them, and they were set on shore to delight 
^. Other parleys and interchanges of gifts fol- 
unbus now ascertained, as well as he could by signs, 
it the word " Paria," which he heard, was the name 

the country. The Indians pointed westerly, and 
:)t men were much more numerous that way. The 
■ere struck with the tall stature of the men, and 
licence of braids in their hair. It was curious to see 
of everything that was new to them, — a piece of 
stance. It seemed to be their sense of inquiry and 
It is not certain if Columbus participated in this 

:ind one of the witnesses said that the formal tak- 
)n of the country was done by deputy on that ac- 
■i statement is contradicted by others. 


To leave thb paradiMe was nei*«iisary, ami on August 10 the 
shipn went furtlier on, Hoon to find the water growing i^g^ j^^ 
HtiU fresher and more shaUow. At hist, thinking it "^ '*** 
daiigi^rous to push his« flagship into such shoaLi, Columbus sent 
hilt lightest caravel ahead, and waite<l her coming back. On the 
next day Mhe rctumt^, and reported that there was an inner bay 
lM*yond tho islands which were seen, into which large volumes of 
fn*sh water poured, as if a huge continent were drained. Here 
were conditions for examination under uiore favorable circum- 
stamvs, and on August 11 Columlnis tununl his prow toward the 
I>ragnn*s Nfouth. His sU>wanls de(*Lired the provisions growing 
ImuI. and even the large st4>ros intended for the colony were 
lM*ginniug to s]Miil. It w:is necessary to reai*h his destination. 
( olumbus^s own health w:is sinking. His gout hail little cessa- 
tion. His ev<*s had sdiiiost closed with a weariness that he had 
before ex|M'rii*ni*e4l on the (^iIkiu cniise, and he could but think 
of the way in which he hud U-en taken prostrate into Isabella 
on ret urn in;: from tliat ex{HHlition. 

Near tlie I>ragt»n's Mouth he found a harlvor in which to prc- 
\KkTv for th«* {Kissjige «if the tumultuous strait. There seemed no 
«*^-:i|M.* fniiH thf trial. The ]>ass:ip* lay l>ef«>n* him, witle enough 
in itM-lf, but two i^amU parted its curn*nts aiul forcinl the innU 
iii'^; waters into iiarn»wcr ctmtines. (*(ihiml)U«i stn«li<Hl their 
uiiititm, ami linally made up his miiitl tliat the turmoil of the 
waters mi;:iit after all n»nie fi-om the mcvting of the tide and 
the fn*!«h curn-ntH s4M>kiiig the dpeii S4*a. and not from rooks or 
••lioaN. At all events, the nassii^e must l>e made. The 
wind vetTiii;; round to the right <|uarter, he »iet sail and iioc»d*i 
enten*d tin* U listen uis curn*nt.s. As hmg as the wind 
laste«l tliiTe was a ^mhI chaniv t»f kiH*ping his steering way. Un- 
fortunatiU. the \iiiid dii*«I away, and mi he trustcnl to luck and 
till* -wit'iiiiig curn*nt.H. Tln*v carried him safelv lN»von<l. Once 
uiilitiut. he was br(»u;;lit within sight of two islamis to the north- 
east. They wen* apparently tln»si' we tiMlav cjill TolKigo TihMiimi 
ami (frt*nada. It was ntiw thi' loth of Auirust, and **'*•■*■ 
r^ijiimbus tnrm^l westwanl to tniek the c<>:ist. He came t«> the 
i^lanils of i *nlia;:na and Margarita, and surprise«l some native 
t*an(M-s fiithing f«ir |N*arls. His cn^ws s^nm got into jKir- 
ley with the natives, and breaking up some Valentia 

into bits, the S|Kinianls liartere«l them so successfully that 


three pounds, as Cohunbua tells us, of the coveted 
vela. He had satisfieil himself that here was a new 
111 for tlie wealth which could aJoue restore his credit 
»ut he could not tarry. As he wore ship, he left 
imtaiuous reach of the coast that stretched westerly, 
d fain think that India ky that way, as it had from 
hilt island and here, he had touched, as he thought, 

of Asia, two protubei-ant peninsulas, or perhapa 
ic continent, separated by a strait, which possibly 

. much that had been novel in all these experiences. 
■It that the New World was throwing wider open 

its sublime secrets. Lying on his couch, almost 
Ipless from the cruel agonies of the gout, and sight- 
-; from the malady of his eyes, the active mind of 
- Admiral worked at the old problems anew. We 
from the l.Hter which a few weeks later he drafted 
s;d of his sovei-eigus, aud from his reports to Peter 
fb that chronicler has preserved for us. We know 
■tter that his thoughts were still dwelling on the 
va of Solomon, " which mountain your Highnesses 




tine, St Ikuil, and St. Anibnwe had placed the Garden of Eden 
far in the Old WurUrM east, aiKirt from the comuion vicinage of 
men, high up above the baiter parts of the earth, in a region 

sr ^^'rl'Hr *' ■"■■■- V. ""-^ . '•• .• ■' '. 

' • ■ • • .... .. vf . :. V. / I 

. V \ V I 

*• , •••■•l.V .^^ ' 

• I 

• B 

roLiiiBUX M%rrrvnM>K. rRf3(FRVRn at ra^txna. anrroRKD by ora- 
vicR Arrck i>*AViy.A«- ix m i.u.tix i»t: la sonf.rk .vo/;.v.i.v/i/:. ifw. 

batbtHl in tlie pun*?** cthrr, and fM> hij^h that the delup* ha«l not 
ffaclmi it. All th«* st«)rii>sof the Miildle A;res«. alMorUnl in the 
«|M««rulative philoMiphy «>f his own tinit*. had |K>intiHl to thi' dia- 
taut eaut an tli«* M*:it i»f Paradini*. an«l w:is h«* n«it now ooniinf^ to 
it by tlie W(»*it4*rii |Kissa;:i*? If tin* s4-:uit rirhen of the soil could 
ni»t rpntnnr th^ i*ntliii**i:i*iiii wliirli his rarlicr «lis(*ovorieH aroused 
in the dull npiritsuf Kuru{>e. would not a ;:Iiiiipst* of the ecstatic 
of Eden o|H*n their ey<*i( anew ? IK* liad endeavored 



Before setting sail, Columbus prepared some directiotis for hia 
coiumbu*'. ^ii I^ego, of which we have only receutly had uotas, 
•ouDiBgo. saich appeaiiug iu the bultetiu of tho Italian Ge»- 
grapbical Society for Oefciubcr, 1889. lie commauda in these 
injunctioDS that Diego shall Imve an affectionate regard for 
the mother of his hulf-brother Ferdinand, adds some rules for 
the guidance of his bearing towards hb sovereigns and his fd- 
luw-men, and recommends liim to resort to Father Gaspar Gi 
i-icio whenever be might feel in need of advice. 

Columbus lifted anchor in the port of San Lucar de Barra- 
medu on May 30, 1498. He was physically far from 
3», cdIuV being iu a good condition for so adventurous an under- 
taking. He had hoped, he says to his sovereigns, " '" 
find repose in Spain ; whereas on the conti-ary I have ex| 
rienced nothing but opposition and vexation." His six vess 
atood off to the soutliwest, to avoid a French — some say a P< 
tuguese — fiuet which was said to be cruising near Cape 
Vincent. His plan was a definite one, to keep in a souther! 
course till he reached the equatorial regions, and then to pi 
oeed west. By this course, he hoped to strike in that direoti< 
the continental mass of which he liad intimation both from tl 
reports of the natives in Espaiiola and from the trend which 
had found in bis last voyage the Cuban coast to have. Herrei 
tells us that the Portuguese king professed to have some knoi 

ledge of a, continent in this direction, and we may oon- 
■Hitheni nect It, if we choose, with the stories respecting Be- 
haim and others, who had already sailed thitherward, 
as some reports go ; but It Is hard to comprehend that any 
belief of that Idnd was other than a guess at a compensating 
M:beme of geography beyond the Atlantic, to correspond with 
the balance of Africa against Europe in the eastern hemisphei 
It is barely possible, tliough there is no positive evidence of 
that the reports from England of the Cabot discoveries at 
north 'nay have given a hint of like prolongation to the south. 
But a more impelling instinct was the prevalent one of his time, 
which accompanied what Micbelet calls that terrible niRlad3r 
breaking out in this age of Europe, the hunger and thirst 
gold and other |)recious things, and whicli associated the 
session of them with the warmer regifins of tlie globe. 

" To tlie south," said Peter Martyr. " He who woidd fii 
riches must avoid the cold north ! " 




Navarrete preserves a letter which was written to Columbus 
by Jayme Ferrer, a lapidary of distinction. This jew- ^.y^per. 
eler confirmed the prevalent notion, and said that in '^' 
all his intercourse with distant marts, whence Europe derived 
its gold and jewels, he had learned from their vendors how 
such objects of commerce usually came in greatest abundance 
from near the equator, while black races were those that pre- 
dominated near such sources. Therefore, as Ferrer told Colum- 
bus, steer south and find a black race, if you would get at such 
opulent abundance. The Admiral remembered he had heard 
in Espa&ola of blacks that had come from the south to that 
island in the past, and he had taken to Spain some of the metal 
which had been given to him as of the kind with which their 
javelins had been pointed. The Spanish assayed had found it 
a composition of gold, copper, and silver. 

So it was with expectations like these that Columbus now 
worked his way south. He touched for wood and 


water at Porto Santo and Madeira, and thence pro- ateenaoutb- 
ceeded to Gomera. Here, on June 16, he found a 
French cruiser with two Spanish prizes, but the three 16. At oo- 
ships eluded his grasp and got to sea. He sent three 
caravels in pursuit, and the Spanish prisoners rising on the crew 
of one of the prizes, she was easily captured and brought into 

The Spanish fleet sailed again on June 21. The Admiral had 
detailed three of his ships to proceed direct to Espa- „ ^ 

/»••« ., .<! \ Sends three 

Sola to find the new port on its southern side near the aUps direct 

, . to Bspellola. 

mines of Hayna. Their respective captains were to 
command the little squadron successively a week at a time. 
These men were : Alonso Sanchez de Carvajal, a man of good 
reputation ; Pedro de Arona, a brother of Beatrix de Henriquez, 
%vho had borne Ferdinand to the Admiral ; and Juan Antonio 
Colombo, a Genoese and distant kinsman of the Admiral. 

Parting with these vessels off Ferro, Columbus, with the three 
others, — one of which, the flagship, being decked, of a hun- 
dred tons burthen, and requiring three fathoms of water, — 
steered for the Cape de Verde Islands. His stay here coiumbu* 
was not inspiring. A depressing climate of vapor and St verSe^ 
an arid landscape told upon his health and upon that ^"^<^' 
of his crew. Encountering difficulties in getting fresh pro- 


^ cuQteiiiporai'ies feel that the eaith was round, and 
\-<iA it, as he thoiiglit, by almost toiiirhiiig, in a weat- 
^'e, the Golden Chersonesus. It is stgni&caot that 
'i.^totie of 1571 omits this vagary of Paradise. The 

the iutei-ini, awkward for the biographer of Co- 

.s a newer belief linked with this hope of Paradise- 
11 tliia wondrous life and salubrity which Columbus 
w and felt, if it had not been able to restore his 
.1 only come from his pi-ogrcas up a swelling apex of 
hioh buttressed the Gardeu of Eden. It was clear to 
ill instead of being round the eartli was pear-shaped, 

if ting him into pui-er air. The great fountain whicfa 
spacious garden of the early race had discharged its 
wn these ethereal slopes, and sweetened all this gull 
Id him so clone within its embaying girth. If such 

■ uiders of these outposts of the celestial life, what ' 

■ i)roducta to be seen as one journeyed up, along the 
uch celestial streams? As he steered for Espaiiola. 


writing, ami presently to be expresMed with every symptom of 
iiuMital wandering in more elulKirate treat iseH, offered to his 
tinii* an ohviouii contrast to the steadier head of Yes- _ . ^ 


pnriiis. The latter*s far more graphic description uhiv«»- 
gaiued for hiin« as wo shall see, the {losition of a rec- 
ognized authority. While 1 olunibiis was puzzling over the 
aberraiiiin «>f the |Mde star and misshaping the earth, Vespueius 
wa«« 4*4)niprehending the law of gravitation upon our fluiting 
sphrriN antl ultimately n*presenting it in the diagram which 
illu^tnited his narrative. We sluill need to return on a later 
|Kige to these causi*s which KhI to the naming of America. 

F4»r f«nir davs Columhus had s:iileil awav to the northwest^ 
coming t«> the wind every night :ui a precaution, beff>re 


HtK Att- 

lu* si;7hu*<l KsiKUiDla on Au;;ust 11^ being then, as he rui lu. 
uiaile out, aiMiut fifty leagues west of the s|M>t where mmk-ia- 
he !iiip]>os4'd the |)ort had l)eeii established for the 
mines of llayiia. lie tlioiight that lie had been steering nearer 
tliat I N lint, but the currtMits had probably carried hiiu uncon* 
Hi*iou!«ly w«*st by night, as they were at that moment d«»ing with 
the relii*f <»hi|»^ that lie had parted with off Ferro. A a Cohiiii* 
bu*i HiMvulated on this steady flow of waters \iith that keenness 
of ubservatiiin upon natural plit*noinena whieli att meted the ad* 
miration of lluiiiboKIt, and whicli is really striking, if we se|>> 
ante it fr«»iii his turbulent faneii*^. he a«vouuted by its 
attrition for the pn*doiuinatiiig sliaiK.' of the islands ti>««af 
whieh he hail S4*eii. which had tli«*ir gi'eate>t length in 
iIk* direetiou t»f the eiirreiit. lie knew that its fonn* would, 
{MTliaps, l«>iig delay him in his efforts t^i work e:istwariK and so 
be o|»enetl eoinniuiiieati«»ii with the shon* in ho|H*4 to fnid a mes- 
sengi-r by whom to di<i|>ateh a h*tt«T to the Adelantado. This 
waA ea*iily dime, and the letter reached its destination, where* 
u|Nin Ikirtliohunew started out in a (*:i ravel tf» meet the little fleet. 
It wan with •i(»mt* niin'^iviiii; that Columbiis n*sume«l his course, 
for he h:ul seen a erosslxiw in the hands of a native. It was 
Dot an artielf of i*f»ninien-t*. an«l it might signify another dis- 
aster lik«* that of 1^1 Navidad. lie was at*(*ordingly relieve«l 
when lie shortly afti*r\ianls s:iw a Spani**li caravel MM^atiM 
approaching, ami, hailing the ve4S4*l. found that the 
Aiiehuitailo liad come to gi*e«*t him. 


s mucli inteifhange of news aud thought to oocapy 
their first eonfereiice ; and Culurnbus'fi anxiety to 
ionditiou o£ the colony elicited a wearisome atoiy.l 
ited tu make any better record in Spaiu than t^( 
is own rule in the island. 

i points of it were these : Bartholomew liad early 
rried out the Admiral's behests to occupy the Hayna 
■untry. He had built there a fortress which be 
L(I named St. Cristoval, but the workmen, finding par- 
■Ics of gold in the stones and sands which they used. 
med it the Golden Tower. While this was doing, 
tre was difficulty in supporting the workmen. Pro- 
.^ioDS were scarce, aud the ludiaus were nut inclined 
part with what they had. The Adelautado could go 
aud exact the quarterly tribute under compulsion ; 
:irdly sufficed to keej) famine from the door at St 
Nothing had as yet been done to plant the ground 
■t, nor had hei-ds been moved there. The settlement 
was too faraway for support. Meanwhile Nifio had 
h his caravels, but he had not brought all the ei- 
, for the passage had spoiled much of the lading. 


he had brought Beheohio and bLi proviucc of Xaragua into 
tubjei*tion. This territory was the region westward xancw 
from aliout the {loint where Columbus had touched the <^"4^'*' 
island a few days liefore. Anacaona, the wife of Caonabo, — 
now intleed his widow, — had taken n^fuire with lie- 
hei*hio, her brotlier, after the fall of her husband, ami 
^«he is rcpresenteil as a woman of line a|)|)earance, 
and more delicate and susceptible in her thoughts than was 
usual among her people ; and |)erhaps Bartholomew told his 
brother wliat has since been surmised by S|>anish writers, that 
she hatl managiH.1 to get wonl to him of her friendly sentiment* 
for celestial visitors. Uartholomew found, as he was marching 
thither with such forces as he could s|Nire for the ex|)edition, 
that the caci<pie who met him in battle array was easily dis- 
IHDSed, for Mune re:ison or other, |)erlia|>s through Anacaona^s in- 
duence, to dismiss his anneal warriors, and to escort his visitor 
through his i*ountry with great parade of hospitality. When 
they reach«*<l the cacique's chief town, a sort of fete was pre- 
pared in the Adekintado*s honor, and a mock battle, not with- 
out sacriKce of life, was fought for his delectation. Peter 
Martvr tells us that when the eonielv voun;; Indian maidens 
ailvanciNl with their {^dm bninches and suliited tlie AdelanUido, 
it seemed as if the iH'autiful drvads nf tlie ohien tales had 
slip|ied out of the vernal woo<ls. Then Anacaona ap|H'ared on 
a litter, with no appan*! but gsirlands. the nu^t iN'autiful dryad 
of tlK*m all. KverylMMly f«*asted.aud n:irtlii>li>mew,ti> ingratiate 
himst*lf with his lio?%t, eat ami prais4>d their rarest delica4*y, the 
guana lizanl. which liad Ix^en f>tTeriMl to th«*m many times l>efons 
but whic*h thev never as vet liad tastinl. It became after this 
a faj«hion with the S)mniariU to dote on liz;inl rit>«»h. K very- 
thing within the next two or tiin*e days servinl to ivment this 
Dew friemUhip, when the Adelantatio put it to a test, as indeed 
IumI lieen his pur|M>s4* from tht* iM'ginning. He told the cacique 
of the great |>owi*r of his maMer and «>f the Spanish sovereigns; 
of thi'ir gRieious re;:aril fi>r all their distant Mil>jects 'Mu\ of the 
pior recom|»ens4* of a trihuti' MJiirli w:is ex|H*cted for their pn»- 
tretiou. ^Miold ! ** exelaiiiii'il the caeique, ** we have no gold 
here/* '*()li, whatever \o\i liave. (i»ttoii. Ii«'ni p. cassava bnuid, 
— anything >ftill Im* acreptabh*/* So tlit* details were arRinged* 
Thr raciqiN* was gnitilietl at InMUg let otT S4) easy, and the S|ian* 
ianls wt-nt their wav. 


is niucli iutetuhauge of news and thought to occupy 
their first conference ; and Columbus's anxiety to 
;ondition of the colony elicited a wearisoiue story,' 
iited to make any better record in Spain than the] 
lis own rnk- in the island. 

f points of it wei-e these : Bartholomew had earl; 
rtied out the Adniirara behests to occupy the Hayna 
aintry. He had built there a fortress which be 
u! named St. Cristoval, but the workmen, finding par- 
-les of gold in the stones and sands which they used, 
ined it the Golden Tower. While this was doing, 
(■re was difficulty in supporting the workmen. Pro- 
sions were scarce, and the Indians were uot inclined 
])art with what they had. The Adelantado could go 
and exact the quarterly tribute under compulsion; 
udly sufficed to keep famine from the door at St. 
Nothing had as yet been done to plant the ground 
■t, nor liad hertls been moved there. The settlement i 
was too faraway for support. Meanwhile NiSo had ' 
li his caravels, but he had not brought all the ex- 
. for the pas.'jiigc had spoiled mucli of the ladmg. 


he bad brought Bebeobio and bui proviuce of Xaragua into 
subjection. Tliia UTritory wan the region westwanl x»ncua 
from al>out tlie |K>int where Columbus had touchetl the ^'*4^'*^ 
inland a few days liefore. Anacaoua, the wife of Caonabo, — 
now intleeil bin widow, — had taken rt*fufi:e with Be- 
liei*bio, lu*r bn>tlier, after the fall of her huHliand. mhi 
She in rcpresenteil as a woman of Hue appearance, 
and more tlelieate antl Husceptible in her thoughts than was 
Usual among her ])eople ; at)tl [KThaps Bartholomew told his 
brother wluit lias since been surmiseil by Spanish writers, that 
she hatl nuinaged to get wonl to him of her friendly sentiments 
for celestial visitors. Bartholomew fouml, ^bha he was marching 
thither with such forces as he could spare for the ex|)eilition, 
that the eaciipie who met him in battle array wsis easily dis- 
|H>sed, for some re^ison or other, |)erliaps through Anacaona*s in* 
Huemv, to dismiss his urnusl warriors* antl to escort his visitor 
through his inmntry with great panide of hospitality. When 
they n*achiHl the caci(|ue*s chief town, a sort of fete was pre- 
paretl in the Adelantailo's honor, and a mock battle, not with- 
out sat*ritii*e of life, was fought for his delectation. Peter 
Martvr tells us tliat when the cornel v voun;; Indian maidens 
aAlvancetl witb tlieir )Kilm bninchcs and sidiited the Adelantado, 
it st^*med as if the lK*autiful drvads of tiie oltlen tides had 
fklip|>ed out of tlie vernal woixls. Tlien Anaeaoua ap|M*ared on 
a Iitt4*r, with no apjtarel but g:irl:iuds. tiie m(i*>t beautiful dryad 
of them all. KverylMMly feast^-ii, anil Hartholouiew, to ingratiate 
bimM-lf with his hoNt, eat and prai^'d tlieir rar«.*st delicai*y, the 
guana lizanl, whieh had l>een otTered to them many times liefons 
but whieh thev never :is vet hail t;ist<Hl. It be4*aiiie afti'r this 
a fa.<»hion with the Spanianis to dote on li/anl flesh. Kvery* 
tiling within the next twn or three tlays si*rv«*il t4> ciMiient this 
Df w friend thip, when the Adelantado put it to a test, as imleed 
hail lieen his pur|M)se fr«>ni the in^ginning. lie tiild the cacique 
uf the great )H»wer of iiis niaMer and of the S|»;ini>h sovereigns; 
of th«-ir gnieious r«*;:ai-d for all their distant .Hubjeets ami of the 
pii»r n*coni|N'ns4* of a trilmte uhieh was e\|K>etetl f«»r their prc»- 
U-«-ti'>n. **(f4ild! ** I'Xflaiiiii'd the cai'iipi<», ** we have no gold 
her«*." **()li. what4'\«'r \<iii iiave. (*tittoiu hi>iop. cassava bread, 
— anvthing will In* a«vfpt.kble/* So tin* di*tails were arningtHl. 
Th«* earii|iM* was gratified at Inking let otT so ea>y. and the Span- 
ianU Wfnt their wav. 


IS much intei-c-liange of uews and thought to ooenpj 
their first confereuce ; and Columbus's auxiety to 
:onditiou of the colony i:Ik-ited a wearbome story, I 
iited to make any better record in Spain than t^i 
lis own rule iu the island. 

f points of it were tliese : Bartholomew had early 
irried out the Admiral's behests to occupy the Haj-na 
lUQtry. He had built there a fortress which be 
id named St. Cristoval, but the workmen, finding pai^ 
.-les of gold in the stones and sands which they used, 
lued it the Golden Tower. WhUe this was doing, 
lere was difficulty in supporting the workmen. Plo- 
sions were scarce, and the Indians were not inclined 
part with what they had. The Adclantado could go 
and exact the quarterly ti-ibute under compulsion; 
ardly sufticed to keep famine from the door at St 
Notliing had as yet been done to pLint the ground 
-t, nor had herds been moved there. The settlement 
was too far away for supjiort. Meanwhile Nifio had 
h his caravels, but be had not brought all the ex- 
. for the passage had spoiled much of the lading. 


he bad brought Behechio and his proviucc of Xaragua into 
iiubj«H*ti(>ii. This U'rritory wiw the re^jioii westward x*rain» 
fnuu ulK>ut the ])oiiit where CoIuiubtiH had toiichetl the ^^^'^'^ 
island :i few days i>efore. Auacaoua, the wife of Caonabo, — 
now indeed his widow, — had taken n^fucfe with Be- 
hei'hio, hi*r brtither, after the fall of her husband, mad 
Slio is representeil as a wonum of Hne a]){)earanee, 
and more tlelicate and suseoptible in her thouglits than was 
usual among her ))eo|)le ; auil |K*rlia))s Itartholomew told his 
brother wiuit lias sinee been surmiseil by Spanish writers, that 
she \vm[ managiHl to get wonl to him of her friendly sentiments 
for cvK*Atial visitors. Uartlndomew found, ais he was marching 
thither with ^iueh forces as he could 8i>are for the ex|NHlition, 
tiiat tho caoique who met him in battle array was easily dis- 
|iosiiK for some reason or otlit*r« i>erhaps through Anacaona*s in* 
Huenci*, to tlismiss his arnuHl warriors, and to escort his visitor 
thnmgii iiis country witii great panide of hospitality. When 
tlu*y n*ach(Ml the caci(|ue*s chief town, a sort of fete was pre- 
parvil in the Adelantado*s honor, antl a mock battle, not with- 
out sacrititx* of life, w:is fought for his tlelcctati<»n. Peter 
Martvr tolls us that when the eomelv voun<; Indian maidens 
advancHnl ^ith their palm branches and saluted the Adelantado, 
it Mreme«l as if the l>eautiful drvails of the olden t;des had 
slip|M*tl out of the vernal woods. Tiien Anaeaona apjK'ared on 
a lttt4*r, with no apparel but garlands, the mo^t l>«*autiful dryad 
of them all. Kveryl>ody feasti^K and Hartholomcw,to ingratiate 
himskdf with his ho^t, eat and praiM'tl tlu'ir nin^t delicai*y, the 
giiana lizanl, whi(*h had l>een oflferiNJ to th^Mu many times before, 
but which thev never i\s vet hml tasteil. It bei*ame after this 
a fa«»hion with the Spaniards to dote on liziinl flesh. Kvery* 
tiling within the n<»xt two or thnn* days s<*rviHl t4> ct»ment this 
new frtend^^hip, when the Adelantado put it to a test, as intleed 
hail Ihh'u his pur|H>M* from the U^ginning. lie told the cacique 
of the gn*at )M»wer (»f his master and of the S|Kini>h sovereigns ; 
of tli«*ir gntcious regarti for all their distant snbje(*ts and of the 
piifir n*o«»m|H*ns4* of a tribute which was expected for their pn>- 
tc^-tjou. '*<fi»ld I " exclaiuHMl the cari<|ue, *• we have no gold 
here.** ^' Oh. whati'ver \oii have, e<itton. hemp, cassava bn*a4l, 
— anvthiiig ^»ill Ih' aec«'ptable.'* So the d<*tails were arningf^l. 
Th«* <<a4Mque was gratified at being let otT S4> eaM', and the S|»an- 
iani4 went tlieir way. 


v^ muck iiitei'chauge of oews aud thought to occupy 
their first uoiiferenco ; and Columbus's anxiety to 
-onditiou of the colony elicited a wearisome story, 1 
ated to make any better record in Spain than thei 
lis own rule iu the island. 

f points of it were these: Bartholomew had early 
iriied out the Admiral's behests to occupy the Hayna 
■iintry. He hatl built there a fortress which he 
id named St. Criatoval, but the workmen, finding paN 
.'les uf gold in the stones aud sands which they used, 
lued it the Golden Tower. WhUe this was doing, 
it're was difSeulty in sujjporting the workmen. Pro- 
sions were scarce, and the Indians were not inclined 
part with what they had. The Adclantado could go 
and exact the quarterly tribute under compulsion; 
ardly sufficed to keep famine from the door at St 
Nothing had as yet been done to plant the ground 
C, nor had herds been moved there. The settlenieot 
was too far away for suppoi-t. Meanwhile Niiio had 
h his caiavels, but be had not brought all the m^ 
. for the passage had spoiled much of the lading. 


he had brought Behechio ami his proviuec of Xaragua into 
ftubjiH'tioti. This territory was the region westwanl x*rain» 
from alK)ut the |K>iiit where Columbus had touehed the <^'*4^'*^ 
ishiud a few ihiys liefore. Auacaona, the wife of Caonabo, — 
now indeed his widow, — had taken refucfe with Be- 
hei*hio« her brotlier, after the fall of her husband, mhi 
She is represented as a woniau of tine appearance, 
antl more tielieate and susci*ptible in her thoughts than was 
usual among her people ; aud |>erha))s Itartholomew told hia 
brother what lias since been surmisetl by Spanish writers, that 
she \vm\ munagiHl to get wonl to him of her friendly sentiments 
for ct*le.stial visitors. Bartholomew found, ais he was marching 
thither with ^ueh forces as he could spare for the ex|KHlition, 
tliat the cacique who met him in battle array was easily dis- 
|ii>9i*d, for si»me re:ison or other, i>erhaps through Anacaona*s in* 
Hueuce, to dismiss his arme^l warriors, and to escort his visitor 
through liis i*ouiitry with great panide of hospitality. When 
they n*ached the caci(|ue*s chief town, a sort of fete was pre- 
parvtl in tht? Adelantatlo*s honor, and a mock battle, not with- 
out s:icritice t)f life, was fought for his deleetation. Peter 
Martvr tells us that when the comelv voun;;: Indian maidens 
ailvani*eil \^itii tiieir palm bninches and saluted the AdelanUido, 
it st»emed as if tiie iH'autiful drvails of the olden tales had 
slip|MHl out (»f the vernal woods. Tiicn Anaeaona apjKnired on 
a Iitt4'r, with no apparel but garlands, the mo^t iM'autiful dryad 
of them all. Kvery^MMly feasti'^l. anil Bartholomew, to ingratiate 
himstdf with his h(»>t, eat and prai^Ml their rarest delicai*y, the 
guana lizanl, wiiieh had Ihh^u otT<*red to them many times befort^, 
but wiiii'ii tliev nevtT i\s vet ha4l t;isteil. It became after this 
a fa<«hion with the Siuiniards to d«>te on lizanl flesh. Kvery- 
tliing within the next two or tiirei* days s<*rve<l U\ cement tiiis 
iM*w friendnhip, wh<*n the Adelantatlo put it to a test, as imleed 
hail lH*<*n his pur|M»M* from tix* In^ginning. lit* t4>ld the cacique 
of the great |M»Wi>r «»f his ma*<ter and of the S|»;ini>ii sovereigns ; 
of thfir gntei«»UH regard for all their distant subjrets, and of the 
poor nTfinijH'nse of a tribut** \%hi(*h was ex{K'cted for their pro- 
t4r<-tion. **ifoltl ! '* exelaiuitd the ca«'i<pie. ** we have no gold 
hfr<»." "Oh, wliat4*ver y«»u have, eotton, iinnp, cassava bn*a4l, 
— anything \»iU In* a(*ei*ptable." So thi* details were arrangf^]. 
T1i«* <*a4*iqiH* was gmtitietl at lK*ing h*t otT so easy, and the Span- 
ianis Wfnt their wav. 


tribute were about tbe only cheery iiicideDta iu the 
)spect to which the Admiral listened. Tbe rest was 
I despair. A line of military poats bad been built 
the two Spanish settlements, and the manning of 
rheir dependent villages, enabled the Adelantado to 
trt of tbe too numerous oolouy at Isabella, so that 

relieved of so many mouths to feed. This done, 
ere was a conspiracy of tbe natives to be crushed. 
wo of the priests had made some converts in tbe 
iud built a chapel for tbe use of the neophytes. One 
iiianis bail outraged a wife of the cacique. Either 
se, or for the audacious jiropagaudism of the prieeta, 
fs broke into tbe Spanish chapel, destroyed ita 

buried some of its holy vessels in a field. Plants 
ire iu the form of a cross, say the veracious narr*- 
, nevertheless, did not satisfy tbe Spaniards. Th^ 
Indians as they considered to have been engaged in 
tiou, and gave them the fire and fagots, as th^ 

■ cacique Guaiionex with a new fury. He leagued 


ut an execution ordered by him ; but oh the Adelantado had [Nir- 
«l«»ne<l the offender, the cM*o:i.sion Mlip|MHl by. Ilartholomew^ri 
alis«>n(v in Xani^ua gave another op]H>rt unity. lie had Hent 
b:u*k from that ctnintrv a earavel htailetl with c-ott^m, as a trib- 
utf, anil I>i(*;;o« then in command at Iiisibelhi, after unhiding the 
vi*««s4*I. drew h«*r up on the lK*ai*h. The story wait buHily circu- 
l:it4Ml tiiat tliiti act was done Nimply to prevent any one Meizing 
thr ship and carrying t4> S|>:iin intelligenet* of the misery to which 
the riiK* of the C'ohunbuHi'A was mibjeeting tlie [icople. The 
p«»piiLii*e niaih^ an issue on that act, and askinl that the vessel 
bi* iM*iit to (*atliz fi)r supplies. Diego obji*otiHU and to divert tlie 
jiinds of tlie relielliouH, as well as to n*move Koklan from their 
cuuns4*|s, he sent him with a fon*e int4> the Vega, to overawe 
8i>me caeitpies who had lieen dilatory in their tribute. Thid 
nii^.*.ion, however, only heliH'il Itoldan to consolidate his faction, 
anil gave him the chance to eu(*ounige the cai'icpies to join re- 

Itiikian had seventy well-anue<l men in his party when he 
returr.isl to IsnU-lla to confront Hartliolomcw, who ha<l by this 
time g(»t l)ack from Xaragua. The Adelantado was not so eas- 
ily frightened as Ittiklan had 1io|mhI, and tintling it not safe 
to T\<V an o|»en revtdt, this mutinous header withdn*w to the 
Vega with the exiH'4>tation of surprisin;: Ktirt Con- ^ 
Caption. That jjo^t, however, as wi-ll as an outlying VT*"|J**f* 
flirt itte<I hoiiM.', was under k>val r«)nimaud, and KoU 
dan was for a whik'» thwartiMl. Hartiiokmiew was not at all 
^nrc of any of thf principal Spaniards, but liow far the disaf- 
fc«*tion hail gone h«> was tinalde to determine. AltlMnigh lie 
kiM*w that i*ertain Icidiu;; men were fri(*ndly to Koklan, he was 
not pn*|Kire4l to lie ])assive. His saf<»ty de|iende<l cui resolution, 
aaid M> hi* niarche<l at on(*e to the Vega. Itoklan was in the 
:i«-ighlNirhoo<l, ami was invit^'^l to a park*y. It h*<l to nothing. 
Th** mutin«N*rH. making up their minds to fly to tlu* delightful 
plL*a!«un*s of Xaragua, suddmlv man*he«l Iwick to Isa- . ^ ^ 

f 11 I t » 1 1 * 1 ^' I«rf«Ita. 

iM'lla, |»hindi*nMl the arM*nal and stondiousi^s, and 
tn«-«l to laun(*h tin* caravfl. The ves«i«*l was to<» lirndv imlnNl- 
cl«-«l t«> mow, and l^»lllan was fonH*il to uudi^rtake the journey 
t'l Xaragua by land. To h-avc tlio Adclantatlo U*hind was a 
•kurt- way to brini: an «»iii'm\ in his rear, and he aet^ordingly 
tiKMight it iiaf«*r to n'ducc the garrison at (.\>n4*eption, and |ier 


I the subsequent visit of Bartholomew to 
3 the tribute were about the only cheery incidenta in the 
dreary retrospect to wliich the Admiral listened. The rest waa 
trouble and despair. A line of military posts had been built 
eonnecting the two Spanish aettlemcnta, and the manning of 
them, with their depend(.'nt villages, enabled the Adelantado to 
scatter a part of the too numerous colony at Isabella, so that 
it might be relieved of so many mouths to feed. This doDe, 
HnUTecon. there was a conspiracy of the native:) to be enished. 
•pirmcy. 'Yy^o of the priests had made some converts in 
Vega, and had built a chapel for the use of the neophytes. Oi 
of the Spaniards had outraged a wife of the caoique. Eil 
for this cause, or for the audacious propagandism of the priests, 
some natives broke into the Spanish chapel, destroyed its 
shrine, and buried some of its holy vessels iu a field. Plants 
^rew u|) there in the form of a cross, say the veracious narnir 
tors. This, nevertheless, did not satisfy the Spaniards. They 
seized such Indians as they considerod to have been engaged in 
the desecration, and gave tliem the fire and fagots, as tbt 
would have done to Moor or Jew. The horrible punishmei 
aroused the cacique Guai-ionex with a new fury. He lei^ui 
the neighboring caciques into a conspiracy. Their combinetf' 
forces were threatening Fort Conception when the Adelantado 
arrived with succor. By an adi-olt movement, Bartholomew 
ensnared by night every one of the leaders in their villages, and 
executed two of them. The otliers he ostentatiously pardoned, 
and he coidd tell Columbus of the great renown he got for 
bis clemency. 

There was nothing in all the bad tidings which Bartholomi 
RoWmi'ii 1'^' *" reheai-se quite so disheartening as the revolt 
molt. Roldan, the chief judge of the island, — a man wlio 

had l>een lifted from obscurity to a position of such importanoe 
that Columbus had placed the administration of justice in kia 
hands. Tlie reports of the unpojjularity of Columbus in Sp^, 
and the growing antipathy in Isabella to the rule of Bart^M^o 
mew as a foreigner, had served to consolidate the growing 
number of the discontented, and Rohlan saw the opportuaity o£ 
easily i-aising himself in the popular estimate by organizing the 
latent spirit of rebellion. It was even planned to assassinate 
the Adehnitado, undt'r cover of a tumult, which was 






at an oxocutioii ordered by liitii ; but oh tlie Adelantado had ])ar- 
doiiiNl tlio offender, the cM'c*:iHioii Mli|>|NHl by. IlarthoIoniew*H 
al»M>ii(v in Xani^ua gave another op|Kirt unity. He had Hent 
bark fnmi that Oiuintrv a caravel hiailetl with (*otton, an a trib- 
ut4\ and I>ii*pn then in eoniuiand at IiisibeUa, after unhiding the 
vf«**4*I, tlri'W her up on the lN>aeh. The story wan busily circu* 
lat«Ml tiiat tills a4*t was done simply to prevent any one seizing 
tlir siiip ami carrying to S]Kiin intelligc^nce of the misery to which 
the riih* of the C'ohinibiis<>s was subjecting tlie ])eople. Tlie 
p4»piiLft«*e niatle an issue on that act, and asketl that the vessel 
U* M-!it to Catliz for su]>plies. Diego obj«H*tiHU and to divert the 
jiiiids «>f the rcI»ellious, as well as to remove Kohlan from their 
cuun*i«*K he siMit him with a fortn? int4> the Vega, to overawe 
some (*aci(pies who had l>een dilatory in their tribute. This 
nli^^ion, however, only hel{M'd Koldau to consolidate his faction, 
and gave liiiii the chance to encourage the caciques to join re- 

Hoklan hail seventy well-arnuKl men in his |)arty when he 
returncil to Is:ilM*IIa to confront Uartholoiiicw, wiio luul by this 
time got iiack from Xaragiia. The Adelanta<lo was not so eas- 
ily frightoiic*il as Kohlan had 1io|hhI, and fuKling it not safe 
In ri**k an o|>cn revolt, this mutinous IcatltT withdrew to the 
Vega witli the ex]H*ctatiou of surprising F<»rt Con- 
ceptioii. That jiost. however, as well as an outlying ir*"|j'J* 
fortitieil house, was under loval eoiiiinaiid, and Hoi- 
flan was for a while thwarted, nartholoinew was not at all 
^uro of any of the priii(*ipal Spanianls. but how far the disaf- 
fe<etii»n had giuie Ik* was unable to <letermiuc. Although he 
kni'W that ivrtain h*ading men were friendly to Koldan, he was 
not pn^iKiretl to lie |>assive. His safety de|>endc*4l on resolution, 
kiiil Ml Ik* mart^hiNl at oik*i^ tii the Vega. Itohlan was in the 
neighUirhood, and was iiivit4*4l to a parh^y. It h^l to nothing. 
Th*' niutin«*ers. making up their minds to fly to the delightful 
pIcaMin-s of Xara;;na. suddeiilv man*he<l liaek to Isa- 

. ' At l«b»D^ 

iitdla, |ilnndered the arM>ii:il and ston*hoiis4»s, and 
Crittl t4» launch the earavfl. The vi*ss«*l was too lirnilv imlMnl- 
fb**! to mov<*, and KoMan was fonH*il to iimlertake the journey 
t'l Xaraf^ua by latiil. Ti» leave thi* Aili*laiita«lo lN*hind was a 
Min* way to brini; an «»iii'iii\ in his rt*ar. and he ac(*onlingly 
thought it safer to n-duce the garrison at l\mi*eption, and per 


•e the Adelaiitado. This movement failed ; bat H 
Roldan^s iiigratiatiug himself with the ttibutaiy 
ul interceptiug the gan-ison's supplies. It was at 
le, wbeu everything looked desperate for Bartht^ 
up iD the Vega fort, that news reached him of tiie 
bniary 3, 1498) at the new port of Santo Domingo 
the advauoe section of the Admiral's fleet, sent 
ither, as we have seen, by the Queen's assidui^, 
Duimaud of Pedro Fernandez Coronel. 
new coidd tell the Admiral of the good effect which 
.nee received through Coronel had on the colonj. 
le of Adelautado, it was learned, was legitimated by 
the sovereigns ; and Columbus himself had beea 
LOUgh to seoure confirmation of his old honors, and 
'w pledges for the future. The mutineers soon saw 
>ects of their revolt were changed. They could not, 
■m, place that dependence oo the unpopularity of the 
Court whieli had been a good part of their encom^ 

iig to Santo Domingo, Bartholomew proclaimed his 

\v houoi'9, anil, anxious to paciticate the island be- 


It WHA into these mountain fu8tn(*^(S4's that the Adelantado 
miw puniUtitl the {ii^itiven, with a force of ninety foot, a few 
b«in)C«anil S4»nie auxiliary Indians. He lM)hllv thriddccl the de* 
liles and t'roHMHl the stn-anis, under tht* showers of lances and 
arniws. As the native honles Heil U^fore him, he firetl their 
viUa<;eH in the hoi>e of ftin'in*; the i*i;^uayans to surremler their 
;;uest ; but tlie mountain headers i*ould not lie ]>revaile<l upon t4> 
wn>n^ the ri<;hts of Imspitality. When no louj^er ahle to resist 
in arms, M:iv4>1kuii*x and (luaritmex Hed to tlie hills. 

The A<lelauta4lo now sent all of his men Imek to the Vega to 
look after the crc»|)s, exivpt about thirty, and with these he 
scouretl the rei;ion. He woultl not have had success by mere 
|H*rsiHt«*ni'y, but he p>t it by artifice and t readier}*. Doth Mayo* 
banex ami (luarionex were ItetrayiMl in their hidinj;-|dai*es and 
eaptuH'd. I'lenu^nry was shown to thi^r families and adherents, 
and they were relt*asotl ; but ImiiIi cat*i<]ui*s n*maini*«l in their 
bonds as hosta<;es for the maint4*nance of the <|uict which was 
now at la^^t in s«>me measure si^curtnl. 

Surh was the ouidition of affairs when Columbus ,40^ ^„. 
arrivotl and lu*anl the -%tory of these two tnnibled *"JJi^ J!**" 
3'ears and more during whieii he had U'en abst-nt. 


It wa*i thf t^hh of August wlien ('ohunbiis and his brother 
lamh^l at Santo I)«tui!ii;;i». There hati u«>t bi-i-n murii toencour- 
:i^ the A<Iniiral in this !«tory t»f the aiiti-«'iMlrnt events. No]Hir- 
t nival (if riot« tlis.<Mihiti<in, nipiui*, intrigue. an«l idleness c*ould 
iiur|i:iH<« what he s:iw and heard (»f the lH'«lra;;;:l(*4l ami im|H)V- 
«ri'*heil M'ttlenieut at NalK'ila. The ^tiires whieh lie had bnm^lit 
would lie hi*l|»ful in re^ti»ring eonfidentv and healtii ; but it wan 
A lourci* of anxiety to him tiiat nothing had lM>en heanl of the 
three caravels from whieli he had )i:irted ntT Ferm. 

The<M* ve<«s«<ls a|»]»eareil not long afterwanls. bringing a new 
|ieq>lexity. Fiireed by «*ui'n*nt*« whieh tiieir cn*ws did not un- 
derstand, tiiey liad l»«*«'ii earritHl we>t«*rlv, an«l had wandereil 
aluHit in tilt* unkn^iwii -«ea*t in S4*areh of Kspariola. A few days 
Urfiire n-aehin:; Santo |)iiiiiin:;ii, th«* siii|i<« ha«l aneiion^il off the 
t«*rrit«»rv of ll«>iieeliio, uhep' Ki»lil:in and his ftiljowers 
alrva«iv W'en*. Tin* uiiitiii«er<« i»b'H*rvi*d tlie a|»|»i-i»aeh uiruuud 
of tin* canivel**, ni»t i|iiit«- oiire of tlicir eliar.ieter, tiiink- 
io); |MMiiibly that tlie\ iiad lM*en dispatcheil agiiiuHt tlieir liand ; 


boldly went on board, and, ascertaining their coDdi- 
1 the address to represent tliat Le was stationod in 
to collect the tribute, and was in need of stores, 
niinitions. The commander of the vessel at once 
\: what he demanded ; and while this was going on, 
n ingratiated themselves with the company on board 
. and readily enlisted a part of them in the revolt 
LILTS, being some of the emancipated convicts whicli 
;id SO unwisely registered among his crews, were not 
iitice to a life of pleasure. By the time Koldan had 
-applies and was ready to announce his true charao- 
iit rei'tain how far the captains of the vessels could 
rc-ws. The chief of these commanders nndertook, 
.rst was known, to bring the revoltei-s back to thw 
: he argued in vain. The wind being easterly, and 
i^'ainst it to Santo Domingo being a slow process, it 

iirmed men by land to the new town. When he 
, the insidious work of the mutineers Itecame appai^ 
-ight of his party stood to hia command, and over 
■.1 over to the rebels, each with bis arms. The ovei^ 


him kick to tliity l>y offer of panlon from the Admiral. Ah 
H4HIII UH ItuIloAtor \\vx\v\\ of Itoltlairs arrival in tlit* r„i4miumi 
iiri«;lilM>rho(Ml, ho went out to nirct hini. Kohhuu ht>w- ***"^*'- 
ever, was in no mooil ti> sucrumh. His forct* hail grown, and 
MMne of tho h*adin<^ SjKiniards liacl lieen drawn towards him. 
S> he delie^l the Admiral in his s|NHH*hes, and 8i*nt him wonl 
that if he liad anv further eommunii*:itions to make to him thev 
shikuld be sent hy C'arvajaK for lie would tn*at with no other, 
(^olumhus, on nreivin^ this messap', and not knowinp^ how far 
till* iHrnspiraey lia<l exteiKhnl anion;: tlioM* alnnit him, onlerod 
out tilt* militarv fort*o of the si>tth*nieiit. There were not more 
than S4*venty men to res|M)nd ; nor did he feel mueh i*ontidcnce 
in half of these. Theiv In^iuj^ litth> ehaiKv of any turn of 
affairs for the U'tttT with whieh he could n*galc the ,1.^. orio- 
fi«>ven*i;nis Colunihus ordentl the waiting ships to sail, Iji'ii"^!^ 
mnd on OetoU-r 18 they put to S4»a. **»**^ 

The ships etirriinl two hitters which Columbus had written to 
Um* monarchs. In the (in<* h<* s|H)ke of his new ilis(H)veries, and 
of the views whieh had develo|K*d in his mind from the new 
phf n«>mena, as has aln*ady Inh^u n*pn*sented. ami promised that 
tiM* Adidaiitado hlioiild mn^ii lie dispatched with three caravels 
to make further fxplonitions. In the otlirr he re|H*at4Ml the 
Rtorv of events siiicr iir had landed at Santo I)oiiiin(>:o. He 
ur^tfl that K«ddan iui«:lit In* nM*allrd to ."^pain for i*xaniination« 
or that he mi^lit 1h* e«>minitt4'd t«i tlir (•u<*t4Kty of Carvajal and 
liallester to ih*t«*rniiiie the ftiundation (»f his ^rievaiuvs. At the 
mm«* time he n'(pi«*>ted that a furtlirr lic«>nM* Ih* given, to last 
two years, for the (*a])turc and tran«*mi'*sit»n of slavi*s. <-.,|„mi«« 
It wa* mit unlikriv that the cast* of Itoldan and his •»■»•*•"»»• 
abi*tt4irs was repre*i«*nted with (*qual confidence in other Irttem. 
for there wen* many hands among the pass4*ngers to whieh 
*Iiev c«>uld l>c c^oiilidt'd. 

The shi|»s );«iiir, tlir Admiral ^nivi* Iiims4*lf to tin* difficult task 

of |iaf*ifieatiii;; tl lony. The vig«»nMis rule i»f the i'.a„»i,^ 

Adilantado had maiji* rni'inii's who were to 1m* pn»pi- JI^Tit ii^ 
tiati*«I. thou;rh La^CiKaH till- ih that thr rule had •^'*'*y- 
l»e«>n strict no fartht-r th:iii tliat it had Is^en n«*t*essarily imper- 
ativf* in emerp*nrii>s. ( 'uliiinlius wn»t«* (»n (MoImt i!0 ,|.,, ^_ 
an ex|K>stulatory lftt»T tt» l\iiltlaii. To M-iid it by i'ar- •"•*'■■*■ 
vajal, as was nece<H:iry. if Koldaii was to n*i*t*ive it, would be to 


itiations to a person who was already committed ia 
> the reheYn \Aiin, or at least some of the Admiral's 
ncilors believed such to be tlie case, apparently too 
Liliimbus did not share that distrust, and Carvajal 
This letter crossed one from the leading rebels, in 
demanded from Columbus release from hia service, 
ed their determination to maintain independence, 
arvajal reached Bonao, where the i-ebels were gath- 
ed, — and Ballester had accompanied him, — their 
iiit persuasions had some effect on Roldan and otb- 
s, principal rebels ; but the followers, as a mass, ob- 
e leaders entering into any conference except under 
;uaranty of safety for tliem and those that should 
them. This message was accordingly returned to 
iiid Ballester at the same time wrote to him that the 
:ist making head ; that the garrisons were disaffected, 
by desertion ; and that the common people eould 
ted to stand by the Admiral if it came to war. He 
lefore. a speedy reconciliation or agreement of some * 
;;Tiaranty was sent, and Roldan soon presented him- 
\dmiral. The demands of the reliel and the prerog- 


oonplement of slaveB which other returning oolonirta had ; liberty 
(ur Buch w had them tu take their iiative wives, uid restorstioa 

of Kqoettcfvd property. K«»lilan ami his onmpMi- 
tona ugoed this Bf^><-iiifiit on Nova-nilHT 16, unci xiHati 
ap«ad to vmit ci^ht aInvM fur the iii-:ii:itt)n- of the 
AdainL Colnmbiu Migned it ou thu 'i\*i, and further granted 

of one kind or another to such as (.-hose to remain 

agreement, the ships were to be ready in fifty days, 
1^, in the disorganized state of the colony, found it 
■ avoid delays, and hia self-congratulations that be 
of the turbulent horde were far from warranted. 

■ this impression, and absent with the Adelantado, 
he posts throughout the island, and deciding how 
.A restore the regularities of life and business, the 
s which he had made for carrying out the agree- 
iiildan had sorely miscarried. Nearly double the 
le assigned to the preparation of the caraveU had 
]ised, when the vessels at last left Sauto Domingo 

■ Xaragua. A storm disabling one of them, there 
1 ther delays ; and when all were ready, the procrm- 
their outfit offered new grounds for dispute, and it 
et-essary to revise the agreement. Carvajal was still 

r. Koldau met the Admiral on a caravel, which had ' 
d Xaragua. The terms which Koldau now proposed ' 

■ should be permitted t/j send some of bis friends, 
umber, if be desired so many, to Spain; that those 


plaisant after he liatl mhmi the Aduiiral cringe before him. Gv 
hiiuUiis endeaviiretl, in making the grants of himls, to iM»|)arate the 
n*stortHl relH'ld as nuirh an be couKl. in onler to avoid the risks 
of c»tber mutinous combinations. He agrtHnl with the caciques 
that thcv shoukl be relievc<I from the onlinurv tribute of treas- 
urtr if tht'V woulil furnish these new grantiH*s with hiborers for 
their farms. Thus at the luimis of Cohimbus arose the begin- 
ning of that system of rrpartimltntnH^ with all its i^putimi- 
miseries f«»r the {MHir natives, which cnticil in their ex- *"'*^ 
terminatittn. The a|M»logists of Columbus consiiler that tlie 
exigencies of his situati(»n foivtnl him into these tiend- c.>iunbiM 
i.*»li •■nactments^and that he is n4»t to Ik* held rcs|K>usibie ■^•^•**^- 
for tht>m as «»f his fn*c will. They forget the expressions of his 
lir>it letter ti» Santangel, which pretigunnl all the misery which 
fell u)Min niyria«ls of these |NN)r cn*atures. The n*cortl, unfor- 
tunately, f«h«>ws that it was (\)liimbus who invariably KhI opin- 
ion in all these oppn*ssions. and not he who f«>ll«»we<l it. His 
artfulness never sprang to a new device so exult ingly as when 
it was a metluNi 4»f increa>ing the revenue at the cost of the 
natives. Wlien we n*ad. in the letter written to his M>ven»igns 
durint; tlii> absence, of his always impre*^>iiig on the nativt>s. in 
his intereoursc witli them, '* the eourte*^v and nobleness of all 
l*hri'«tians,*' we .slmildiT at th«> liolli»wiii*>s of the profession. 

Tile |N*rHonal deiiianilH nf Roldaii under tlie capitulation were 
aImi to U* met. They ineludeil restoration (»f lands ii.,i.|m>, 
whieh he ealli'd his own, new lands to In* granl*»<K the *''"**"•** 
•tt'M'king of tli«'m fnun the publir herd*« : an«l Cohimbus met 
them, at lca.<kt. until tlie grants >lioidil U* enntirme«l at (^)urt. 
Thin was not all. Koldan viMt4*«l Kiinao, .ind made one of his 
late lieutenants an as<«iMant ak*alde, — an a>sumption of the 
|Hiwer i»f ap|N»intuient at whieh Cohnnbus was iifFended, as 
-ome tell us : but if the Histin'ir is to U* de|)endi*<l «m, the 

ap|M>intment invited ni» unfavorable (*<»mment fn»in ('olumbus. 
When it was found that this new oftiiMT was building a struc- 
ture listennibly for farm pur|»iis4>s, but f»f a «'liaract«*r more like 
A fortrv!%s, suitable for >ome new mutinv to rallv in, Columbus 
at last ri><«e on his diiriiitv and fi»rba4le it. 

In ()cti>U»r, 14W, tlie Admiral di!«patehe<l two ,1*19 oe. 
arris to S|Kiin. It did not seem s:ife for him to em- ^umiuT 
bark in them, though he felt his presence was needetl ^^^^ 


coutiteract the mischief of his enemies anil Roldaa'a 
lime of the hitter went in the ships. The most tw 
iitld do was to trust his cause to Miguel Ballester 
xl Garcia de Barrautes, who embarked as his repie- 
■iitatives. Tliey bore his letters to the monarcha. In 

the capitulation with Roldan, and begged their 
o treat it as given under coercion, and to bring the 
rial. He then mentioned what otlier assistants he 
^'overning the colony, such as a learned judge and 
et councilors. He ended with asking that his son, 
lit he spai-ed from Court to assist him. 

olumbuB was making these requests, he was ignorant 
' the way iu which the Spanisli Court had alreadj 
,:ide serious trespasses upon his prerogatives as Ad- 
iral uf the Indies. He had said in his letter to the 
■vereigns, " Your Majesties will determine on what ii 
■ in consequence of these new discoveries at Paris. 
m to become painfully conscious of what waa done. 
lie real hero of Columbus's second voyage, Alonso ile 


The iihips were fitted out at Seville in the early part of 1499, 
and some men, faiuouM in thene years, made part of the oom- 
{lany which sailetl on them. There was Americus Ves- v««pociiM 
puciiis, who was seemingly now for the first time to "'^ *^***^ 
embark for the New World, since it is likely that out of this very 
expedition the alleged V(»yage of his in 1497 has been made to 
ap|war bysome |M*r version of chronohigy. Tliere was j^^^i, 
Juan de la 0>sa, a famous hydrognipher, who was the ^^'^ 
com|)anion of Columbus in his second Cuban cruise. Irving 
fuivs that he was with Columbus in his first vova£:e : but it is 
thought that it was another of the same name who api)ears in 
the registers of that ex|MHlition. Several of those who had re- 
turned from Kspafuila after the Paria cruise of C olumbus were 
also cnlistiHl, auii amoni' them liarthohmiew Koldan, 

.... 1490 Mav 

the pihit of that earlier Heet. Tlie ex|>e4lition of Ojinla 'in. o>«te 

sailed May 20, 1499. They made land 200 leagues 
emst of the UrimH*o, and then, guided by Columbus's charts, the 
shi{Hi foUowiMl his tnu*k through the SeqK*nt's and the Dragou*s 
Mouths. TluMice i>as.sing Margarita, they sailed on towartis the 
mimntains which Columbus hati set>n, and finally entertni a gidf, 
wh4.*re they saw M>mc pile dwellings of the nativrs. They ao- 
Ci»rdingly namcil the basin Venezuela, in reference to ^^ y^ 
the great sea-built city of the Adriatic. It is note- '■**'^ 
worthy that Oj^nla, in n'|M>rting to tlicir Majesties an account of 
this voyage, ssiys that he met in this neiglilNirhcMNi Mime Eng- 
lish vessels, an exiK'dition whii*h may have l»een instigated by 
(^abot*s success. It is to Ite iibsiTved. at the same time, that 
chis is the only authority which we have for such an early visit 
of the Knglish t4) this vicinity, anil tin* statement is not ered- 
ited by Riddle, Help, and other recent writers. Ojeda turned 
eaatwmnl not long aft4*r, having run short of provisions. He 
then approached the prohibit4.Hl Filsimdola, and ho|HHl to elude 
DoCace while foraging at its west4*m end. 

It was while here that Ojtnla's <*aravels were seen and tidings 
of their presence were tninsinitt«Nl to Santo l>omingo. Igno- 

of what he hail t4» deal witli in these intniders 

of the n^asouH wlii(*h made it out of the ciues- j^j^ts. 
lion for Colunibu4 to r«*tiirn to Spain in th«* shijw J]|"*J[|^ 
whieh be hail dis|>ateh«Mi in ()et<»lH*r. Ojeda ha<l ai>- 

tbe ciK\>\ <m S*|)tendier />, 1499, and as succeeding 


M to CoIuQibus, it was divulged that Ojeda wa« in 
nd that he was euttiug dyewoods thereabouts. 

the time to heal the dissousions of Iloldaii, aad to 
vo him a i-baDce to recover bis reputatioD. So the 
hniral selected" his late bitter enemy to manage the 
I'K'ditioii whii'Ii he thought it necessary to dispatch to 
lioldau sailed in command of two caravels on Sep- 
nd, approacliing uDobserved the place where Ojeda's 
it anchor, he lauded wit!) twenty-live men, and sent 

They soon reported tliat Ojeda was some distance 
lis ships at an Indian village, making cassava bread. 
1 of the approach, but not in time to prevent Boldim 
\\een him and his ships. The intruder met him 

he was on an exploring expedition, and bad put in 
. and that if Roldan would come on board his ships, 
ow his license signed by Fonseca. When Roldao 
;ird, he saw the document, lie also learued from 
ked with iu the sliips — and tliere were among them 

he knew, and some who had been in EspaSola— 
ijiiiral'a name was in disgrace at Court, and there 
nt danger of his being deprived of his command 


fiMvd U> giw him up, Ojeda watched hi» opportunity and seized 
two of Uolihin's men to hold an hostages. S«) the two wary ud- 
vrnturcrs watched each other for an atl vantage. After a while, 
Ojtnla, in his shi|>s, stood down the coast. Koldan followed 
alon;; the shore. Coming up to where the ships were anchored, 
U4ildan induced Ujetia to send a boat ashore, when, by an arti- 
fice*, he capturetl the boat and its crew. This game of strata- 
g«*mH ended with an agreement on Ujeda's |>art to leave the isl- 
and, while Uoldan n*stored the captive iMiat. The prisoners were 
exelian;^fii. Ujeda bore off shons and though Uoldan heard 
of Iua landing ugsiin at a distant |M>int, he was gone when the 
pursuers n*ai*hiHl the spot. Las C'asas says that Ojeda made 
for stinie islands, when* he t*onipleUHl his lading of i.^t. jm. 
sLiveH, and 8i*t sail for Spain, arriving at Cadiz in ||2||^ 
June, 1500. <^*^ 

While Columbus was congratulating himself on being well 
rid of this dangennis visitor, he was not at all aware of the 
uneontrolluble eagenu^ss which the joyous n*|>orts of |H*arls had 
ens:endere<l in the adventurt>tm spirits of the Spanish seniM>rt«. 
Among Hurh ini|i:itient s:iilors was the pilot, IV^Iro 
AltuiHo NiA(», wlio had aiH*<un|):inied (\»hinkbus on his actioUm 
tir»t voyage, and had also but nM*eiitly rrtiirnrd from 
tin* Paria c<iaj<it« having lNM*n likewJMf nith the Aduiind on his 
thinl vova*^*. lie found Konsi'ea as ^iIlin•^ if onlv the(*rown 
oiuld have its shan*, as ()je<Ia hail f«iiind him. anil jn!«t as for- 
getful of the vested ri;;htrt of C«»Iinn)uis. So the liivnse was 
grantfttl only a few days after that given to ()ji*<la. and of sim- 
ilar im|iort. Niflo, lM*ing a poor man, sought the aid onm* sida 
of Luis (fuerra in fitting out a small caravel of only '*'*' 
fifty tons ; and in i*<Misideration of this assistance, (tuerra's 
brotlier, (*ristoval, was pI:i4*«Nl in command, with a crew, all told, 
of thirty-three souls. They sailiHl from Palos early in June, 
1491^ ami were only fifteen days lN*liind ()j«*da f»n the coast. 
TtM*y had scmie eniNinn tern and s<mie festiviti«*H with the natives; 
bat they studiously att«*nde«l to their main object of bartering 
for pearls, ami when they n':ii*h«*d Spain on thi*ir nrturn in 
ApriL 1500, and laid out th«* Hlian*s for the IVown, for (luem, 
asd for the crew, of tin* rich stores of |N*arls which they luul 
men said. ** II«*re at last is one voyage to the new 

f ^H 


11 which Monie adequate return w got." And so tha 
iLsurate jiroduct of the lodiea, iustead of sa\-iug the 
iluiubus, filled the pockets of au interloping adveo- 

•TG considerable undertaking of the same illegitimatB 1 
Liu-acter was that of Vicente Yailez Pinzon, the com- ' 
inioii of Columbus on his first voyage. Leaguing ' 
Lth him a number of the eeatneii of the Admiral, ' 
line of his pilots on his last voyage, Pinzon fitted oat | 
iir caravels, which sailed neai' the beginning of D* , 
[nber, 1499. not far from the time when Cohimbui 
.as thinking, because of the flight of Ojeda, that an 
last coming to these intrusions within his prescribed 
on was not so much influenced by greed as by som». 
:<t spirit which had led him to embark with Columr 
::, the geniiiue eagerness of the explorer. He was 
do what Columbus had been prevented from doing 
use heat and by the demoralized condition of hia 
ilce the New WoAA in the equatorial latitudes. So 
- stood boldly southwest, and crossed the equator, 


t-ariy an t\w previouM June (1499) Ojetia had niacle hiM laiid- 
fali just as far U) the east. Piiizon ttiok i^ossession of ^^^^i^ 
the iN)iiiitr\\ ami then, sailing north, passtnl the mouth ''°'^' 
of the Aiiiajson, ami foiiml that even out of sight of land he could 
ri'plenisii his water-i*asks from the How of fresh waters, which 
the great river |N>ured inUi the tK*ean. It did not occur to his 
|»raetii*al uiind, as it had under similar cireunistanees to Colum- 
l»U!i, that he was drinking the waters of Panulise ! 

Uea^'iiiug the (lulf of Paria, PiuKou |KisHed out into the Carib- 
Immu Sea, and touched at KsimiV>la in the latt4*r rart 
of •lune, 1/)U0. PnK*ee«ling thenci* to the Lucayan rtiuMifti 

Inlands, two of his caravels were swalhiwed up in a 
g;ile. and the other two dis;il>led. The n*maining shi|Mi crossed 
to KspaAola t«> retit, whence s:iiling once more, they n„^|,^ 
rvachi^tl l*al»>s in Si*pU»uiber, 1500. Slilbir!''*' 


Meanwhile, following Pinzon, Diego de Le{)e, sailing also 
fnnn Palos with two caravels in flanuary, ir>00. tracked j^^ j„. 
the c«Kist fnim U-low Cape St. Augu.Htine northwunl. JUIYJ-J*!"^ 
He was the Hr'«t t4) double this ca|Hs as he ^llowL'd in **'^*<'- 
the map wliirh he made for Fonsci'a, and (i«iing >o he saw the 
OKiSt >tn*U*hini; ahead to the south wi*st. Frmn tliis time South 
America pn*s«'nts 4»n the charts tlii*^ r>talili*«lii'd tr«*nd of the 
coci>t. iIunilH»l«It thinks that I >iegi» touched at Hspailola before 
returning to Spain in •lunc, ITiOO. 

We mu'«t now ri*turn ti> the furtluT exphiration of the Por^ 
tuguese by the African route, for we hav*- ivached a PnriuffnrM 
|ieri«Ml when, by :uvident and U'cause of the revised IJ'ihl'ifJJ? 
line of dcnian*ation, the Portuguese* pursuing that '*»'f*'**»* 
nHit«» aitpiired at the s:inie tinie a ri;:ht on the American coast 
«hi«'h they have sinct* maintaint*4l in Hra/il, as against what 
Hevm4 to have Im'cu a little earlier diM'overy of that coa>t by 
PinXfin, in the vova;:i' alrc:idv mentioned. 

In the vear folhi.tini; thi* return to LisUin of W\ (iania with 
tht* marvelouH >t«»rv of tlie Afri«'an rout** to India, the Portu- 
giievt* government wrn* pronipt«*il naturally eiiiiUL:h to est^iblish 
more firinlv thi'ir comni«'rri:d n*l:ition<« \iith (\ilicut. Thev ac- 
ronlingly Htt«Hl tnit thriM* **hip<t t4» niaki* trial lUice more of the 
Tuyage. Tlie 4*omiiiand wa.^ ^tvcn to IVdro Alvan*z('abral, and 


placed under him Diaz, who had first ronnded the 
:, and Coelho, who ha<I accompanied Da Gama. The 
[pedition sailed on March 9, 1500. Leaviug the 
ape de Verde Islands, Cabral shaped his course more 
in Da Gama liad done, because of instructionB which 
rawn np for him. Perhaps it was to avoid the calms 
t of Guinea ; perhaps to avoid breasting a storm ; and 
ay have been only to see if any land lay thitherward 
the great line of demarcation. Whatever the motive, 
le fleet wait brought on Aprd 22 opposite an emi- 
jnce, which received then the name of Monte Pascoal, 
id is to-day, as then it became by right of discovery, 
Portuguese limits of South America, the Liand of 
!)rosfl, aa he named it, Vera Cruz ; later, however, to 
s changed to Santa Cniz. The coaat was examined, 
id in the bay of Porto Seguro, on May 1, formal 
if the country was taken for the crown of Portugal 
t a caravel back with the news, eicpreased in a letter 
by Pedro Vaz de Caminha. This letter, which b 
le day jvossession was taken, was first made known by 
-1 discovered it in the archives at Lisbon. It was not 


back t<> Portugal^ eh alreaAly relaU*(l, Hays April 22. The ques- 
tion w«iukl be a trifliiij^ one, an Humboldt suggestis 
«*xiv|)t that it bears iiiHin the question of juHt where 
this forttiitouH lamifall was nuule, involving estimates of dis- 
t:nuv saiknl liefore Cabral entei-ed the harbor of Porto Segaro. 
It is |»n>buble tliat this was at a point a hundred and seventy 
i«':i;;iies simth of the s|H)t reai'hed earlier (January, 1500) by 
Piiizim and De 1j<*|m*. Yet on this |><»int there are s«>me differ- 
fnri's «»f opinion, whi(*li an' reeapitnhitiMl by llnmlioldt. 

The most impartial critics, however, a^nn* with Humboldt 
in ^ivin;; Pin24»n the leaii. if nnt to tin* ext4*nt of the r«hraind 
fort\-4'i;;ht days U^fore Cabral left Lisbcm, as Hum- *'*"*^ 
Uildt (N intends. 

If Ikirros is <*ornH*t in his deductions, it was not known on 
ImkidI of Cabnd*s fleet that (\»himl)us liad aln\idv discovered in 
tilt* Paria re;:i«>n what he sup|)ose<l an extension of the Asiatie 
main. The tirst conclusion of the Portuguese natuntlly was 
tliat they had stumbltMl either on a new grtmp of islands, or 
|ierlia|»s on some outlying memlN*ni of the group of the Antilkv. 
Of c«>nn*e nothing was known at the time of the discoveries of 
Pinzi»n and I««*|M'. 

It has often b4H*n n*markeil that if Cohnnbus had not sailed 
in 141^2. (^ibnd won hi have revealed America in 1 .VK). It is a 
striking fat't that the Portuguese* had pursued their quest for 
India with an intelIigi*niH* and pn*s€*ieii«*e which pM»graphical 
truth (*<»nfinno<l. The Simnianls w«>nt their wav in _ 
em»r, and it UwXi them nearlv ihirtv vears l*i And a n«ti»Ai- 
n>ute that (*<»ui4l bring them when* they couki defend 
at the antiiKxh*s their rights untler the Hull of I)4*man*ation. 
C\diimbus sinight India and found America withiuit knowing it. 
C*abnd, iMMimi Uw the ('a|)«' of (iinnI Ho|h% stumMeil u|Mm 
limzil, and pn>emptei1 th«» shan* of Portugal in the New Wtirld 
WLs I>a Ciania Ii:lh airi>adv s«s'unHl it in Asia. Thus the Afrii*an 
rout4* H'vealed lH>tli (*athay and America. 

For theiie vnya«ves connnin;^lini; with thos4> of Columbus alongf 
Ch«* 4naivs of t?ie (*aril»lM>:in Sea, we c«'t the Uwt in- _ _. 
formation, all tliin;rs c<iii<>idfnH|, fnun the te«itim<mi(^ ihi. u«. 
of the partici|uints in them, which wen» r«*nden*<l in 
ihm CaouHis lawsuit which the Crown wage<l against the heirs of 


the vipiette of St. CliriHtopher bearing the infant Christ may 
|K>ft!«ihly liavo been, an it has iionu*timoa been held to bt*, a di- 
rect reference to La CoHa*8 coumiander, who luay be supposed 
in tliat case to have been aec|uainted with the coniplitnent paid 
hini, and conse«|iiently with the niap*s record of the Cabots. 

\VlH*ther La Cosa understoiMl the natives better than Co> 
hitubus, or whether he had information uf which we have no 
r«Ht>nl, it is certain tliat within two years rumor or fact brought 
it to the knowledge of the i\irtugiiose that the westerly end of 
Ciilia lay contiguous to a continental shore, stretching to the 
ui>rth, in much the |H>sition of the eastern seaboard of the 
I'nitetl StuU^s. This is manifest from the Cantino 
map, which was si*nt from Lislnin to Italy before 
November, loU^, and which prefigunHl the so-calliHl Admiral*! 
map <»f the Ptolemy of 1«'>13. There will be occasion to di»> 
cuss later the overH*onfidcnt dictum of Stevens that this sup> 
ImmkhI North American coast was simply a duplicated Cuba, 
tuniiMl north and south, and stn^tching fn>m a warm region, as 
the S|»aniartU knew it, well up into the frozen north. Cosa^s 
map seems to have cxerto<l little or no inHueni*e on the earliest 
printMl nia|>s of the New World, and in this it differs from the 
I'antino map. 

We kn«iw not what unoxiHH.*t4Hl developments may further 
have sprung from obsi^urc and furtive explonitions, which were 
DOW lieginning to be iMininion, and 4if wliich the reconi Minor •«. 
is often m>thing more than an infen»nec. Stories of p****^**'^ 
g«>kl and |H*arls wen* great inc«>ntives. The age was full of a 
spirit of private ailventure. The voyages of Ojeda, NiHo, and 
Pinion were but the more conspicuous. 




... -EL^. 


to & 









The tiefection of Roldan tumeil so completely into servility 
is hut one of the strange contrasts of the wonderful course of 
vicissitudes in the life of Oduiubus. There presently canie a 
new trial for him and for Uoldan. A young well-bom S{»an- 
iani, Fernando de Gucvani^ had ap|>eared in Espa- cohimbiM 
fi«»la recently, and by his dissolute life he had created *^ »<»"»»»• 
Kurh scandals in Santo Domingo that Columbus liad ordered 
him to leave the islan<l. He luul been sent to Xa- 
nigiia to eml>ark in one of ( )jtHla\s shi|>s ; but that 
adventurer had U*ft the iN»ast when the outhiw reached the 
{M>rt. While waiting another opportunity to embark, Guevara 
was kept in that part of the island under Koldan*s eye. This 
impliiHl no such restraint as to deny him aci*ess to the society of 
Ana4*aomi, with whose daugliter, Higuamota, who si^ns to have 
inlM'riu*<l something of her mother*s commanding AaftrMm«*a 
lM*auty and ment;d <|ualities, he fell in love, and found ^**«**»**'- 
his |>assi(in recpiitiHl. lie sought com|Kmionship also with one 
of the lieutenants of Uhldau, wiio had been a leailer iu his 
late revolt, Adrian de Moxiea, then living nut far A.irmn*!* 
awav, who had for him the additioiud attachni(*nt «if ^*'^^** 
kinship, for the two ^'^re cousins. Las Cas;is tfUn us that 
Koldan had himself a passion for the young Indian bt*auty, and 
it niav have lM*en for this as well as f«ir his di'sin* to obev the 
Admiral that he e(mimand(Ml tiie y«>uiig cavalier to go to a more 
distant provini^i*. The anient l«>v«*r h:ul S4>ught to prepan* his 
way for a s|>eedy marriage l»y trying to procure a priest Uy liap- 
tixe the maiden. This cau>e<l mort* urgent commands from 
Koldan, which W(*re ost4*ntatiouslv oIm^vimI, oulv to Ix* eluded bv 
a clamiestine return, when he was s^'reemnl with some asso- 
ciates in the Iioum* of Anacaon;i. This queenly woman seems 
to have favored his suit witii her daughter. lie was once more 
onIerr<l away, when lie l>eg:in to b4*ar himself defiantly, but s«M>n 
changtpd his metluMl to suppliaiicy. Itiildan was ap|)eastHl by 
this, (iuevani, however. «»nly nuule it the clo,ik for revenge, 
ami with some of \\\> friends formetl a plot t4> kill Koldan. 
This leaked out, and the youth and his accomplices were ar- 
rt-%t««l and sent t4> Santo Domingo. This action antitsiHl Kol- 
dan's okl i*<»nfe<lerat4>. Moxiea, and, indignant at the way in 
which the renegaile reU*! had ilaretl to turn u|H)n his former asso- 
ctatea, Moxiea resolved u|N)n revenge. To 4*arry it out h«* started 


\ The well-known map of Juan du la Cosa posts as 
I'St on the cai-tographical results of these same voy- 
s up to the summer of 1500. 

as, BA Las Casas called him, tlie best of the pilots 
J and thei'e is a story of his arrogating to himself S 
|to Colunibus, liVen. 

returiietl to Spain with Ojeda in June, 1500, 

in in October with Bastidas, this fainons map 

litly made in that interval, since it purports m an 

Ito have been drafted in 1500. In posting the geo- 

liiuwledge which he had acquired up to that date, Ls 

■ upon his own experiences in the voyages which he 

, made with Columbus (1493-96), and with Ojeda 

It is to be regretted that we have from his 

liter draft, for his experience in these seas was long 

}, since he accompanied Bastidas in 1500-2, led ex- 

■ his own in 1504-6 and 1507-8, and went again 

I in 1509. 

indeed, does not seem to have improved his map oa 

liL'nt date, and that he puts down Cape St, Augoft- 

t another proof of that headland being seen 

in 1500, and that news of its discovery had 



14S97. making the circuit of the Gulf of Mexico, had established 
the insularity of Cuba. Few modem scholars, it is fair to say, 
arcept Vamhagen*s theories. It became a question, after Hum- 
boldt had maile the La Ctma chart public in 1888, how its maker 
had got the information of the insularity of Cuba. Humboldt 






eooTiDced that thonf;h a " complaopnt witnem " to Colum- 
Imu'b ridieiiloas notarial tramuu'tiun daring bin aecnnd Tojage, 
La Gita had dared to toll tlu> truth, even at the small risk of 
baring his tonpic ptilliHl out. 

The Admiral's bi'liff. )M>Ut4>re<1 after his own fashion bj sub- 
orning his crew, wxh far from bviii}; acccpttnl by all. 


d, and readily eagaged their sympathies. Among 
.ise who joined b his plot was Pedro Riquelme, 
[111 had made assistant alcalde. The old spirit of 
rampant. The confederates wei-e ready for any 

■oi)tion in the midst of the aroused district, when a 
[ji the plotters informed him of their plan. With a 
the Admiral at ouce sped in the night to the un- 
i;irded quarters of the leadei-s, and Moxica and aer- 
:d of hin chief advisers were suddenly captured and 
l!ie fort. The execution of the ringleader was at 

in his confessions to a priest, Columbus oi-dered him 
Hong from the battlements. The French canoniats 
inbns for this act by making Roldan the perpetrator 
other confederates were ironed in confinement at 

except Riquehne, who was taken later and conveyed 

■it was thus summarily crushed. Those who had 
to Xaragua, whither tlie Adelantado and Koldaa 


troublutis times to mquire intu than those named id 
Wliile the commissioner remained on board bis 
iiig tlie court of those who early sought to propiti- 
■\ while he was getting his first iuforiiiation of the 
" the isl:iud, maiiily from those who bad something 
he excess of their denunciations, it is necessary to 
ittle in time, and ascertain who this important per- 
;md what was the mission on which be bad been 

ugemeuts for sending him ba<l been made slowly. 
iiey were even outlined when Ojeila had started on 
s voyage, for be had, in his interviews with Koldan, 
indly indicated that some astonishment of this sort 
:is in store. Evidently Fouseea had not allowed 
■part without some intimations. 

lauding Columbus professed to belJcvo that nothing 
It the lack of pecimiarj- return for the great outlays 
his expeditions could be allegeil against them, he 


n*|)eaUHl storieH of tho wonderful richness of the region had done 
tlii*ir work. His professions of a puqiose to enrich the Hbouaw. 
world with noble benefactions, and to spend his treas- t^T^STii*^^^ 
un» on the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, were tho *^*»'**^ 
vain boastings of a man who thought thereby to enroll his 
name among the l>enef actors of the Church. He did not per- 
4-t*ive tluit the popuLice would wonder whence these 
n»sourccH were to como, unless it was by defrauding '^c^ktmihm 
the Crown of its stiare, and by amassing gold while 
they could not get any. There is something ludicrous in the 
ex(*uM> which ho lattT gave for concealing from the sovereigns 
his ac'cumulation of pearls. He felt it sufficient to say that 
he thought he would wait till he could make as good a show 
of gidd ! There wen* some things that even lifteenth-century 
Christians held to be more Ka(*reil tlian wresting Jerusalem 
from the Moslem, and tii(*se wen> money in hand when they 
had earncil it, and foiMl to eat when their misfortunes had beg- 
gared their lives. It w:is not an uncsUletl-for strain on their 
loyalty t4> the Crown, when the noti(m prevailed that the sov- 
rpeigns skiul their favorite were giithering rirlu»s out of their 
des|)air. There was littlt* to lie wonderiMl at, iu the crowd of 
tbe!S4» hungry and debilitated victims, waihlcring aU>ut the 
courts of the Alhambra, u!i«U»r the royal windows, ancl o»iimitni«*« 
cbunoring for their pay. Then* was nothing to lie rrin^hi.'**^ 
surprised at in the htM>tingH that fi»llowt»<l the Ad- ^***^*''^ 
mirarit sons, pages of the CjutH'U, if they ])ass4'd within sight 
of lhcs«» cmbittcrctl thnuigs. 

It was quite cvitlcnt that Fer<linan<l, who had never warmed 
to tin* Admiral's enthusiasm, had l«mg l>een (*onscious tliat in 
tht* exclusive mul cxU*nde<l ])owers which had been 
Xiven t4> I «>luml)us a serious ailmuustrative blunder nrnt^^mtd 
IumI U*tMi maile. He said as much at a later day to 
Punee de Lc«>n. 

The Quci*n liail U^cn faithful, but the recurrent charges hatl 
given of late a wn*nch to her constancy. Was it not certain 
that something must Ik* wntii;;;, or thes4* accusations would not go 
on inrn«asing? ll:u\ not the great dis<*ov4'n*r fultiUed his mis- 
skm when he unveiled a new worM ? Was it quite sure that 
the ability to govern it went alon;; with the gi*nius to tind it / 
Time were the <piestionH which Ual>ella lN*gan to put to her- 


utered the river, the gibbets ou either bank, with 
iig Spaniai-ds, showed the commissiooer that there 
roubUma times to inquire iutu thau those named in 
While the commissioner remained on board his 
iig the court of those who early sought to propiti- 
il while he was getting his fii'at information of the 

the isLiud, mainly from those who had something 
!ie excess of their denunciations, it is necessary t.) 
ittic in time, and ascertain who this important per- 

and wliat was the mission on which he had been 

iigementa for sending him had been made slowlj. 
ley were even outlined when Ojeda had started on 
? voyage, for he had, in his interviews with Roldan, 
indly indicated that some astonishment of this sort 
IS in store. Evidently Fonseea had not allowed 
part without some intimations. 

landing Columbus jirofessed to believe that nothing 
It the lack of pecuniary return for the great outlan 
his exi)eilitious c.iuld W alleged against them, he 
is well aware, and he had constantly acted as if well 


n*|)eaUHl stories of the wonderful richnes!} of the region had done 
tlii*ir work. His profeiuiions of a purix>He to enrich the Hi.«uffnr. 
world with noble benefactions, and to si)ond his treas- tl^h*^^^ 
un» on the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, were the "**»'"^ 
vain bo:istiiigs of a nuui who thought thereby to enroll his 
name among the Iwnefaetors of the Church. He did not per- 
ceive tliat the popuLice woald wonder whence these 
n»sources were to come, unless it was by defrauding «*«*4»««ifc« 
the Crown of its sliare, and by anuuising gold while 
thev could not get any. There is something ludicrous in the 
ext*us(* whieii ho lattT gave for inmeealing from the sovereigns 
his ac'oumulation of |K^arls. He felt it sufficient to say that 
he thought lie would wait till he eould make as good a show 
4»f gold ! There wen' some things that even Hfteentli-century 
Christians held to be more sa(*red tlian wr(*sting Jerusalem 
from the Moslem, and these were money in hand when they 
had earntNl it, and fcxMl to eat when their misfortunes had l>cg- 
garetl their lives. It was not an une:Uleil-f«)r strain on their 
loyalty to the Cn>wn, when the notion prevaile<l that the so%'- 
rrvigns an«l their favorite were g:ithering rirlu»s out of their 
«les|>air. There was litth* to Im* wondennl at, in tht* crowd of 
tbeM* hungry and debilitatcHl virtiiiis, wandering alxmt the 
courts of the Alhambra, un«ler the niyal win4lows, and c«iunitni«*« 
clamoring f«»r their pay. Then' was nothing t4) Ixj Tt^'mthi.'**^ 
j^urprisetl at in the h<K>tings that followeil the Ail- ^""^^^ 
luirars sons, pages of the CjutH*n, if they ]iaHS4Hl within sight 
of ihesi* embitteretl thn>ngs. 

It was «|uit4* evitlent that Ferdinand, who had never warmed 
to tin* AilmiraFs enthusiasm, had Kmg l>een i*onscious that in 
tht* exelusive ami extemlinl iiowers which had bcc^n 
Xiven t4i \ olumbus a serious ailministrative blunder ctmt^mtd 
ha4l bi*en niaile. He saiil as much at a later day to 
Punee de Ije<m. 

Tlie Que4*n hail lH»en faithful, but the recurrent <»harges hatl 
given of late a wn'ueh to hi»r <*onstaney. Was it not certain 
that something must lie wntni;, or tlies<» accusations would not go 
oo inrn*asing? Had not the gn*at d is<*ove re r fulfilled his mis- 
skm when lie unveiled a new world ? Was it tpiite sure that 
the ability to govern it W4'nt along with the genius to tind it ? 
Therte were tlie (piestion^ which l<^l>ella In^gan to put to her- 


was not a person to hesitate at anything, when cod- 
itioii came. She Iiad shown this in the treatment 

the Jews, of the Moore, and of other heretics. The 
invictiou that Columbus was not equal to his trust 
iiiiiig to her. The news of the serious outbreak of 
uklan's conspirdcy brought the matter to a test, and 

the spring of 1499 the purpose to send out some 
je with almost unlimited powei-s for any emergeni-j 
1 upon. Still the details were not worked out, and 

occurrences in the internal iind external afFaita 
lat required the prior attention of the sovereigns. 

the news of Columbus's success in finding a new 
\calth in the pearls of Paria may have had some- 

with the delay. When the ships which carried to 
wd of Roldan's followers arrived, the question todt ■ 
;rest. Columbus's friends, Ballester and Barrantes, 
iw found their testimony could make little head- 
;iy against the crowd of embittered witnesses oa 
ic other side. Isabella, besides, was forced to see 
cs that Colurnbtis had sent by the same ships some- 
obstinato o])position to her own wishes. Las Casas 


U'led. He was Franciiioo de Bobadilla, an officer of the royal 

IWfore cliHcIosing what Bobaclilla did in Santo Domingo» it is 
beiit tu try to KutI out what he was expected to do. 

There is no [wrsou connected with the career of Columbus 
— hanlly excepting Fonseca — more generally defamed than 
tliin man, who was, nevertheless, if wc may believe HtochuM- 
Uvitnlu, a verj' honest and a very religious man. The ^' 
hi>torians of Cohimbus need to mete out to Bobadilla what 
very few have done, the same measure of palliation which they 
are more willing tu U»stow on Cohnnbus. With this parallel 
justiiv, it may Iw tliat he will not bear with dis(.*redit a com- 
IHirison with Culunibus himself, in all that makes a man's 
ainions excusablo under provocation and responsibility. An 
intltH*«*ncy of haste may come from an excess of zeal quite as 
WfU as from an unbridleil virulence. 

It may lie in some ways a question if the conditions this man 
was sent to correct were the n*sult of the weakness or inadapt^ 
bility of Columbus, or merely the outcome of ein*umstaneefl« 
i'nuu;;h bevond his (*<»ntn)I to allow of exeuses. There is« how- 
t-ver, no question that the S|K& (govern uient hail iluties to 
perform towanis itsc^lf and its subjt*ets whieh made it proiv- 
vrly disinelined t4> jeo|)unliz(* the interests uhieh ai*company 
sui'ii duties. 

Iii>lKidilla WTis, to 1h> sure, invest 4>d with dan<;en>us |M>wers, 
but not with mon* dunp*i-oii> ones tliuu (*oIuuibus a>h»tiDa*B 
biniM'lf hail |K>ssesS4sl. When two sueh |)ers4mati<»ns •"••'^ 
of unbridled authority <*ome in anta^ni>ni, the i)oss4»ssor of the 
{greater authority is sure to eontirm hinis(*lf by tNunmensurate 
rxai*tiuns u|n>ii the other. Itob;idilla*s iHmimission was an im- 
plie«l warrant to that end. lie nii;;ht have l»ei*n more prudent 
of hi;* own state* and sliouhl have renieml»ered tliat a tnist of the 
Dalure of that with whieh ht» was investeil was sure to lie made 
aceountabli* t4> tlios«* who ini|Kirt4*4l to him the jMiwer, and [ler- 
hsk\r* at a time when tlii*y eli4»s4^ to almndon their own instruo- 
titHiH. lie ou^ht t<» liavi* known that sueh an aliandonment 
cvmi^ venk' easy to all p)Vi>rnm(*iits in emei^i*neies. lie might 
haw l««*n more eonsiiliTuti* of the man whom S{)ain had so ns 
rt-ntly flattered, lb* r«h«»iili| not have forgotten, if almost ever}'- 
bfiiU eljM! Ikad.that the Athnind had given a new world to Sixain. 



not have been unuiindful, if almost every one elfle 
is new world was a delusion now, but migbt dissolve 
ic vision. But all this was rather more than human 
capable of in an age like tliat. It in to be said of 
i;it when he summoned Columbus to Santo Domingo 
:i-d him guilty, he bad shown no more disregard of a 
, which he was sent to regukte, than Columbus had 
fi.r a ileluded colony, when he Belfiahly infected it 
lison of the prisons. It must not, indeed, be fop- 
the strongest sup])ort of tlie new envoy oame from 
inent.s of vice which Columbus had implanted in 

IS forced to give a condemnation of his own act 
K'u he urged the sending of such as are honorably 
at the country may be peoi)Ied with honest men." 
■^ tells ufi of Bobatlilla that his probitj- and di8inte^ 
■re such tliat no one could attack them. If it be 
t-ritj' to decide between the word of Las Casas and 
n estimates of virtue and honest^', there is no quee- 
lesult. When Bobadilla was selected to be sent to 
•panola. there was every reason to choose the most 


A Hvnopftis of the {wwers c^onfided to BobadiUa in writing 
n<^Mls to bo prc8ent<Ml. They begin with a letter of boIwiiiia** 
Man'Ii 21, 1499, referring to reports of the KoMan ^^^^ 
iuNiirnvtion, and directing him, if on inquiry he finds any per- 
lions <'ul|>uble, to arrest them and setiuestrate their effects, and 
to 4*all uiK)n the Adminil for assistance in carrying out these 
onlerH. Two months hiti*r. May 21, a circuhtr hotter was 
f nimed and a«Klressed to the magistrate's of the islands, which 
!^r«*ms to liave l>eon intended to ac^criHlit Itol»adilla to them, if 
tilt* A<hniral should l>e no longer in command. This onler gave 
notit^t* t4> thest^ magistniti's of the full {xiwers which luul l>een 
given t4i Itohaililla in civil and criminal jurisdiction. Another 
order of the s:une date, aAhln'sse^l to the ^' Admiral of the ocean 
M»a," onlers him to surn»n(h»r all royal projwrty, whether fi>rts, 
anns 4>r othcrwisi*, int4) Kobaililla^s hands, — evidently inttmded 
t«> havi» an accomiKinying t*tTcct with the other. Of a date five 
flavn later another letU'r addressetl to the Admiral reads t4> this 
fffivt : — 

'• \\v luive <linH»te4l Francisco de I^>ba4lilla, the bean»r of 
thi-*« t4> t4*Il you f«»r UH of rertain things to In» m(>nti«>n4Hl by 
hiui. W«» ask you t4) ;^iv«' faitli and creilcnre to what li<» siiys, 
and t4> oU'v Iiim'. Mav ICk 14tM»/' 

Thin iH an t'xplirit avowal on th«» sovt'i-ei^ns' part i»f having 
givrn vt'rbal onlers. In athlititni to \\\vsr iiiHtrurtions, n„,„|^ 
a poyal onlcr HMpiinnl tin* n»mmiNsionrr t«> as4vrtain ""^''^ 
what was due fnun tli«*('r«>wn for unpaid s:ilarit's, ami to <*omi)cl 
the Ailminil to join in liipiitlatini; sui'h obli^^ations se> far as he 
was Umnd for them, ** that there may Ih> no more 4*omphiints.'* 
If i»n«* mav U'lieve (\>lumbus*s own statements as nuule in his 
fkubs«.*quent letter t4> the nurse of Priiuv Juan, it had Inhmi nt^- 
lei-t, ami not inability, on his |mrt wln<'h \vm\ allowtnl these 
arr«*arH to aivnie. I^>ba4lilla was als4> furnisiuHl with blanks 
Mini**<i by the sovereigns, to !h» umnI to further their pur|>4>ses in 
an\ wav and at his dis4*r«»tion. With thi»s4* extraonlinarv d<K*u* 
tDt*nt4, anil |Nis*i4>Hs«Hl i>f sueh verbal and conthb^ntial directions 
SA wf may imagine nithiT than pn)Vt\ R»baililla hail 
«aile«l in July, l.'iOO, nion' than a year aftfr th«* li*t- ik^h^iiiu 
t*»n« were dat4Ml. His two «»arav«*U brought baek to 
K«paflola a numl>er (»f natives, who wort* in chargi* of siime 
Fran«n«ican friars. 


not have been uninindful, if almost every one eUa 
is new world was a ileluaioa now, but might dissolva 
le vision. But all this was rather more than hamaa 
Lapalile of iu an age like that. It is to be said of 
i:it when he summoned C\>lumbus to Sauto Domingo 
I'll him guilty, he had shown no more disregard of a 
which he was scut to regulat«, than Columbus had 
for a deluded colony, when lie selfishly infected it 
>ison of the prisons. It must not, indeed, be for^ 
the strongest support of the new envoy came from 
luents of vice wbioh Columbus had implanted in 
.■ island. He grew to understand this, and later he 
IS forced to give a condemnation of his own act 
\ca he urged tlie sending of such as are honorably 
;it the cotmtry may be peopled with honest men." 
s tells us of Bobadilla that his probitj' an<l disintei^ 
■le such that no one could attack them. If it be 
t^rity to decide between the wonl of Las Casas and 
n estimates of virtue and honesty, there Is no que*- 
1 esult. When Bobadilla was selected to be sent to 
■[i.iiiola, there was every reason to choose the mast 


A nynopsis of the powers (*onfide(l to BobadiUa in writing 
m^A to be presentetl. They begin with a letter of BotedOk** 
March 21, 1499, referring to reports of the Kohlan '**"* 
insurnH.*tion, and directing Iiiui, if on inquiry ho finds any per- 
Hi MIS ruliKible, to arrest them and setiuestrate their effects, and 
to (*all u|K>n the Admiral for assistance in carr}*ing out tliese 
onlers. Two months later. May 21, a circular letter was 
f niined and a«ldresseil to the magistrates of the islands, which 
MH*ms t4> have Inieu intended to accredit BolmdiUa to them, if 
tilt* Admiral should l>c no longer in command. This onler gave 
notii*«* to tlu*M> magistraten of the full powers which had lieen 
given t4) I)o1)a4liUa in civil and crimimd jurisdiction. Another 
order of the same date, ad<lressed to the ^^ Admiral of the ixrean 
M*a«** onlers him to sum*nder all royal proiK^rty, whether forts, 
anus, or otherwise, into Dolnulilla^M hands, — «*vidently intended 
t«» have an ae(*om|Kinyiug effei*t with the other. Of a date five 
davs later another lett^tr addressetl to the Admiral reads to this 
effivt : — 

" We liave dinvte^l Fnineisco de Robaililla* the bearer of 
thi!*, to t«*ll you for US of eertain things to U« montitimHl by 
hiui. Wi* ank you to give faith and (*re<Ieniv to what he s:iys, 
an.1 t4i oU-v hiui. May tk\ HtMI.'* 

Thi»* i** an explicit avowal on the sovereii^iis* part of having 
given verbal i»nler<<. In aihlition to the«ii> instnietions« m. ,^ri«i 
a nnal onler n-ijuiriHl tlie (*onimissioner to asivrtain *"*''^ 
what was due from theC^niwn for unpaid s:daries, and to compel 
the Atlmiral to join in litpiidatin*; siieh obligations so far as he 
wait iMiund for tlieni, ^* that there may 1)e no more complaints.** 
If om* niav U^lieve (\)lanibn.^*s i>wn Htat«*mentH as made in his 
sult^*<]uent letter to the nurs4* of Priniv Juau« it had l»een neg- 
k-«*t, anil not inability, on his {lart wiiieh hsul allowt^l these 
am-arn to aivnie. l^diadilla was als4i funiishcMl with blanks 
nigTieii by the «u)vereigiis, t<» \h* useil to further their pur|M»S4*s in 

anv wav and at his tIisi*n*tion. With tliest* extraonlinarv d«K*u- 

• • • 

ments. and |>oss4*flse«l of siieh verlml and confidi*ntial directions 
a* we may imagine nitlu-r than prove, I^ibadilla hail 
niled in July, loOO, more than a year after the let- ii»km1iiu 
tem were dat4*<I. 1 1 in twi» eara^'eK bn Might baek to 
FUpttAoIa a numlier of natives, who wen- in ehargi* of some 
FranHrtcan friars. 


not have b«eii unmindful, if almost every one else 
lis new world was a delusion now, but might dissolve 
fie vision. But all this was rather moi'e than human 

capable of in an age like that. It is to be said of 
hat when he summoned C-oiumbus to Santo Domingo 
red him guilt)-, he had sliown no more disregartl of a 
, which he was sent to regulate, than Coluiubus liad 

for a deluded colony, when he selfishly infected it 
oisou of the prisons. It must not, indeed, be for- 

the strongest supiwrt of the new envoy came from 
emeots of vice which Columbus had implanted in 
le island. He grew to understand this, and later he 
a» forced to give a condemnation of his ovra act 
hen he urged the sending of such as are honorably 
lat the coiintiy may be jwopled with honest men,'" 
IS tells as. of Bobadilla that his probity and disinter- 
ere such tliat uo one could attack them. If it le 
teritj' to decide between the word of Las Casas and 
in estimates of virtue and honesty, there is no ques- 

result. When Bobadilla was selected to be sent to 
spaiiola, there was every reason to choose the most 


A nynopftis of the povrers (*onfi(le<I to RobadiUa in writing 
n«iHls to be prc«iente<l. They begin with a letter of Bnteduia't 
Man*h 2U 1499, referring to reports of the Kohlan ^**^ 
inNiirnH*tion« and directing him, if on inquiry he finds any per- 
ilous ru]|KibIe, to arrest them and se^iuestrate their effects, and 
tn trail tiiKui the Admiral for assistance in carrj'ing out these 
onlori. Two months later. May 21, a circidar letter was 
f nime«l and addresseil t4> the magistrates of the islands, which 
M^fUis Ui have Ikhmi intended to a(*credit Bolia«lilla to them, if 
tilt* Admiral should tte no longer in command. Tliis onler gave 
iii>tii*«* to thi*st* magistrates of tlie full ]M)wers which had lieen 
pvtfu t«» KoliaAlilla in civil and crimimd jurisdiction. Another 
onler «»f tin* h:iuii* date, aildrt*sse«l to the ^^ Admiral of the ocean 
!«ea«** ortlcrs him to sum*nd<*r all royal pro])erty, whether forts, 
anus« or otherwise, into l^>b:ulilla*s hands. — evidently intended 
til ha%'e an a4*«*om]ianying «*tTect with tiie other. Of a date five 
days later another lt*tt4fr addn*sseil to the Admiral reads to this 
••ffet't : — 

•• Wf have direete<l Francisco de Robaclilla, the bearer of 
thi<^. to ti'U you for UH of cvrtain things to l)e mention<Ml by 
him. We a<»k yoti to ;rive faith and ere<lenee to what lie says« 
and to oUv him'. Mav liu 14*»*>." 

Thin in an explieit avowal on the sov<Tei;;ns* part of having 
givf>n verbal orders. In adilititm to thes** instnietions, h,. ,^ri«i 
a myal tmler riMjiiiretl thi* eommissioniT to as4*t*rt:un "'**''■' 
what was due from theCniwn ft >r unpaid sfdaries and to compel 
tbt^ Aihniral t«> join in liipiidatin*^ sueh obli^^ations so far as he 
was Unintl for tlienu ** that there may U* no more (Him plaints.** 
If itne mav l>elieve (*i»lumbus*s own statements as made in his 
ncdi^Hluent letter to the nurse of IVinci* Juan, it had Itet^n n<*g- 
let-t, and not inability, on his |i:irt whieh h.'i4l alhiwtHl these 
am-api t^i aivnie. R>badilla was also funiisiuMi with blanks 
M;ni<'*l by the sovereipin. to U* iimnI to furthiT their pur|M>.s4*s in 
aii\ wjv and at his «lis4*n*tion. Witli them* extraonlinarv docu* 
BM'nt^. and |N»ss4*ss«*4l of siieh vi'rlud and Cfuitiilfutial direction! 
an we may imagine ratlier than pniv<*. I^ibatlilla had 
tatleil in dulv, loOO. ni«>n* tlian a y«'ar afti*r the let- ii<.(««iiiu 
t«»rH wen* dati*<l. Ill** tw4i earavi*N i>r«Mi;;lit back ti» 
K«paAola a num1>or of natives. \%ho wen* in eliargt* of siune 
Kraneitican friars. 

^?^rk Pubf/c 


BobadiUa on board his ship, receiving oonrt from ifl 
lio desired thus early to get Lis ear. It was not till 
i; next day that he landed, attended by a guard of 
.enty-five men, when he proceeded to the church to 

'. the crowd gathered before the church. Bobadilla 
urald to read hia original commission of March 21, 
199, and then he demanded of the acting governor, 
ic-go, who was present, that Guevara, Riquelme, and 
fisoners should be delivered to him, together with aU 
e in their case:^, and that the accusers and magis- 
Id appear before him. Diego referred him to the 
alone having power in such matters, and naked for 
lie document juat read to send to Columbus. This 
lecliued to give, and retired, intimating, however, 
were reserved powers which he had, before which 
ilmiral muat bow. 

.tuptoriness of this movement was, it would seem. 
>!■, and there could have been little misfortune in 
coming of the Admiral, compared with the natural 
■uch sudden overturning of established authority ia 


given to Bobftdilla. It is merely an inference, and we know not 
the directions for their proclamations, which had been verbally 
im|>arte<l to Bobadilla. It is this uncertainty which surrounds 
tlie caste with doubt. It is ap])arent that the reading of these 
|ui|>ers had begun to imprcHs the rabble, if not those in author- 
ity. That order which commanded the |)ayment of arrears of 
salaries had a very gnitifying effect on those who had suffered 
fnmi delays. Notliing, however, moveil the representatives of 
tilt* Vic*erov, who would not believe that anything could surpass 
hi*« lon;:-conce<leil authoritv. 

There is nothing strange in the excitement of an oflicvr who 
tindn his undoubted supremacy thus obstinately spumiHl, and 
we must trace to such excitement the stmiewhat overstrained 
condu4*t which made a show of carrying by assault the 
f(»rtresti in which (luevara and the other prisoners mmuiuum 
were i*<»nliii(*<l. Miguel I)i:iz^ who commanded the 
fort« — the same who had disc* IosihI the Ilavna mines, — when 
MimmoncMl to surn^ntU^r had refernnl lk>badilla to the Admiral 
from whom his onlers i*ame, and asktnl for copies of the let- 
t4.*rs ])atent and orders, for more considerate attt^ution. It was 
hanllv t4> be cxiMH'tiHl that lk>badilla was to U* iH'^ruiled bv anv 
!«m*h device, when he had a force of arnHnl men at his luiok^ 
aidinl bv his crew and the aroused nibble, and when then* was 
nothing lH*f«>r(» him but a weak citadel with ffW defenders. 
Then* was nothing to withstand the M»mewhat ridienhnis shock 
uf th<* aviuult but a few fniil bars, antl no neetl of the scaling 
bulders whieh were ostentation>ly set np. Diaz and i»ne com* 
|ianion, with swonl in hand, sto<Nl ]Kissively n*pres#nting the 
outraginl dignity of command. I^»ba<lilLi was victorious, and 
tbi* maiiach^il (iuevara and the rest ]Kissed over to new and less 
stringent k<*«*]N»rs. 

IWibaiiiila was ni»w in ]K>sscssion of every channel of author- 
ity, lie domieiltnl him?«elf in the house of Columbus, 
taifk |N>K<M'sMion of all hin effeets, in<*huling his pa]N*rs, in tuii |«». 

making nodiHtin4*ti«>n U*tween ]mbli<' aiul private ones, 
and use<l what monev he could tind to i>av the debts of the 
Ailmiral as th<*y wen* presented to him. Thi*^ ])nM'et»<iing was 
w^U ealeulat«Ml U} increase hi^ |H>pnlarity. and it wa> still more 
•nhanced when h«* ]inK*hiini4'd libert\ to all to pither gold for 
tvraty years, with only tin* payment of one .seventh instead of 
a third to the (*n>wn. 



turn to Columhua himself. The reports whidi 
■;i<-he(l him at Fort Conceptiou did not at first con- 
■y to him an adequate notioa of whiit he was to en- 
.unter. He associated the proeeediiigs with such 
il acts as Ojeda's and Pinzon's in coming with 
within his prescribed dominion. The greater aa- 
t-ver, alarmed him, and the threats wliich BobadiU* 
of Si'ndiug him to Spain in irons, and the known 

ohimbus coufideut in the temporary character of the 
lie moved his quarters to Bonao to be nearer the 
iiid here he met an officer bearing to him a copy of 
under which the government had been assumed Iqr 
Still the one addressed to Columbus, commanding 
liiieace, was held hack. It showed palpably that 1 
onceived he had passetl beyond the judicial ^m of 1 
sion. Columbus, on his part, was loath to reai^ ' 
siim, and tried to gain time. He wrote to Bobadilli 
ing and temijorizing letter, saying that he was about \ 
iir Spain, wlieu evorytbing would pass regularly 
ilia's control. He sent other letters, calculated to 


be considered hiH perpetual powers still unrevoked, if indeed 
they were revocable at all. This state of his mind was rudely 
jarred by receiving a little later, at the hands of Francisco 
Velasquez, the deputy treiusuren and of Juan de Trasierra, one 
<if the Franciscans, the letter addressed to him bv the 
f«overeigns, commanding him to res|)ect what Bobadilla •<«'i* «>»• 
should tell him. Here was tancable authority; and iKtmo 
when it was accompanied by a summons from Boba- 
dilla to api)ear l>eforc him, he hesitated no longer, and, with the 
little state befitting his disgrace, proceedetl at once to Santo 

The AdmiraFs brother Diego had already been confined in 
irons on one of the caravels ; and l^badilla, affecting to believe, 
as Irving holds, that C olumbus would not come in any compli* 
ant moocK made a bustle of armed pn*paration. There was^ 
however, no such inti'ution on Columbus's part, nor cohmbo. 
hail been, since the royal mandate of implicit obe- hSEIH)^ 
dience hsul been received. lie came as quietly as the "^^"'^ 
circumstances would ]K'nuit, and when the new governor heard 
he was within his grasp, his orders to sciau.* him and throw him 
into prison were i)romptly execut4»tl (August 23, ISOl* ). 
In tlie southeastern |Kirt of the town, the tower still imM jsi. ccv 
viands, whh little Hi<nis of dei*av, whieli then riH'eived ioipriMMmi 
the dejecte<l Admiral, and frt)in its sunuuit all a]>- 
prooching vessi^ls are signale4l t<Mlay. I^s C'asas tells us of 
the shameless an<l graceless (*<M)k. om* of C'olumbus^s own house- 
bold, who rivetetl the fetters. '* I knew the fellow,*' says that 
historian, *^ and I think his name was Kspinosa.** 

While the Adelantado was at large with an armed force, 
Bobadilla was not altogether S4'cure in his triumph. He de- 
Buuuleil of Columbus to write to his brother and counsel him 
tf» come in and surrender. This Columbus did, assuring the 
Adrlantado of their s:ifety in trusting to the later justice of 
ibe Crown. Bartholomew <ilM*ViHl. as the liest authorities say, 
tbough Peter Martyr mentions a rumor that he came in no 
aerommodating spirit, and was captunnl while in advamv of 
bis force. It is t*ertain hv. also w:is plaeiMl in irons, and t*<m- 
fined on one of the caravels. It was IU>ba4lilla*s pur|)ose to 
keep tbe leaders a|>art, S4» then^ could Ix* no concert of action, 
mod ewen to prevent their S4*cing any one who i*ould inform 


ideat that BobadiUa, either of hia own impulse or in 

with secret iiiat ructions, was acting with a secrecy 
taucy which would have been justiliable in the pres- 
lod sedition, but was uncalled for with no organized 
to emharrasa him. Columbtis at a later clay teMa m 
: denied ample clothing, even, and was otherwise ill 
ealed. He says, too, he had no statement of charges 

ven to him. It is a later story, started by Charlevoix, 
mt such accusations were presented to him in writing, 

him in the same method. 
1 was certJitnly a remarkable procedure, except we 

simply an ex parte process for indictment only, as 
-ally was. Irving lays stress on the reversal by Bo- 
:he natural order of his acts, amounting. In fact, to 

a person he was sent to examine. He also thiokj 
)vernor was hurried to his conclusions in order to 
>how of necessity for his precipitate action. It has 

.f that look. •' The rebels he had been sent to judge 

this singular perversion of rule," says Irving. " ne- i 
d cherished evidences to criminate those against 1 


and by a royal order of June 20, 1500, she had ordered, as 
wo have seen, the return in Bobadilla^s fleet of nine- cohnaboi 
teen of the slaves who had been sold. There was no *^ •"•'^•n- 
better way of (*oiuiuending Bobadilla*s action to the Queen, a}>- 
|Hirently, than by making the most of Columbus*s unfortunate 
relations to the slave tnule. 

As the ac*cusations were piled up, I^)badilla saw the inquest 
leading, in his mind, to but ono conclusion, the unnatural char- 
actor of the Viceroy and his unfitness for command, — a phrase 
not far from the truth, but lianlly rc<piiring the extraordinary 
proceedings which had brought tlie governor to a recognition of 
it. Tlicre is little question that the public sentiment of the 
oolonv, so far at least as it dare manifest itself, commended the 
governor. Columbus in his dungeon might not see this with his 
own evc^s, but if the n>]x>rtH an> true, his ears carrieil it to his 
spirit, for howls and taunts against him came from beyond the 
wallii, as the expression of the hordes which felt relic veil by his 
fmXe. Columbus himself ccmfesseil that l^baililla had **suc- 
eeeded t4) the full ** in making him hate<l of the ])eople. All 
this was matter to brood u|>on in his loneliness. He inagnitieil 
alight hints. I Ic more than sus|>ectc4l he was doometl to a vio- 
lent fate. Wlu»n Alonso de Vill«»jo, who was to c^oiuluct him to 
S|Kun. in charge of the n*turning ships, came to the dungeon, 
Odumbus saw for the first time some re<M»iri)ition of his unfor- 
tunat4.* condition. I^as Cassis, in nM*oumiti<r the interview, savs 
that Villejo w:is ^* an hidalgo of honorable character and my 
particular friend/' and \\v doubtless got his ac*i*ount of what 
took plac«* from that im]N)rtant partiei]k;iiit. 

*• ViHejo/' said the prisoner, " whither do you take me?* 

**To embark on the ship, your exivUency." 

*• To emkirk. Villejo ? Is that the truth ? " 

** It i« true,** s:iid the captain. 

F«>r the first time the {XMir Admiral felt that he yet might sch? 
Spain and her soven*igns. 

TTm* caravels sot sail in Octoln^r, 1500, and soon passed out 
of oan»hot of tin* hootings that wen* S4*nt aft4*r the ,;„, i^t. . 
■literablo prisoners. The new keefH^rs of Columbus !'/, ^^"** 
voro not of the same sort as thos*» who cast sucli ******* 
farrwell taunts. If the I/lnforif is to W iN^lievtMl, IVjbadilla 
bad ordered the chains to be kept on throughout the voyage. 



le writer of that book grimly suggests, Columbm 
ly time swim back, if not secured. Villejo w-aa kiaiL 
master of the caravel, Andreas Martin. They sng- 
they coidd rfmove the manacles during the voyage; 
Imiral, with tliat cherished constancy which persons 
vuys wisely, \a such predicaments, thinking to niag- 
■dom, refused. " No," he said ; " my sovereigns or- 
Ted me to submit, and liobadilla has chained me. I 
ill wear these irons until by royal order they are re- 
I shall keep them as relics and memoriala of my 

tions of Columbus and Bohadilla bring before us the 
iig of the many combinations of events in the histfiiy 
which is sadder, perhaps, notwithstikndiug its glory. 
lan any other mortal presents in profane historj". 
he degi-adation of such a man appeals more forcibly 
> human sympathy -thau almost apy other event in 
jf humanity. That sympathy has obscured the im- 
ort of his degradation, and that mournful explana- 
on of the evt-nts, which, either on his voyage or 


lu the course of thiH letter, C^olumbiui set up a claim that he 
ha«l l)ecn M*riously luisjud^l in trj'ing to measure his accounta- 
hilitv l>y the laws tluit govern establishe<l governments rather 
than by those which grant indulgences to the conqueror of a 
iiunicrou;* and warlike nation. The |)ositiou is curiously incon- 
siiitent with his professcil intentions, as the sole ruler of a col- 
ony, Xo be just in the eyes of Uod and men. The Cn>wu had 
;;ivcn him its authority to establish precisely what he claims 
\vm\ not been established, a government of laws kindly disposed 
to protect both S)>anianl and native, and yet he did not under- 
stand why his doings were calknl in question. He had boasted 
re|M'utedly how far from warlike and dangerous the natiTes 
were, HO timt a s(H>re of S|)aniards could put seven thousand to 
rout, as he w:ls eager to n»])ort in one case. The chief of the 
accusations agiiinst him did not |>ertain t4> his malfeasance in 
reganl to the natives, but t4)wards the S|>aniartls themselves, 
and it was Wgging the tpiestion to c^uisider his coni()anions a 
conipiereii natitm. If there wen* no establishetl government as 
re!*|M*i't.H them, he would be the last to admit it ; and if it were 
provtnl against him, then* was no one so n*s|Mmsible for the 
abM'uee of it :i.h himself. Again he siiy.s : ** I ought t<» lie 
jutl;:ed by cavaliers who have gaineil victories themselves, — by 
gtrntlemen, and not by lawyers.** The faet ^las that the case 
IumI Ihh^u judged by hidalgiK*^ without nuniU'r, and to his dis- 
gra«*e, and it was Uiken fnun them to give liim the ])rotet*tiou of 
the law, Mich :is it w:i.h ; and, a> lie hinisi^f aeknowliHlges, there 
U in the Indies ** neither civil right nor judgment seat.** As 
Iht waa the s(»un*t* of all the bulwarks of life and lil>ertv in these 
aajue Indies, he thus aeknowh^dges the deticiencies of his own 
protective agencies. There is scmiething <'hihlisldy immature 
in the pn>|N>sition which he advani^es tluit he should bt* judged 
by persons in his own ]Kiy. 

It is of course* ne«vss;4rv t4> allow the writ^T of this letter all 
the palliation that a man iu his distn*ss«Hl and dis. 
onltreti condition iniglit claim. (\»hinibu8 ha<l in ***** 

ImeX Iieen |H.»nvptibly drifting iut4» :i ^tate of dehision and al>- 
erration of mind ever >inee the sustaining |M>wer of a gn»at 
OMifMf liail lN*«»n lifted front him. Frtmi the luouH'nt when he 
tumMl his mule back at tin* instan(*«' of I<%:ilH*lla*s mess;ige, the 
lofty purpose had degencratiHl to a l>cscttiiig cupidity, in which 


i-eD the Diviuity a constant abettor. In this same 
11a of a visioQ of tlie previous Cliristinas, when tlw 
outed him miraculously, and reminded him of his 
,sa treasure enough in seven years to undertake his 
lerusalem. This vistible (iodhead then comforted him 
surance tliat his divine power would see that it cams 
The seveu years you were to await have not yet 
lust in me and all will be right." It is easy to point 
s such instances iu Columbus's career, and the o^uon- 
: neglect to do so, as evincing the sublime confidence 
ited servant of the Lord ; but one can hardly put 
i the concomitants of all such confidence. The most 
n allow ia the uuaccountableness of a much-vexed 





It was in October, 1500, after a voj-age of less disoomforl 
than UMuaU that the shipH of Villejo, carr}'ing his ^ggg^ q^^ 
iiianai*led priiioneni, enterecl the harbor of Cadiz. If bw'fMtdSST 
BobouliUa had pn*eipitately prejudgi>d his chief pris- ^'^'^ 
oner, public sentiment, when it became known that Columbus 
hatl arrived in cliaina, was not less headlong in its Mym|Mithetio 
rvvulsion. Bobadilla would at this moment have stood a small 
c'hancv for a di8|Kissionate examination. The discoverer of the 
New World coming back from it a degradinl prisoner ^^^^ 
waji a dis(*onlant s|MH*Uu*le in the public mind. tilliMl fu'llJIISi^ 
with n*C(>llcctionH of thuM' dayH of the iirst return to ^^^' 
PaloH, when a new range had been given to m:in*s conceptions 
of the physical world. This common outbunt of indignation 
fthowe<I« art manv times before and sinci*, how the workPs sense 
of justitHs has in it more of H])irit than of steady discernment. 
The hectic flush was sure to |>ass« — as it did. 

It was while on his voyagis or shortly after his return, that 
Columbus wrote the letter to the ladv of the Court ^ . 
usually siioken of as the nurse of Prince Juan, which iMu*>irttar 
ha« lieen already ctmsidered. Itefore the proceed* ori*viMt 
inpi of the incjuest whic*h Itobadilla had forwarded by 
the fthip were sent t4i the (\nirt, then in the Alhanibra, Colum- 
buA, with the ctmnivamv of .Martin, the captain of his caravel, 
had gut this excul|Nit4)ry letter off by a s|KH*ial mess4*nger. The 
Udy to whom it wan addrt*ss4Ml was, it will be renienibere<l, I>oAa 
Joaiia de la Torre, an intimate t*omp.inion of the Queen, with 
wbom the Admiral's two s<ms« as ])ages of the Queen, had been 
for some months in dailv relati4ins. The text of this letter 
king been known. I^as Casas copi^nl it in his lIlMoria, 


s it from another copy, but corrected by the text 

|tt Genoa : while Harrisse tells iis that the text in 

tis an imjiortaut passage not in that at Genoa. 

. ejaeiJatory arguments are not well calculated to 

Bthe aober historian, there was enough of fervor laid 

Ibackground of distressing humility to work on tliB 

recipient, and of the Queen, to whom it was 

laturally revealed. "I have now reached that point 

no man so vile, but thinks it his right to insult 

lie language, almost at its opening, which met their 

n further reading of tlie letter brought np a, picture 

Itcled Admiral. Very likely the rumor of the rising 

spi-eading from Cadiz to Seville, and from Seville 

well as the lettei-s of the alcalde of Cadiz, into 

Bs Columbus had been delivered, and of Villejo, who 

L custody, added to the tumult of sensations 

li.ired in that little circle of the monarchs and the 

I'oiia Jnana. If we take the prompt action of the 

)vereigus m ordering the immediate release of Co- 

, their letter of syra|)athy at the baseness of 

3 thoimand ducats put a 


eHcapetl the fate of the tem{)est8 which kter overwhehnetl theiu. 
Wlicii the first warmth of CohimbuH*8 reception had subsided, 
tht-re woukl have beeu no reason to 8iis|)ect that those absent 
servants of the Crown would have been denied a suitable 

Ilerrera tells us of the touching character of this interview of 
lXH.*eniber 17 ; how the Queen burst into tears* and the emo- 
tional Admiral cast himself on the ground at lier feet When 
Columbus could s|)eak, he began to recall the reasons for which 
lie hail been imprisoned, and rehearseil them with humble and 
exrul|Kitory professions. He forgot that in the letter which so 
excitetl their sym(Nithy he hail denieil that he knew any such 
reaw>ns, and the sovereigns forgot it too. The meeting had 
awakened the tenderer |mrts t>f their natures, anil their hearts 
went out to him. They made verbal promises of largesses and 
professions of restitution, but Ilarrisse could tind no written 
expressions of this kind, till in the instructions of Man*h 14« 
ir>U2, when they expresseti their din.H*tions for his guidance 
during his next voyagt*. The Admiral grew iNiufident, as of old, 
in their prt>sc*nce. He had always reaeh«Hl a 4-oigii of vantage 
in his |H»rs<inal intercourse with the (jiieeii. lie had evidently 
D4»t iti<t tiuit |>«>wer. He lM*gan t<» pictur*' Ins n^turn to Santo 
iKimingo with the triumph that he now rnjovfd. It was a hoi- 
h>w lio]ie. He was never again to 1h» Viivroy of th«» Indies. 

Tlie disonlers in KsjiaAoIa W(*n* but a |>;irt of the reasons 
whv it was now (hH*ided to susiN*iid the mtenttnl 
riirhts of the .Vdmiral, if not iH*rinanentlv to denv the «lH"'»tr.i 
further exercis** of them. We have st»en how the 
pfveiiiment had (Nimmitt<Hl its4*lf to other dis4*overies« profiting, 
as it did, by the maps wliirh Columbus had s«'nt l>ai*k to 
Spain. Tliese dis4»overies wm* a new sourei* of tribute wlii(*h 
cuuld n«»t be n€*glei*t4*4|. Rival natioiin t4N) were alert, and shi|M 
of the Portuguese and of the Kn<jlisli had Uh^u foumi prowling 
ftbout within the umpieMioiitNl liinit<i allowi^l to S|>:un by tlio 
nt*w treaty line of Ti»nlesilla<. .Vt the north ami at otiH^n-t. 
the 44nith theM- same jM)wers were pushing their S4»an*h, V^,!!?.^ 
U% se*' if |H*n*hani*i* jnirtions of the ii«'w re^jions could ■•''" 
Ofit be found to projfet s<» far ea^t a< to bring them im the 
Ptirtugiiese nide of that s^iine line. Portn;:al had al- r..M..inii'«* 
ready claimed that ( abnil IumI found siieli territ4»ry '^''""^ 


(juator aud south of it. An eastward projectioa of 
,e soiitb, tweuty degrees and more, 13 very commoD 
inporary Portuguese maps. 

3th of Miiy, 1501, a new Portuguese fleet of three 
ips, uutler the eonimaiul of Goutjalo Coelho, sailed 
mi Lisbon to develop the coast of the southern 
era Cruz, as South America was now called, and to 
i could be found through it to the Moluccas. In 
eet, while at the Cape de Verde Islands, met Cahral 
isels on their return from India. Here it was that 
iterpret#r, Gasparo, communicated the particulars 

discovery to Vespucius, who was, as seems pretty 
li l)y no means certain, on hoard this outward-bound 
■vt. A letter exists, brought to light by Count 
Jdelli Boui, not, however, iu the hand of Vespuciua. 

whioh the writer, under date of June 4, gave the 
lis note-takings with Cabral to Pier Francisco de 
arnhagen is in some doubt about the genuineness of 
lit. Indeed, the historian, if he weighs all the testi- 
bas been adduced for and against the parricipancy 
s in this voyage, can hardly be quite sure that the 



OtPcnoMVdftitMoljnrftiepitiMctMMM OtMlptamAtMt 
/""^Upcrmc^McbiwraM ample obi fcnpAe«nbiiiiiM«dfeM 
■^ktMiHtfr^^Mift^dMe tdMk.7impot(i*.f n•ll^cl^> itUam 
^^y IbCT^ftiyoiiBjalfcwgWt q iBdlMww ttei«iw»qufl<ia 
pwawtf»OaffdMr(lca<nal»oaaa m ito<»i»<troaiip|>iacy 
■f M unr" fl"J i i - nfr r nTT-f iflimrmrt-irirt McatvHratnc 
Mi> | iii -rg itf.t>gw»iiicnBicmi»«^ Migcwi.< te»jrc *qBo<> 
MlaiBtfl vaori TfldRlmO pcraiil lUdnllinnancrttfSifKttnM 
-^ . »bed««Bln(fl»»B'i 

4 tdbnavMmnerfllnnvibO^appondeteMMonwci 
_^ — ui^, — — iioii«»firtMic»*P'«B)MW 

ti iiaimai»ton<»we>imi waD ali>a|a.fciinN>lnni»Manq>' 




Bt BM lMrt Hrt ftlXI MWM < . 

'tlW«tftar«wiiicpftlOBfcMfaBqifgnMM frlMiwac 

K MMM^iKitti 


. distinct from the ai)icy East. Vamhagen is oon- 
Liced that Vespucius, rlifferent from Columbus, had 
r-akeued to the coueeptiou of an absolutely new 
larter of the earth. There is little ground for the 
■ver, in its full ext«nt and con6dentre. The little 

it the elements of popularity, and in 1504 and 1505 

and Frent'li [iresses gave it currency in several edi- 
■ Latin tougue, whence it was turned into ItaUso, 
111 Dutch, spreading through Europe the fame of 

We trace to this voyage the oiigin of the nomen- 
le coast of the South American continent which th«i 
11(1 is represented in the earlier maps, like that of 
■s, for instance, in 1504. 

dated August 12, 1507, preserved in Tritemius's 
mfumiliarum Ubri duo (1536), ha-s been thought t« 
fer to a printed map which showed the discoveriea 

Vespucius down to 10° south. This map is ua- 
luwu. apparently, aa the particulars given concem- 
lot agree with the map of Ruysch, the oidy one, so 

ti, to antedate that epistle. It is jmssibly the miss- 
lii<-h WaldseeinUUer is thought to have first made. 

coLUMiirs Af.Aty i.\ si'Aiy. 

manv of tlit- iinpmlKilili* tiiriDt in tlir cun-^r 


M>-:iiiw]iile. wluit was };<iiii;; uii in tlit- ■mrlli, wlu'n- Vu 
uii.t pioliiii^ liiT iliix-ovfrii-M in llu' r«'L;i<>n iiln-aily fxjilor 
CiiInx .' Thf S|uiii;irils li:i>l In-i-h (lilatoiy h.Tf. *T1il> 
iiiMiiari-hs. M:iv il, 1 '>ltil. wliil.- tli.'v wi-n- liistrai-Unl !■■.' 
will, th.- r.-|H>rls ..f tl.r .li<.,>ii. lii.l.' ..f K^,Mm>lii. Iia.1 '" 
tiiriK'il their attviiti-ni in this iliiii'iimi. ami hail ihmi; 
•<*n.liiij; ■.hi)>s into th<- -.a:. »lii.-h "S.-haMian (.'aU.t hii 
.•.>v. r.-.l." 'Hii-v ha.l .lull.- nothin-. h.>w.-vt-r. tlu>ii;:h N;n 
tin.)- that tliithci-wai-d, umlur Juan IXmn-li 
Oj'-.hi. hiwl 1m-i-ii ]iLiinit'il. 


-.1 l>v 

^'ht nf 

1.1 .liH- 

)» antl 

■ . , , ■- ^ 




'r^^ ■ ; 


' • .- .n' 

■'-' / 


1^4^ ^- 

■ ■ 

If «v luiiv l..|i..i.. ...11 f ill. :. •- ..f .A|.|..r:ili. 

»:n ..n lli..'|.iiri ..1 ill. I'.i.i..ii. lui.l N.. 11.1.11... tI.. y ^ 
l..vU..iiii.l...l:i ..tcl.iii.iit ....I1..1 r.i.-.t ..11 ill. s 
.I..r .....M. jii.I xiiliin til.. Miiii. .1 1'.. ;i. 1.1... ..11 1. 
I.... !...« i-alliHl lli;..l..r... ii. . niK .•- 1 ■."■i li i- ...M tin 


«»f thi'ir houses can be still Keen there. But there is no definite 
«-ont«'m|iorary record of their exploits. We have such records 
4 if the Portuguese uiovemcntH, though not through Simnish 
Miunvs. Unaccountably, Peter Martyr, who kept himself alert 
ffir all such impressions, makes no reference to any Portuguese 
voyagfii: and it is only when we come down to Ciomara 
( 1.V>1 ) that we find a Spanish writer reverting to the narra- 
tiv«*!i. In doing so, (tomara makes, at the same time, some con- 
fusion in the chronology. 

Portugal had nuHseil a great op|>ortunity in discreiliting Co- 
lumbus, but she had succeiHlcil in finding one in Da cmimmi 
i rania. She was now in wait for a eluiuee to mate ^'*'3^*>**> 
her SI Hit hem route with a western, or rather with a north- 
rm. — at any rate, with one which would give her some warrant 
fiir efforts not o|ii*nly in violation of the negotiatiims which had 
followed upon the Hull of I>eman*ation. Opimrtunely, word 
«*anie to Lisbon of the sui*i*(*sses of the Cabot voyagi'S, and 
tlH>re was tin* proluibility of islands and int4TJai*ent passages at 
the north vcr^* like the geographical configuration which the 
S|4inianis had found farther south. To ap])earances, Caliot had 
met with hucIi land on the Portuguese side of the division line 
4»f tlie tn*:itv of Tonlesillas. 

King Kmanuel had a vassal in (laspar Cortereal, who at this 
time was a man al>out fifty years old. and he luid al- i.vm oufv 
rvaily in years jiast conductinl explonitions <H*<'anward, *^'*»^'*^ 
though we have no definite knowhnlge (»f their results. It has 
he«-n (*«tnJ4vture4l that C\>lumbus may have known him; but 
therv is nothing to make this certain. .\t any rate, there was 
little in the surroundings of (\iluuibus at Es|Nnlola, when he 
was subje(*t4Nl to chains in the summer of 1500, to n*mind him 
«if any northern rivalry, though the visits of Oje«la and Pinzon 
t«» that island wen* forelMMling. It was just at tlmt time tliat 
C*orten*al sailed awav fri»m Portu;;al t4i the northwest. lie 
diAcoreml the T<*rra do I^ibrador, which he namtNl ap]Mirently 
li«raiisc* he thoufrht its natives would incrt*asi* verv hantlilv the 
«4ave labor of Portugiil. Tr» follow up this ipiest, (fas|>ar 
^led anin with thn^* shins, Mav 15, 1501. whit-h is ., . ^, 
the dat4» inven bv I^imian de (iih*s. ilarrissc* is not so i«r«'.irif 
Mire, but finds that (ianpar was still in iH>rt April *J1, 
IViL Cortereml ran a course a little more to the west, and 


LUbon, made record of the return of tlu* first of these vessels^ in 
a letter whii*h he wrote from LihIh)!!, October 19, 1501 ; aud it 
iH from this which made |mrt of the well-knowu Pae»i novamrnte 
rrtrnvati (^ Vicenza, IfiOT ), that we derive what little knowledge 
wc have of these voyageH. The re|H>rts have fortunately been 
Mi|4ih*uu*iited by llarriMik* inadiM|Kitch dated October 17, 1501, 
whirh he lias urothuHHl from the an*hives of Modena, 
ill whii'li one All>erto Cantino tells how he heard the kmikwob 
captain of the vessel which arrivetl set^ond U*ll the immIvi^- 
i*tory t4> the king. This diH|Kitcli to the Duke of ***** 
Ferrara w:is followed by a map showing the new discoveries. 
This cartographical n*conl had been known for some years be- 
fore it was repnHtuceil by llarrisse on a large scale. It is ap- 
|iarent from thin tluit the discoverers believinU or feigned to 
believe, that the new-found regions lay wcstwant from Ireland 
half way to the American coasts. The evidence that they 
ft-ignetl t4> believe rather than that they knew these lands to be 
ea^t of their limitary line may not Im' found ; but it was proba- 
bly !ioiue such doubt of their liuncstv which induc*ed Uobert 
Thornc, of Bristol, to s|K»ak of the pur|)Osc which the Portuguese 
lia«l in falsifying their maps. Nor were the frauds p.^^^p^.^ 
<*untine<l to maps. Translations wcn» dist4>rtefl ami iiar- I^,',J['iII?"' 
rutivi*A ]iervcrt«*d. Hiddle, in his I/ifvnf ( 'nhnf^ isiints '""*^**^ 
«»ut a marke«l instaiK*4* of this, wlien* th<* ^im|ilc hinguago of 
Px-Mpialigo is twintrd ho as to C4>nvcy the iiiipn*ssitin of a 
long aANpuiintance of the natives witli Italian mmuHMlities, aa 
proving that the Italians had fortiii*rly visitinl the region, *- a 
hint which IVhidle siip]N)se<l the Zeni narrative at a later date 
msfcA contrived to sustain, so as to d(H,*eivc manv writers. We 
»hall so<m revert to this (*aiitino map. 

The voyage which Miguel (\»rt6rt*al is known to Imve under- 
taken in the summt*r of 1.*>0L which has l)een c*on- ,.^;i, ukn^^ 
Dertcfi with this stories «»f ntirtliwest voyagi»s, is ludd *'***'"^ 
by ILtrrisse, in his ri'viv^l opinions, not to hav<* Inmmi to the 
New World at all, but to liave \h*v\\ 4*4inducteil against the Grand 
Turk, and <'ortert*al n*tiirii<*d from it on NovemlM^r 4, 1501. 

To sean*h for the misHing iiaspar (\uten*al, Miguel, on May 
10, ir>l)2, again Haih*d to tlie nt»rtliw«*>t with two or 
three ships. Tht^y fiMiiid tlie H;iiiit* mast as U^fort*, <uriVun.>. 
•emrcbed it without sii«*eeM!«. and n*turiuHi again with- 


: for Mi^iel's sbip missed the others at a rende* 
ts never agaiu heard of. 

•avora of the Portuguese in this direction did oot 
iiid the region thus brought by them to the att«i- 
L'ai-tographer soon acquired in their maps the naaie 

Terre lies Cortereal, or Terra dos Corte reals, or, 

Latinized Ijy Sylvanus, ReyaUs Domus. There is 
■er, to connect Uiese earliest ventures with later his- 
t perhaps that from their experiences it ia that a 
gue cartographical conception of the fabled Straits 

Anian confronts us in many of the maps of the ] 
of the sixteenth century. No one has made it quite 
■ the ap|)ellation or even the idea of such a strait 
.line it has been thought to have grown out of Maroo 
, wliieh was conceived to bo in the north. By Navar- 
iildt, and others it has been made to grow in socm 
these Cortereal voyages, and Humboldt supposes that 
to Hudson Bay, under 60" north latitude, ww J 
that time to lead to some sort of a transcontinental 1 
ing it is hardly known where. The name does not 
t to Lave been magnified into all its later associations 



ence in ignoring what was not their boast, is a question to be 
decided through an estimate of the Spanish character. There 
seems, however, to have been interest enough on the part of a 
single Italian noble to seek information at once, as we see from 
the Cantino map; but the knowledge was not, nevertheless, 



46 ^^--^t!::^- 



.^ ' 







apparently a matter of such interest but it could escape Buysch 
in 1508. Not till Sylvanus issued his edition of 
Ptolemy, in 1511, did any signs of these Cortereal ^2^12? 
expeditions appear on an engraved map. 

Only a few years have passed since students of these carto- 
graphical fields were first allowed free study of this ^^ cantino 
Cantino map. It is, after La Cosa, the most inter- "•"*• ^'^^ 


11 the early maps of the American coast as its oob- 
:u! gi'own to be coiiipreliended iu the ten years which 
u first voyage of Columbus. 

t! three sirecial points of interest ia this chart. The 
■st is the eviilent purpose of the maker, when sending 

(1502) to his coiTespondent in Italy, to render it 
(-ar that the coaiitB which the Portuguese had tracked 
tlie northwest Atlantic were sufficiently p^otube^ 
^ the rising sun to throw them on the Portuguese side 
-,ed line of demarcation. It is by no means certain, 
doing so, that they pretended their discoveries to 
other than neighboring to Asia, since a peainsoh 
icse regions is called a " point of Asia." The ordi- 

of geographers at that time was that our modem 
was an extension of northern Europe. So it doe> 
ot seem altogether certain that the Terra Verde of 
mtereal can be held to be identical with its ziame- 


id point of interest is what seems to be the eonnefr 

IU between this map and tliose which had emanated 
om the iL-sults of the Columbns voyages, directly 


M'an'h of Ilarrisse, who g^ves them as printed or abstracted by 

What we have is not supposed to be the entire text, and we 
may wt*ll regret the Iohh of the rest. Trivigiano says of the 
map that he ex|>ecte<l it to b<' extremely well executed on a 
lar<:e Ncale, giving ample details of the country which had l)een 
discovennl. He refers to the delays incident to sending t4: 
Palos t4> have it made, because persons capable of such work 
could onlv Ix* found there. 

No such copy as that made for Malipiero is now known* 
IlarriHHi* thinks that if it i^ evrr di84*overe<l it will be very like 
the Cantino map, with the Cortereal iliscoveries left out. This 
same couimenUitor also points out that there are c*«*rtainly indi- 
cations in t\w Cantino map that the maker of it, in drafting 
the n*gion alK>ut the Gulf of Paria at least, worke<l either from 
Columbus*s map or from some i*opy of it, for his infonnation 
teems to Im.* more com'ct tlvin that which I^a Cosa followt»d. 

The thinl |K>int of interest in this Cantino map, and one 
which has given rise to op]K>sing views, n»sjK»cts that 
coast which is drawn in it north of tht* completetl i-tw-c nortii 
Cuba, and which at Brst glanct^ is tak(*ii with littlr tjurs- 
tion for the Atlantic coast of thr Unittnl States from Florida 
up. Is it such? Did the c*artogniph('rs of that time havt* any- 
thing more than (*onj<*cture by whieli to run such a coast line? 

A k*tt(*r of P:iS(pialigo, dat^'d at LisUm, ()t*tol)er 18, 1501, 
and found bv Von I{;inke at \\'iiicr in tlu* diarv of Marimi Sa- 
nuto, — a nmniug n»conl of events, whieh iH'gins in 141^>, — Ims 
been interpretinl by Humboldt as signifying that at this time 
it was known among the Portuguese observers of the nmri- 
time n*[M>rts that a continent^il stretch of coast conne<*ted tk* 
Sfianish discoveries in the Antillt^s with thorn* of the Portugtu'se 
at the north. Harrisso qu(*stions this int4*r)>n*tation, and coin 
■ideri that what Humboldt thinks knowle^lgi* was simply a 
trntative conjecture. If this knowliNlgi* is repres4*nt4Hl in the 
C^antino map, tht^re is (*t*rUiinly Um great remoten4*ss in the 
rrgioDs of the Corten*al disi*overies to fonn such a i*onnection. 
It 14 of course |K>Hsible that the map is a falsi fii*:it ion in this 
rmpecU to make the line of deman*ation S4*rvc the Portuguese 
iotcfreala, and such falsification is by no m«*ans impn»bable. 

Ft will be remembere<l that tin* 1^:4 ( \wa map shown I no hesi- 


lacing the Antilles on the coast of Asiji, aud put 
>f the Cahot landfaU on the coast of Cathay. C<m- 
:he difference between the La Cosa and the Cantino 
:aps foi' this ragion north of Cuba is phenomenaL 
1 these two or three years (1600-1502). something 
ul come to putis which seemetl to raise the suspicion 
orthern continental line might possibly not be A»- 
11, or at least it might not have the trend or contonr 
before been given it on the Asiatic theory. It is an 

question from whom this information could have 
as this coast in the Cantino map indeed not Kortib 
(•lit the coast of Yucatan, misplaced, as one oonjec- 
■■en ? But this involves a recognition of fmme voy- 

Yncatan coast of which we have no recoi"d. Wat 

it in tracking that navigator up the cast Florida 
as it drami by some unauthorized Spanish marinen, 
- we know Columbus complained of such — invad- 
ted rights, or perhaps by some of those to whom ba 
induced to concede the privilege of exploration? 
Hid by some English explorer who answers the df^ 


rmrity of the chart, in view of the detennination of Spain to 
keep control as far as she could of all cartographical records of 
what her explorers found out 

It is evident, if we accept the theory of this Cantino map 
showing the cH>ast of the United States, that we have in it a de- 
lineation nean*r the source by several years than those which 
modern students have longer known in the WaldseemiiUer map 
of 1508, the Stohnicza map of 1512, the Keisch map of 1515, 
and the so-<*alle4l Admiral^H map of 1513, — aU which arose, 
it is very clear, from murh the same source as this of Cantino. 
What is that soun*e ? There are some things that seem to 
indicate that this source was the description of Portuguese 
rather than of other seamen. This l)elief falls in with what we 
know of the cordial relations of I^ortugal ^nd Duke Reno, under 
whose auspices WaldseemiiUer at h*ast workinl. Thus it would 
seem that while S|>ain was imi^etling cartographical knowledge 
through the rest of Kun>|)e, Portugal was so assiduously helping 
it that for many years the Ptolemies and otiier central and 
southern Kun>|H*an publications were making known the coh- 
mograplii(*:U ideas whioii originate<l in Portug:iI. 

It h:iH Ihmmi aln^adv saicl that IIuiiilM)ldt in his Kramen Cri- 
iiffNr (iv. :2tl2) n*fers to a letter wliirh indicates that in Octo- 
ber« 1501, the Portuguese luul aln^ady leanuHl, or it may he only 
oonjei*ture<K that the eoiist from the region of the Antilles ran 
iininterrupt4Hliy north till it united with the snowy shores of the 
northern discM>veries. Tliis, then, seems to indii*at4' that it was 
a Portuguese sounv that supplied eonjiH'ture, if not fact, to the 
maker of the Cantino map. llarrisse*s solution of this matter, 
as also mentioneil alreaih% is that the letter found by Von Kanke 
and the letter which we know PaH<|ualigo sent to Venice about 
the C ortereal voyagi»s wen* one and the same, and that it was 
rather c<mjecture than favt that the Portuguese possessed at 
this time. 

Thi- obvious difficulty in the cartographical problem for the 
I^ortuguese was« as has l)cen said, to make it appear that they 
were not disregarding the agnn^ment at Tordesillas while they 
were secnring a region for sovereignty'. We have already said 
tluU thb accounts for the extreme eastern {>osition found in 
ike Cantino and the cognate ma|M of the Newfoundland region, 
wineli, ae thos drawn, it was not easy to connect with the coast 


era Florida. Hence the open sea^ap which exiata 
Bin in the maps, while the evidence of the descrip- 

make the coast line continuoua. 

thus suj^eated possible solutions of this contdnen- 
love Florida. It must be confessed that the truth 

patent, and we must yet wait perhaps a long time 
iscover, if indeed we ever do, to whom this mapping 
, as shown in the Cantino map, was due. 
e evidences other than those of this Cantino map 
lat the Portuguese were In tliis Floridiaji region iti 
le early years of the sixteenth century, and Jjelewel 
ie<l to work out tlieir discoveries from scattered data, 
tural map, which he marks 1501-1504, and which 
he Ptolemy map of 1513. The brining forward of 
) map confirms much of the supposed cartography. 

one theory which to some minds gives a very easy 
this problem, without requiring belief in any knovr- 
lestine or public, of such a land. 

in iiis Verrazttno had already been inclined to tie 
imphasized by Stevens in his Schoner, and reiterated 

his editorial I'evisiou of that posthumous work. 


earlier), as opposed to the S{mnish and more tmthful view, 
which is expressed by Kiiysch (1507-8) and Peter Martyr, 

It is a proposition not to be dismissed li<^htly nor accepted 
triumphantly on our present knowledge. We must wait for 
further ch*velopments. 

The fancy that this coast was Asia and that Cuba was Asia 
iui<;^ht, indetnK have led Xjq the transfer to it at one time of the 
names which Cohiiiibus ha<l plaeetl along the north coast of his 
sup|>osed |>oninHular Cuba : but that proves a misplacement of 
the namcH, and not a (*rt*ation of the c*oast. For a while this 
continental land was l^ackeil up on the maps against a meri<lian 
scaks which hid the sei*ret of its wcst^'m limits, and left it a 
possible H(»gment of Asia. Then it stood out alone with a north 
and Mmthwestcrn line, but with Asia l)eyond, just as if it were 
no {lart of it, and this delineation was common even while there 
was a division of geogniphical l)elief as to North America and 
Asia U^ing one. 

Tlie fact that (\iba, in the drafting of the I^a (\)sa and Can- 
tino nia{>s, is n'pn»si»nttHl as an island has at times r„K,^i^. 
b^-en held to si^iiifv that the views of (\>liiinbus n»- "^ 
iperting its |H»niiisular rather than its in*<ular character were not 
wh«»lly shanNl by his coiiteiii]><)raric<. Tliat f^Milish act by which, 
und«*r |H»nalty, the Admiral f4>n'ed his crew to swear that it was 
a |iart of the main might w(*ll imply that he ex|>ecttHl his asser- 
tions would Im' far from acM^i^i'tabh* to other cosmographers. If 
Vamhagi*n*s opinion as to tlic tnick «>f Vespucius in his voyage 
of 141^7, following the cont4»ur of the (lulf of Mexictn be ac- 
ci*pt4*<l as knowletlge of the time, tht* insularity of (^uba was ne- 
cnwarily proytnl even at that early day : but it is the opiuion 
of Henry Stev«'ns, as has Uhmi aln»a<ly shown, that the green 
outline of the western ]Kirts of (^lba in \ji\ (^>s:l*s chart was 
>nly the conventional way of expressing an univrtain coast. 
Consequently it did not imply insularity. If it is t4) lie su{v 
po«<Ni tliat the Portuguese* ha«l a similar metlio<l of expressing 
noo«*rtainties of (*4>ast, tlicv did not employ it in the (^antino 
map, and (Niba in l''>02 i*« iiuiui^takably an island. It is, niore- 
«T«*r, sufficiently lik«* the Cuba of La Ciwa to show it was dniwn 
from one and the same prototy|)c. If the maker of the (^antino 
amp followed La Cosa. or a copy of La Cosa, or' the material 


1 La Cosa worked, there is no proof that lie ever 
he peuinaularity of Cuba. 

leas for recognitioD, during these two grewsome 
sara in Spain, may never have coai]>rehended in 
leir full significance these active efforts of the 
to anticipate hia own liopes of a western passage 
Golden Chersoneaiis : but the doings of Mendoa. 
luerra, and other fellow-aubjeets of Spain were not 
uown to hiin. 

*r. 1500, and before Columbus knew just what his 
iception in Spain was going to be, Kodrigo de Ba»- 
lias, accompanied by La Cosa and V;isco Nufies 
alboa, sailed from Cadiz on an expedition that had 
■:t to secure to the Crown one quarter of the profits, 
e an examination of the coast line beyond the bay 
la, in order tliat it might be made sure that no 
an open sea lay beyond. The two caravels followed 
1 Nombre de Dios, and at the narrowest part of the 
ithoiit sus])ecting their nearness to the longed-for 


(Kx^opation. Ojecia wan given the iK>wer to leail thither a colony, 
if he could do it without cost to the Crown, which reserved 
a due share of his profits. He obtained the assistam*e of Juan 
de V«^raand (iareia de Ocauipo, and with this back- 
in«^ he sailed with four shi|M from C^a^liz in January, oAry. o^ 
1/>U'2, "while Cohunbus was pn*]>aring his own little ' ''^'^f*^- 
flet* t for his last voyage. It was a ventun*, however, that eame 
t4> naught The natives, under am])le pnivoeation, proved hos- 
tile, U\oA was hu*king. the leatlers (piarrt'Itnl, and the |)artners of 
( >j(*4la« i^mibining, overjMiwenHl (.May, l/)02) their leader, and 
sent him a prisoner to Ks)i;inola, wht^n* he arrived in Septem- 
ber, i:>oj. 

Th«*n* has never been anv clear detinition sis to who these 
Englishmen wen*, or what was their ])rojeot, during 
thesM* earliest years of the sixteenth century. Then* the Wi*«t 
is evidence that ileiirv VII. about this time author- 


ize«l Mime ventun^s in which his countrymen wen* joint sh2in*rs 
with the Vortugu«»se, but we know nothing furtlu»r of the 
region** visit^nl than that the Privy Purse exjH»ns«»s show how 
some Bristol men nn^eived a gnituity for having In^en at the 
- Xfwefounde Launde.** Then» is also a vairue notion to lie 
fonniHl fn»m an old entry that Sebastian (\ilK>t liiniM'lf again 
viMtetl this n*Lcioii in l/><^*{. and broni;lit lionie thn*e of the 
natives, — to s:iy nothing of additional (*vrn vaguer sitspicions 
of oilier ventun*s of the Knglish at this tim«'. 

In enumt*rating the (K*ean movement.^ that wen' now going on, 
•om«' intimation luis U*en given of the tires4mie expectancy of 
something lH*tter which was intermittently lK.»guiling the spirits 
of C^olumbuH during the eiglitet*n months that he remaine<l in 
Spain. It is niHHrsssiry t4i tnuv his unhappy life in some detail, 
though the |Kirticulars an* n(»t abuntlant. 

(Vniinand hiul not l>ei*n un(»bs(*rvant of all these expedition- 
ary movements, and they wen* <piite as thn*atening to 
the SiHinish sunnMuacv in tlu* New World as his iif«' m Sf^m. 
own pers<mal defe<*tion w:is t4i the deJ4H*ti*d .\dmiral. 
It had l>eeome verv cl<*ar that bv tvin;: his own hands, as he 
had in the com]>act which C^olumbus was urging to have ol>- 
mtrtied^ the King Iiad aIlowt*<l o]»]N)rtunitieH to ])ass by which he 
ooold profit through the newly amused enthusiasm of the S(>a- 


■ have t^eeii that he had, uevertheless, through Fon- 
iied the expcdilions of Ojeda, Pinzoii, and others, and 
' in that of Niflo got large profits for the exchetjuer. 

10 this in defiance of the vested rights of Columbia, 
•i little doubt that to bring Columbus into disgrace 

of his Admiral's power served in part to open the 
■overy more as Ferdinand wished. With the Viceroy 
;throned and become a waiting suitor, there was lit- 
L' to stay Ferdinand's ambition in sending out other 

■ lilorera. His experience ha<l taught him to allow 
1.1118 on which explorers oonld found exorbitant de- 

11 the booty and profit of the ventui-es. Anybody 
■fstward now, and tliere was no longer the oourage 
11 required to face an unknown sea and find an oppo- 

Columbus, who bad sliown the way, was now ea^y 
I useless pilot. 

i.t difficult for the King to frame excuses when Co- 
I'd his reinstatement. There wa« no use in sendmg 
ii]Mipu!ar viceroy before the peo])le of the colony 
inieted. Give them time. It might be seasonable 
ii>iid to them their old master wlieii they had forgot 


iIm* yi(*ld of gold grew rapidly, and became more with the tax an 
flevi'nth than it had l>een when it was a third. This inhuman 
doi^nulation of the poor natives had become an organized mis- 
er}' when, a little later, I^as Casas arrive<l in the colony, and he 
dt'picU the baleful contrasts of the Indians and their attractive 
inlaml. (iold was potent, but it was not potent enough to kc^p 
liolmdilla in his place. The representations of the agcmy of 
life among the natives were ho harrowing that it was decided to 
mmmI a new governor at on(*e. 

Tilt* |M*rson selected was Ni(*holas de Ovando, a man of whom 
I^iH (^asas, who went out with him, gives a high char- 
a4*ter for justice, sobriety, and gracMousness. Perhaps anit to 
hk* deservinl it. The syni]>athizers with (^olumbus 
find it hard to l)elicve such praise*. Ovando was commissioned 
ms gov«*rnor over all the o<mtinentaI and insular domains, then 
ae(|uire<l or thert*after to Im> added to the Crown in the New 
World. lie was to have his ciipital at Santo I>omingo. He 
was drputinL with ulxnit as much authority as Ik>badilla had 
hatl, to (*orrect abuses :m<l punish delinquents, and was to take 
one tiiird of all p>Id so far stored up, and one half of what 
wa."* Vft t«> Ih» gatlieretl. lie was to mono]M)liz<' all tnide for 
the C'n>wn. He was to segn»gate the roloni«*tH as iiinrh as |x»- 
Mblf in st'ttlonients. N\) supplies Wfrt* to Ih» :illowf><1 to the {peo- 
ple unle*^s they got them throu<;h thr royal factor. New efforts 
wvrti to Ik* made thnuigh some FranriM'ans, who a4*(H)m|>anied 
Ovando, t(> convert the Indians. The natives wen> to Im* made 
to work in the mines as hirtMl s«*rvants, \m\\A by the Crown. 

It had alre:uly lMHH>me evicl«*nt that such lalior as the mininfi^ 
of ;;old re(|uin*<l was too exhausting for the nativt>s, and the 
deatii-rate among them was sui*h that eyes were alrt*a4ly opened 
to th<* dangc*r of exterminatiim. By a sophistry which suited a 
iiaxteenth-century Christian, th<* exist^'uee of this |KK)r nu*e was 
to be prolonged by intnNlueing the negro race fn>m 
Afric*a, to take the heavi«*r bunleu of the t4>il, lHH*aus4* iotwininv 
it was lielieved thev would di<* nion' slowlv under tht* 
triaL So it was rovallv ordrnMl that slav«*s, l)orn of Africans* 
in S|iain, might Im* carri<Nl to Ks)>anola. The proniisi* of (^olum- 
buik't letter to Sanchez was lM>^]niiin<; t«> pn»ve delusive. It 
going to re<piin* the dt*gradation of two races instead of 
That was all ! 


e tho smart of all this forcible deprivation of Ui 
hwer, Culuiobus was apprised that uuder a royal 
Bder of September 27, 1601, Ovando would see to 
3 restitution of any projwrty of his which Bobadilla 
U'iated, anil that the Admiral was to be allowed to 
nd a factor in the fleet to look after his interests 
hder the articles which divided the gold and treasure 
1 and tlie Crown. To this office of factor Colam- 
|ed Alouso Sanchez de Carvajal. 

Qil circumstance of the fleet were like a biting 
m to the poor Admiral. One might expect he 
(nld have no high opinions of its pilots, for we find 
; to the sovereigns, on February 6, a letter laying 
1 certain observations on the art of navigation, in 
'■ There will be many who will desire to sail to 
hed islands ; and if the way is known those who 
KKjierience of it may safest traverse it." Perhaps 
J imply that better pilots were more important than 
He in his most favored time had never been 
vith a fleet of tliirty sail, so many of them large 
I had never canied out so iminv cavaliers, nor to 


1>et us tarn now to Colambos himself. He had not failed, 
AH we have said, to reach something like mental <juiet in the 
conviction that he could expect nothing but neglect for the 
present. So his active mind engaged in those visionary and 
s|wculative trains of thought wherein, when his body was 
weary and his spirits harried, he was prone to find relief. 

lie set himself to the composition of a maundering and 
erratic iiaper, which, under the title of Libros de las 

Pntfirifis. in preserved in the Bihlioteca Colombinaat iAhnm4eimM 
St^ville. The manuscript, however, is not in the 
hantlwrtting of Columbus, and no one has thought it worth 
while to print the whole of it. 

In it there is evidenc^o of his study, with the assistance of a 
Carthusian friar, of the Rihlc and of the early fathers of the 
Chun*h« and it shows, as his letter to Juan^s nurse had shown, 
bow he luid at hist worked himself into the belief that all his 
early arguments for the westwartl |Nissage were vain ; that he 
had simply lHH>n im|H*lliHl by something tliat he had not then 
imsptH'tiMl ; antl that his was but a predestin^Ml niission to make 
good wliat lie imagined was the prophecy of Isaiah in iMiAh'i 
the A|>oi»alypsi». This having Ihhmi done, there was i''"r*'^y- 
something yi*t left to l)e ac(H)mplislu'd before the antioi])ated 
ecliiwe of all eartlilv tliin^^s came on« ami that was the 
c«tn«|uest of the Holy LaiuU for which he was the a|>- hiThoIj 
)Munt4Hl le«*uler. H<' addressed this driveling ex|)osi- 
Utm« titgether with an urgent ap|x'al for the undertaking of the 
crusade, to Fenliiiand and Is:dH.'lla, but without convincing 
them that such a m*lf-ap|H)inte<l instrument of God was quite 
worthy of their employment. 

The great catastrophe of the workrs end was, as Columbus 
emlculated, alM>ut 155 years away. Ho Itascnl his esti- Kadof um 
mate upon an opinion of St. Augustine tlmt the ^*^^' 
vurU would endure fi»r 7,000 years ; and upon King Alfonso*s 
reckoning that nearly 5.^44 years liad |)assed when Christ 
appeared. The 1,501 years sinc^* ma<ie the sum 6,845, Icav- 
ing oat of the 7,000 the 155 years of his lM*lief. 

He also fancitnl, or professetl to Ixdieve, in a letter whi<*h he 
aafaaequently wroti* to tin* IN>]ie, tliat the presc^nt de- tvfMi#d by 
priTatitm of his titles and rights was the work of Satan« ^'^^ 

to see tliat the su(*i*esH of Columbus in the Indies 


inly a preparation for the Admiral's long-vaunted 
tlie Holy Liinil. Tbe Spanish government mean- 
.-, and they had reason to know, that theii' denial of 
tivea hail quite as much to do with other things as 
oa of diabolieal powers. Unfortunately for Colum- 
■ they nor the Pope were inclined to aot on any inter- 
f fate that did not include a civil policy of justice 

.ions of Columbus were harmless, and served to be- 
lith pious whinisios. But the mood did not last He 
:xt turned to his old geographical problems. The 
ortuguese were searching north and south for the pa»- 
ige that would lead to some indefinite land of spic«s, 
ii new way to reach the traile witli Calicut and the 
\ hich at this time, by the African route, was pouring 

I the Portuguese treasury in splendid contrast to the 

II from tht; Spanish Indies. He harbored a belief 
■r passage might yet be found beyond the Caribbean 
■osa, in placing that vignette of St. Christopher and 
Christ athwart the supposed juncture of Asia and 
.mth Amcricii, had eluded the question, not solved it. 


the sea that wanhed the Golden Chersonesos. He indeed died 
without knowing the truth. Tliis same currentf deflected about 
Honduras and Yucatan, sweeim by a northerly circuit round the 
great (rulf of Mexico, and, {mssing out by the Cape q^u 
of Florida, flows uorthwarti in what we now call the ^^^*^^^ 
(fulf Stream. 

There is nothing in all the efforts of the canoniasers more ab- 
sunlly puerile tlian De Lorgues*H version of the way in which 
Columbus came to believe in this strait. He had a vision, and 
saw it ! The oidy diflieulty in the matter was that the i)oor 
Admiral was so ecstatic in his liallucination tliat he mistook the 
narrowness of an isthmus for the narrowness of a strait ! 

The pro|>osition of such a seart*Ii was not inopportune in the 
eyes of Ferdinand. There were those about the Court 
who tliought it unwise to giv(> furtlier employment to a nieat r»iM 
man who was dcgnuled from his honors ; but to the u> «>i>d co. 
Kmg It was a convenient way of removing a |N>rsist4'iit wch* 
and ai*tive-mi tided ciiinplainant from the vicinity of 
tbt* Court, U\ send him on some quest or other, and no one 
cuuhl UW but there was some truth in his new views. It was 
worth while to let him try. So once ag:iiii, by tin* royal |>er- 
mi^nitm, (^olumbus set himself to work e<|uipping a 
little fleet. It was the autumn of 1;')01 wht'u li<* a|>- lumbiu pr*. 
peared in Si*villo with the S4)ven>i;;n*s conimaiuls. r^imphto 
He rarietl his work of pre|>:iriiig the sliips witli s)H*iid- 
ing some |)art of his time on his treatise* on the prophecies, 
while a friar named Gas|Kir (iorrieii) liel|KHl him in tlic labor. 
Kmrly in 1502 he had got it into sha|N> to present to 
the sovereigns, and in Febniary he wrote the letter p^nr. co- 
to Po|M* Alexander VII. whirh has alreaily been men- «riu«totiM 

As the prc|uirations went on, he U^gan to think of Espafiola, 
mild how he might |)erliaps U* allowt^l to touch there ; 
but orders were given to him forbidding it on the t.m<hit 

ootwmrd jMUMage, though suffering it <m the return, for 
it vms hoped by tliat time that the disonlers of thr island would 
be Mippreffied. It was arrangt^l that the Adelaiitath) and his 
sun Fenlinand shouUl a(*com|>any him, an<l soiiu* interpret- 
Icamed in Arabia W(>n* )Mit on lK>:ird, in i*as4» his success 
pnl him in contact with the |>eople of tlie (ireat Khan. 


jonsion of his rights lay heavily on his mind, and 
irch, 1502. he ventured to rpfer to the subject once 
letter to the sovereigns. They replied, March 14, 

structious which they sent from Valencia de Torre, 

111 to keep his mind at aase, and leave such things to 
his son Diego. They assured him that in due time 

lestitution of all would be made, and that he most 

already taken 8tei)H to secure a perpetuity of the 
■(■ord of his honors and deeds, if nothing else ooidd 
1' permanent. It was at Seville, January 5, 1502, 
lat Columbus, appearing before a notary in his own 
(lune. attested that series of documents respecting hU 
jirerogatives which are so religiously preserved at 
lifse papers, as we have seen, were copies which Co- . 
1 lately secured from the docunienU in the Spanidi 

among which he was careful to include the revo- 
une 2. 1497, of the licenses which, much to Colum- 
, ance, had been granted in 1495, to allow others than 
I'xplore in the new icgions. We may not wonder at 
le can hardly conjecture why a transaction of lii- 


High Noble Lorda: — Although the body walks about 
here, the heart U constantly over Uiere. Our Lord has con- 
ferred on me the greatest favor to any one since David. The 
results of my undertaking already appear, and would shine 
greatly were thoy not concealed by the blindness of the govern- 
mont. I am going again to the Indies under the auspices of 
the Holy Trinity* soon to return : and since I am mortal, I leave 
it with my mni Diego that you receive every year, forever, one 
tenth of the entire revenue, such as it may lie, for the purpose 
of reducing the tax upon com, wine, and other provisions. If 
that t4*nth amounts to something, collect it If not, take at 
least the will for the <leed. I lieg of you to entertain regard for 
the MHi I have recommended to you. Nicolo de Oderigo knows 
more aliout my own affairs than I do myself, and I have sent 
him the transcripts of any privileges and letters for safi^keeping. 
I nhoulti In* glad if you could see them. My lords, the King and 
Qutf«*n entleavor to honor me more than ever. May the Holy 
Trinity preserve your noble persons and incri'sisi* your most 
magnititvnt House. Dime in Sevilla, on the second day of 
ApriK i:»02. 

The oliii'f Admiral of the ocean, Vit^eroy and G(>veruor-(ien- 


eral of tin* islands and <*ontin<fht of Asia ami the Indies, of my 
lords, the Kin;; an«l Queen, their Captain-Ueueral of the sea, 

and of their Council. 

• S . A . S . 
X M Y 
Xp** Fkkkns. 

The letter was handed by C olumbus to a Genoese bankeri 
then in S|iain, Francisco tie KivaroUa, who forwartled it to 
Olerigo ; but as this amluissador was then on his way to Spain, 
llarrisse oonjectureM that he did not receive the letter till his 
return to Genoa, for the n*ply of tlu* luink is date«l De* ,..0^ ^^ 
eembcr 8, 1502, long after (\dumbus ha<l saiW. This ^^Ik*. 
response was addresmMl to Dit^go, and incloMnl a letter '*'''' 
to the Admiral. The gn^at affiH!tion and good will of Coluro- 
bos towards ^^ his first country ** gratified them inexpressibly, as 
they sai<I to the son ; and to the father they acknowletlged the 
art of his intentions to be ** as great and extraordinar}- as that 


twen recorded about any man in the world, consider- 
your owu skill, energy, and prudence, you have dis- 
h a considerable portion of this earth and sphere of 
.orld, which during so many yeai-s past and centuries 

1- of Columbus to the bank remained on the files of 
tion — a single sheet of paper, written on one side 
I'l-eed in the centre for the thread of the file — nndi^ 
the archivist of the bank, attracted by the indorse- 
11, Epla D. jVdmieati Don XROPnOHi Coluhbi, 
; in 1829, when, at the request of the authoritiea of 
:is transferred to the keeping of its archivists. It 
11 at the city hall, tcvday, placed between two glass 
lat either side of the paper can be read. 



Their Majesties, in March, 1502, were evidently distarbed 
at Columbus*s delays in sailing, since such detentions 1502. Much. 
brought to them nothing but tiie Admiral's coutinued co^^Sded 
importunities. They now instructed him to sail with- ^ "^ 
out the least delay. Nevertheless, Columbus, who had given out, 
as Trivigiano reports, that he expected his discoveries on this 
voyage to be more surprising and helpful than any yet made, 
his purpose being, in fact, to circumnavigate the globe, ^ay 9-11. 
did not sail from Cadiz tiU May 9 or 11, 1502, — the ^"^ 
accounts vary. He had four caravels, from fifty to seventy 
tons each, and they carried in all not over one hundred and 
fifty men. 

Apparently not forgetting the Admiral's convenient reserva- 
tion respecting the pearls in his third voyage, their HiaiMtruo. 
Majesties in their instructions particularly enjoined ^^^^^ 
upon him that all gold and other precious commodities which 
he might find should be committed at once to the keeping 
of Francois de Porras, who was sent N^ith him to the end that 
the sovereigns might have trustworthy evidence in his accounts 
of the amount received. Equally mindful of earlier defections, 
their further instructions also forbade the taking of any slaves. 

Years bad begun to rest heavily on the frame of Columbus. 
EQs constitution had been strained by long exposures, j^^ phyaioai 
and his spirits had little elasticity left. Hope, to be JS^u^^ 
sure, had not altogether departed from his ardent ^®^"™*>"^ 
nature ; but it was a hope that had experienced many reverses, 
and its pinions were clipped. There was still in him no lack 
of mental vitality ; but his reason had lost equipoise, and his 
discernment was clouded with illusory visions. 



\.% the utmost ilesire at this time on the part of theb 
hat uo rupture ahoiilil oreak the friendly relations 
' sustiineiLl with the Portuguese court, and it bad 
^'L'd that, ill uiise Coliuiilma should fall in with any 
fleet, tliere should be the most civil interchange of 
The Spanish monarcha had also given orders, since 
uouie of the Moors besieging a Portuguese post on 
1 coast, that Columbus should first go thither anil 

jiind, on reaching that .AJiican harbor on the 15th, 
lat the Moors had departed- So. with no longer de- 
ly than to exchange civilities, he lifted anchor on the 
line day and put to sea. It was while he was at the 
lay 20-25, taking in wood and wat«r, that Columbus 
lote to his devoted Gon-icio a letter, which Navar- 
Lto preserves. " Now my voyage will be made in the 
ame of the Holy Trinity," he says, " and I hope for 

little to note on the voyage, which had been a pro»- 
LTous one, and on .Tune 15 he reached Martinioo 
Martinico). He himself professes to have been but 


make anv mention of hin vessers defects when he wrote from 
the CanarieH, we can hanlly avoid the conclusion that his deter- 
mination to call at Kspailola was suddenly taken. II is whole 
conduct in the matter l(M)ks like an obstinate pur]>ose to carry 
his own ]K>int a|;^inst the royal c<mimands, just as he had tried 
to carry it against the injunctions respecting the making of 
slaves. We must remember this when we c<mie to consider the 
later neglect on the part of the King. We must remember, 
als^N the iM»nsidenit4* language with which the sovereigns had 
conveytHi this injunction : *' It is not fit that you should lose so 
muoh time : it is much fitter that you should go another way ; 
though if it a])|)ears nei*cssary, and Go<l is willing, you may stay 
there a little while on your return.** 

Kostdly de Ijorgucs, with his customary disingenuousnesa, 
merely says that Columbus came to Santo Domingo, to deliver 
letters with which he was chargeil, and to exchange one of his 

It was the 29th of June when the little fleet of Columbus 
arrivcMl off the ]>ort. lie sent in one of his command- 
ers to ask ]>ermission to shelter his ships, and the .-i) "ivium- 
pnviifgi» of negotiating tor another caravfl, sinrt', as oiTs*nto 
be says, *'onc of his ships ha<l iHH'oinr unsraworthy 
mnd eould no longer carry siiil." IIi-» n'<jurst came to Ovando, 
who was now in cominand. This governor had left S|)ain in 
February, onlv a m(»ntli Ix'forc Coliiiiibus nu'eiviHl his iinal in- 
struetions, and th(*n* (*an Im» little doubt that he had learned from 
Fonneca tliat th«»si* instructions would enjoin Columbus not to 
complicate in any way ()vando*s as>uinpti<m of command by ap- 
prosK'hing his capital. L:is Casas s4H*ins to imply this. How- 
ever it may Imn Ovando was amply (pialititnl by his own instruo- 
tions t4> do what he thought the cinninistances re4|uirt*4l. Co- 
hmbus representiMl that a storm was coining on, or rather the 
//inA/riV tells \v\ that lit* did. It is to l)e remarkcnl that Odiim- 
bos himself makes n<» such sUitement. At all events, word waa 
tent back to Columbus by his lN>at that he could not c.>inrabua 
enter the harUir. Irving calls this an ** ungnu»ious ^^,^^^^ 
refojial/* and it turntnl out that later events have op- ^^***'' 
poftonely afTonlcMl the a)>ologists for the A<1miral the occasion 
to point a moral to his advanUige, particularly since Columbus, 
if we may believe the doubtful story, ci)niident of his prognostic 


i again sent word that the fleet lying in the harbor, 
,1, would go out at great i>eril in view of an iuipend- 
It seeius to be quite uuuevtaiu if at the time his 
(ly knowledge of his reasons for nearing EspaSola, 
iiig denied admittance to the jrart. At least Porras, 
ly he describes the events, leaves one to make suoh 

t iu the harbor was that which had brought Ovandt^ 
id was now laden for the return. There was oa 
yjxA of it, as Columbus might have learned from his 
, the man of all men whom he most hated, BobadiUa, 
lio had gracefully yielded the ]X)wer to Ovando two 
ouths before, and of whom Las Casas, who was then 
■tsh in his inquisitive seeking after knowledge re- 
L' Indies and on the spot, could not find that any one 
On the same ship was Columbus's old rebeUious and 
iig conipanion, lioldan, whose conduct had been in 
months examined, and who was now to be sent to 
irther investigations. There was also embarked, but 
Aw unfortunate cacique of the Vega, Guarionex, to 
show of in SeviUe. The latling of the ships was 


Otht*rH fouuilerecl later. Some of tho vessels managed to re- 
turn to Santo Doniinf^) in a shattered i*ondition. A single 
caravel, it is usually stated, survived the shock, so that it alone 
oould prolH^ed «m the voyage ; and if tho testimony is to be be- 
lievtHl, this was the weakest of them all, but she car- |^ ^,p 
ricil the gohl of Columbus. Among the caravels which il,ll!*,5r3!ru 
|iut lock to Santo Domingo for rc|)airs was one on *^'**^ 
which liastiiias was going to Spain for trial. This one arrived 
at Ca4li2 in September, 1502. 

The ships of Columbus had weuth(>nHl the gale. That of the 
Adiiiirai, by keeping close in to land, had fared best. coioabM** 
The «>thers, seeking sea-room, had suffen»d more. They JJjJ'iJ*' 
hist sight of each other, however, during the height of the '^' 
gale : but when it was over, tliey met together at Port IlermosOi 
at the wcsti'rly end of tlie island. Tlie gale is a picture over 
which the glow of a retributive justice, untler the favoring di«- 
pensation of chance* is so easily thrown by sympathetic writers 
that the effusions of the sentimcnt^dists have got to stand at 
bii»t for historic verity. De Ijorgncs d(K's not lose the opportu- 
nitv to make the most of it. 

Columbus, havini; lingennl about the island to n^iKiir his shi|M 
and n*fn*sh his cn*ws. and also to avoid a second st<»rm, did 
n(»t tiually gi't away till July 14, wju-n hr stecrtMl y^^, j^^ 
ilinn'tly for Terra Firma. The nirrents |M*rph'XiHl ii',^***" 
him. ami. as then* was little wiiul. he was swept west •''•^* 
further than he ex|H*i*te<l. lie tir>t touclieil at some islancU 
near Jamaii^a. Theu(*«' he pnH^eetliHl west a quarter southwesti 
for four days, without sinking land, as Forms tells us, when, l)e- 
wilflenMl, he turne<l to tht* n(»rthwest, and then north. Hut 
finding himself (July 24) in the an*hi|M'higo near Cul>a, which 
«in his S4*iHmd voyagt* he had calle<l The ( wardens, he soon after 
:retting a fair wimi (July 27 ) st4HKl S4)uthwest, and <m j^u jm. At 
Julv iKi mmh* a small i.nland, off the n(»rthern I'oiist of *^"*«»»*^ 
Honduras, calle<l (ruanaja by tin* natives, and Isla (h* Pinos by 
himwlf. lie was now in si^ht of th<' mountains of the main- 
lan«l. The natives struck him as of a phyNJeal ty|M* diffen^nt 
frvHii all «itherH whom he IkkI s«>en. A large eano«', 
fight fe«*t lM*am, and of gn*at ]«'u;;tli. thtMi;;li mad«' of Mr«iic^ 
a single log, approaehtnl \%ith ^till str:in;;«'r )NH>ple in 
it. They luul ap)>an'iitly eonn* from a iv^non further north ; 


I canopy in the waist of the canoe sat a caciqoe 

l])Kii<ients. Tlie boat was propelled by five and 

I with paddles. It carried various articles to convincft 

I he had found a people more advanced in aria 

~uf tho regions earlier discovei-ed. They had with 

implements, including hatchets, bells, and the like. 

iiethiiig like a crucible in which metal had been 

leir wooden swords were ja^ed with sharp flints, 

< were carefully made, their utensils were polished 

Columbuij traded off some trinkets for such spe<a- 

I wanted. If he now had gone in the direction from 

I marvelous caooe liad come, he might have tbos 

|l the wondrous world of Yucatan and Mexico, and 

more marvels yet. His beatitic visions, 

Supposed were leading him under the will of the 

I), however, south. The delusive strait was theT& 

L old man among the Indians, whom he kept as » 

I the savage could dfaw a sort of chart of the coast. 

I (1 the rest with presents, after he had wrested from 

I he wanted. A]»proaching the mainland, near the 

Honduras, the Adelantado liinded on Sunday. 



nno another. Some made vows of pcoanoe, if tbeir lives were 
prt-K-n'M. Columbus wan liiiuwlf wrenched with the cainabw 
gout, and from a Hort of jiavilion, which covered his ^i^*!!^ 
couch on the quarter deck, he kept a good eye on all *°^ 

ibey f-neonnt^rcd. "TUi- .li-tn-ss uf niv wui," ho *;iyH. "picved 
■w to the loul, and the more when 1 iMiisiiler^-d his U-iidcr aju' ; 


Ibat thirteen years old, and ho enduring so tnach toil 

\ a timf." " My brother," he adds further, *' was in 

I the worst condition and the most exposed 

iind uiy grief on thia account was the greater that I 

|ii with me against Mh will." 

I easy woi-k to make the seventy leagues from Cape 

Ito Cape Gi-acios a Dios, and the bestowal of this 

Bted his thankfulness to God, when, after forty days 

endeavor, his caraveb were at last able to 

I'lind tlie cape, on September 12 (or 14). A se^ 

liiard ati-etching away to the south lay open beftnv 

7 known as the Mosquito The cor- 

I sets west so persistently here splits and sends a 

I this coast. So with a " fair wind and tide," ag 

■ followed it3 varied scenery of crag and lowland 

lian sixty leagues, till they discovered a great fio* 

|>i!jing out of a river. It seemed to offer an oppor- 

tplenish their casks and get some store of wood. 

Ill of September, they anchored, and sent their boat! 

A meeting of the tide and the river's flow raised 

liiltiious sea at tlie bar, just as the boats were coming 


Spanianln were on shore getting water; bat even they were 
iitrip|KHl of their Spanish fuiery when restored to their friends, 
and every bit of it was returnc<l to the givers. There seem to 
be dinoonlant statements by Cohmibus and in the I/istorie re* 
•peeling these young women, and Columbus gives them a worse 
charac*ter than his ehroni(*ler. When the Adehintado went 
ashore with a notary, and this official displayed his paper and 
inkhorn, it seemed to strike tlie wondering natives as a spelL 
They fltnl, and retumetl with something like a censer, cbuvsiarof 
from which they scattered the smoke as if to dis- •^■■•*»^ 
perse all baleful spirits. 

These unaccustomed traits of the natives worked on the 
sa|K>nititions of the Simniards. They began to fancy they had 
got within an atmosphere of sorceries, and Columbus, thinking 
of the two Indian maiden hostages, was certain there was a 
spell of witchcraft alxmt thc^m, and he never quite freed his 
mind of this necromantic ghost. 

The old Indian whom Columbus had taken for a guide when 
first he touched the coast, having been set ashore at Cape 
Grmcios a Dios, enricheil with presents, Columbus now seized 
•even of this new tribe, and selecting two of the most intelli* 
gent as other guides, he let the rest go. The si'izure w:is greatly 
resented by the tribe, and they sent eiiiisHiiricH to negotiate for 
the release of the captives, but to no effect. 

Departing on ()ct4>l>er 5 fn)m the region which the natives 
called Cariari, and when* tht* fame of Columbus is ^^^ q^^^ 
still pres4Tved in the I^hia del Almirante, the ex- **'• c«»*~i 
pkireni soon found the coast trending once more towards the 
east. They were tracking wliat is now known as the shore of 
CoHta Ricm. They sewn ent4*red the large and island-studded 
Cmribaro Bay. Ilen* the Spanianls were drlight4Hl to find the 
natives wearing plates of goI«l as ornaments. They tried to 
timfRc for thenu but the IiHlians were ItKith to ))art with their 
treasures. The natives intiuiateil that there was murh ooMni^tai 
of this metal farthrr on at a place calKnl Ve- ■*^'*»m»^ 
So the shi|»s s:iiKMi on, OcIoImt 17. and n^achetl that 

i^ The S|ianianlH caint» to a river: hut the natives sent 
defiance to them in the bhi^t; of thfir (Mmch-shelitt, while they 
sbnok at them th(*ir lnii<*«»H. Knt4*riiig the tidts they s|)lashed 
tile water towards their enemies, in token of ooiitem|>t. (V)Ium- 


buftV iDdian guides soon pacifie<l them, and a round of barter 
followed, by which seventeen of their gold disks were secured for 
three* hawks* l>ells. The inten*ourse ended, however, in a little 
hostile bout, during which the Spanish crossbows and lombards 
Nuon brought the savages to obedience. 

Still the caravels went on. The same scene of startled natives, 
in defiant attitude, soon soothed by the trinkets was repeate<l 
evenb'where. In one ]>lace the S)>aniards found what they had 
never st^en before, a wall laid of stone and lime, and Columbus 
bc^gan to think of the civilized East again. Coast peoples are 
always barbarous, a.H he says ; but it is the inland ))eople who are 
rich. As he ))asseil along this coast of Venigua, as the name has 
gol to be writU*n, though his notary at the time caught the Indian 
pinmunciation as Cobraba, his interpreters ]>ointed out its vil* 
lagi^ and the chief one of all ; and when they had passed on 
a little farther they told him he was sailing beyond the gold 
country*. Columbus was not sure but they were trying to in* 
diMre him to o|)en communication again with the shore, to offer 
ehanivs for their es(*a|)e. The seeker of tlie strait could not 
■top for g<>ld. His vision letl him on to that marvelous land of 
CiinianN of which thes4» su<tH»ssive native triln^s told 
him, nituat^nl tim days inland, and whcrt* the )>eople 
revoknl in gold, saileil in shi|>s, and conductiHl commerce in 
spices and other pnH'ious commoilities. The women there were 
decked, so they siiid, with 4H)rals and )H*arlH. ^^ I should be 
eoDtent,** he says, ^* if a tithe of this which I hear is true." 
He even fancied, from all ho cH)uld understand of their signs 
mod langiiagiN that these Ciguare iH^>pIe were as terrible in war 
tti the Spanianis, and ro<le on U^asts. ^^ They also say that the 
•ra fuimmnds Ciguare, and that ten days* journey from thence 
in *iie river (ranges.** IIumlM>hU st^cms to think that in all 
tbiii Columbus got a conin^ption of that great western oi*ean 
which wan lying so much nearer to him than he sup]>oHiMl. It 
way bo doabtetl if it was (piitt* m> clear to (*oIunibus as llum- 
hoUt thinks ; but there is g«MMi n^iison to l>elicve that (*ohunbus 
imasrined this wonderful re;:ioii of Ci;niare was half-way to the 
Ganges. If, as his canon i/^Ts fondly sup])oHe, he \vm\ j^m^ 
aot mistaken in his visions an isthmus for a stniit, lie ^'*^'""^ 
might have been prompted to cross tin* slender barrier which 
ftnw seiMuated him from his goal. 


2<l of November, the ships again anchored m a apa- 
ious harbor, so beautiful in its groves and fruits, 
ml with such deep water close to the shore, that Co- 
:>: it the name of Puerto Bello (,Porto Bello).— an 
[■pellation which has never left it. It rained for 
■veu (lays while they lay here, doing nothing bat 
ittle with the natives for provisions. The Indians 
^uld, and hai-dly any was seen. Starting once roore. 
lie Spaniards came in sight of the cape known sirn* 
s Nombre de Dies, but they were thwarted for a while 
tempts to pass it. They soon found a harbor, where 
il till November 23; then going on again, they 
iliorage in a basin so small that the caravels were 
ost beside the shore. Columbus was kept liere by the 
r nine days. The basking alligators reminded him 
■odiles of the Nile. The natives were uncommoniv 
1 gracious, and provisions were plenty. The ease 
the seamen could steal ashore at night began to be 
)g, leading to indignities at the native houses. The 
iper was at last aroused, and tlie Spanish revelries 
;iit to an end by an attatik on the ships. It ceased, 


Poiras, possibly at a later day, seems to have been better 
infonncd, or at least he im|)arts more in his narrative than 
Columbus does. He says he saw in the people of these parts 
many of the traits of those of the pearl coast at Paria, and that 
the majM, which they ]M)8Hessed, showed that it was to this point 
that the explorations of Ojeda and Ilastidas had been pushed. 

There were other tilings that might readily have made him 
turn back, as well as this des|)air of finding a strait coioBiMt 
His crew were dissatisfieil with leaving the gold of *""•*»•**• 
Veragua. His shi|>s were badly bored by the worms, and they 
had become, from this cause and by reason of the heavy we»> 
ther which ha<l so mercilesslv followed them, more and more 
unseaworthy. So on December 5, 1502, when he ly^i^ i^ 
passed out of the little harbor of El KetreUs he be- «~^** 
gan a backward course. I'retty soon the wind, which had all 
along faced him from the east, blew strongly from the west, 
ebec'king him as much j^oing backward as it had in his onward 
course. It seemed as if the elements were turned against him. 
The gait* was making sport of him, as it veered in all direo> 
tions. It was indeed a Coast of Contrasts (La Costa de los 
Cootrastes), as Columbus called it. The li<:htuiiig streaked 
the hkies continually. The thunder was appalling. For nine 
days Uie little Hlii|Ks, strained at ever}* seam, leaking at 
every point where the tnipioal st*a worm had pierced 
tKem, writlie<l in a struggle of death. At one time a gigantio 

itenip<mt formetl within sight. The sea surged around its 
The clouds sto(>iNti to give it force. It came staggering 
ami lunging towards the fragile barks. Tlie crews exorcised the 
wati-ry spirit by repeating the Gos|h*1 of St. John the Evangel- 
ist, ami the cnuy column ikissihI on the other side of them. 

Adde«l t4) their ))eril thn)ugh it all were the horrors of an 
impending famine. Their biscuiit were revolting because of 
tbe wonns. Tiiey caught sharks for fooil. 

At last on IX*i^*nil>er 17. the Ht*et reunited, — for they had, 
dhiriog tbe gales, lost sight of each other, — and ent^^red ,-^,,2. n». 
a harbor, where they found the native cabins built in *****' "• 
tbe tree tops, to be out of the way of griflius, or some other beasts. 
After farther buffeting of the ten)|>ests, they fimilly i^thuiiM 
Made m harbor on the const of X'enigua, in a riv(>r ^***'' 
wluek ColnmbuB named Santa Maria de IWlen (^Bethlehem}, 


3, confident that the Quibian had been drowned, 
(! chastisement which hatl been given his tribe wai 
lesson, began again to arrange for his departure, 
r had risen a little, he succeeded in getting his light- 
la over the bar, and anchored them outside, where 
^ was again put on board. To offer some last in- 
actions and to get water, Columbus, od April 6, sent 
boat, in command of Diego Tristan, to the AdeUiw 
us to be left in command. When the boat got in, 
id the settlement in great peril. The Quibian, who 
id i-eached the shore in safety after his adventure, had 
lickly organized an attacking par^, and bad fallea 
>ou the settlement. The savages were fast g«ttiiif 
,'e, for the unequal contest had lasted nearly three 
11 the Adelautado and Mendez, rallying a small 
(1 so impetuously upon them that, with the atd of a 
Ihouud, the native host was scattered in a trioe. 
paiiiard had been killed and eight wounded, indod- 
■lantado ; but the rout of the Indians was complete. 
Idle these scenes were going on that Tristan arriTed 
opposite the settlement lie dallied till the affair 


Tent hiH Muling without them ; bat the current and tide com- 
mingling made Huch a commotion on the bar that no boat could 
liv.* in the sea. The bodies of Tristan and his men came float- 
ing down stream, with carrion crows perched upon them at their 
ghastly feast. It seemed as if nature visited them with premoni- 
tions. At last the Adelantado brought a suiBcicnt number of 
men into such a steady mood that they finally constructeil out 
of whatever they could get some sort of a breastwork near the 
Hhore, where the ground was open. Ilore they could use their 
matchlocks and have a clear sweep about them. They placed 
behind this bulwark two small falconets, and prepared to de- 
fend themselves. They were in this condition for four days. 
Their provisions, however, began to run short, and every Span- 
iard who dared to forage was sure to be cut o£f. Their ammu- 
nition, too, was not abundant. 

Meanwhile Columbus was in a similar state of anxiety. ^^The 
Admiral was suffering frtmi a severe fever,*' he says, " and 
worn with fatii::ue.** His ships were Ivini; at anchor 
ootside the bar, with the risk of \iemz oblii^ed to put to t^^*^ out. 
aea at any moment, to work off a lee sliore. Tristairs 
prolonged al>sence harassed him. Another incident was not k^ss 
ominous. The i*ompanions of the (jiiibian were confined on 
boanl in the forec:istIe ; and it was thtr inti'iition to take them 
to S{uiin as hostages, as it was felt they would l>e, for the col- 
ony left behind. Those in charge of them Iiad l)ecome care- 
less about securing the Iiatchway, and one night they failect 
to chain it, trusting prolmbly to the wat4*hfulness of certain 
sailors who slept u]K>n the hatch. The savages, finding a foot- 
ing upon some ballast which they piled up l)eneath« suddenly 
threw off the* cover, casting the slet*ping sailors violently 
aside, and before the guani could be 4*alleii the greater |>:irt 
of the prisoners luut juuiikmI into the sea and esca|N*d. Such 
as were secured were thrust back, but the next morning it was 
found that they all hail strangleil theinsiOves. 

After suc*h manifestiitions of feriMMous drU*nnination« Colum- 
boii began to lie further alarnie<I f(»r the safety of his bro- 
ther's companions and of Tristin's. For days a tossing surf 
had made an impassable barrier betwciMi him and tht* short*. 
lie had bat one boat, and he did not dare to risk it in an attempt 


?'inally, his Sevillkn pilot, Pedro Ledeama, offered 
) brave the (kagers by swimiimtg, if the boat would 
ike hiui close to the surf. The trial was made ; the 
itted himself to the aurf, and by hia strength and 
:'mouiited wave after wavu that he at length reached 
i; and was seen to mount the shore. In dae time hs 
:eeii oil the beach, aud pluogtng ia once more, waa 
.essful in passing the raging waters, and was picked 
Coat. He had a sad tale to teU the Admiral. It ■ 

L>f insubordination, a powerless Adelantado, and* 
ciness to escape somehow. Ledesma said that tta 
u'-pariug cauoes to come ofF to the ships, since thdr ' 
: unable to pass the bar. 
I.S long consideration in these hours of dishearten- * 

the end of it was a decision to rescue the colaity , 
■n the coast. The wind.s never ceased to be high, and j 
olnmbua's ships, in their weakened condition, were 
ily kept afloat by care and vigilance. The loss of 
iL- boat's crew threw greater burdens and strains 

wlio were left. It was impossible while the snrf 
lid in his only boat, and quite as impossible for the 


U youth still for the aged.** Columbus adds that when the 
Voice ohided him he wept for his errors, and that he heard it 
all as in a trance. 

The obvious interpretation of all this is either that by the 
record Columbus intended a fable to impress the sovereigns, 
for whom he was writing, or that he was so moved to halluci- 
nations that he believed what he wrote. The hero worship of 
Irving decides the question easily. ^Such an idea,** sa}^ 
Irving, referring to the argument of deceit, and forgetting the 
Admirars partiality for 8ueh practioen, ^ is inconsistent with 
the character ol (!*oIumbus. In recalling a dream, one is uncon- 
sciously apt to give it a little cohen*ncy.** Irving*s plea is that 
it was a men* dream, which wa.H mistaken by Columbus, in his 
feverish excitement, for a revelation. ** The artless manner,'* 
jul«ls tliat bi<»gra|)hcr, ^* in which he mingles the rhapsodies and 
dreams of his imagination with simple faints and sound practic*al 
obtfMTvations, |M>uring them f«>rth with a kind of Scriptural 
Milemnity ami |NM*try of language, is one of the most striking 
illustrations of a rharacter richly coiniMiuntltHi of extraonlinary 
aiMl appan»ntly contnuliftorv elements/' \Vt» may |HThaps ask. 
Was Irving's hrro a dtN^ivcr, or was lu» mat!? The chancH's 
«eem to In* that the wholo vision was siuiply x\\v pnxhirt <»f one 
of thcMc tits of aiN'rration whirh in thex- latrr voars wen* no 
ntmngi'rs U\ ColuinlMis's I'xisti'inv. Ili"^ mind was n<»t infrc- 
«|uently, amid 4lisap|>ointmt»nts and distract it ms, in no tit condi- 
tion to ward off hallucination. 

IIundHiMt s|H»aks of (\»lumbuH*s letter describing this vision 
as ««howing the disorderetl mind of a pnmd siuil wcighiMl down 
with deai) ho|)es. He has no fear that th«* ntrangi* mixture of 
force and we:ikn<^S of pride and tou«*hing humility, which 
acrompanies i\wM* S4»cn»t contortions will ev«»r impn»ss the world 
with other feelings than those of c<immis4*ration. 

It is a hani thing for any ont», s4H*king to «io justi(*e to the 
agonies «>f such spirits, to measun* them in the calmness of bett4*r 
days. *• I^»t thos4» wht> an» aivustouunl to slander and as|>er- 
sion aikk, while they sit in st^nirity at home. Why dost thou 
DoC do so and so under such cinnmisUincvs?** savs Columbus 
binself. It is far easier t4> let one*s self loose into tlie vortex 
and he tossed with svnipatliv. Hut if four centuries have done 
anvthiof; for us« they ought to have cleared tlie air of its mirages. 
Whal is pitiable may not lie noble. 



e was, of course, associated in Columbus*s mind with 
e good weather which foUowed. During thb a raft 
js made of two oanoes lashed together beneath » 
id, using this for ferrying, all the stores were floated 
the ships, so that in the end nothing was left be- 
e decaying and stranded caravel. This labor was 
the direetion of Diego Mendez, whom the Admiral 
,- kissing him on the cheek, and by giving him com- 
istan's caravel, which was the Admiral's flagshijt. 

the name of this disastrous coast should represent 

day iu the title of his descendant, the Duke o( 
Xever a mau turned the prow of his ship from sccuej 

oulil sooner forget, with more sorrow and relief, 
an Columbus, in the latt*?r days of April, 1503, witk 
s enfeebled crews and Ids crazy hulka, stood awaj, 

he thought, for Espanola. And yet three monthi 
ilinost in the same breath with which he had re- 
se miseries, with that obliviousness which so oftai 

rrant iniud, he wrote to bis sovereigns that "ther* 
lie world a eonotry, whose inhabitants are more 


led other expeditions to tliat rcgioD of pearls. He b said also 
to have taken from his crew all their memoranda of the voyage, 
Mo that there would be no such aid available to guide others. 
** None of them can ex)>lain whither I went, nor whence I oame/* 
he says. ** They do not know the way to return thither/* 

Hy the time he reached }^lerto Ilello, one of his caravels had 
lN*i-onie so weakene<l by tlie Ixirinj; worms that he had ^i p^^yto 
t4) almndon her and crowd his men into the two re- ^^^ 
mainin^ vessels. His crews )>ecanie clamorous when he reached 
thfCfulf of Darien, where he thought it prudent to AttbrOuif 
mbandon his easterly course and steer to the north. ^ ^^•»*«»- 
It was now May 1. He hugginl the wind to overcome the 
<*um*nts, but when he sighted mnne islands to the westward 
of KsiKiflola, on the lOtlu it was evident that the cur- ^^^^^ k^^ 
n»ntH hail been lH»aring him westerly all the while. '^' 
They were still drifting him westerly, when he found himself, 
on May 30, among the islands on the Cuban coast 

" May 30. On 

which he had calhnl The (lardens. *• I had reaelMuK" ibeCuhMi 
hf» JUiys in his old delusion, '* the province of Mago, 
which is contiguous to that of (^athay/* Here the shii>s an- 
chore<l Xo give the men refn*shnieut. Thi* laUir of kec^ping 
the ves-ii'Is free from water ha<l lKH»n i»x*'essive, and in a stnuire 
naailsteail it could now Ix.* carried on with some nvspite of 
t«iil, if the weather would only hold giHMl. This was not to 
Im», however. A g:di» ensue*! in which they hwt their anchors. 
The two carav«»ls, moreover, suntaiiied s4*rious damage by c*olli- 
sion. All the anchors of the Adinirars ship had gone but one, 
mnd though that h<*ld. the cable nearly wore asunder. After 
%\x days .)f this storm v weather, he dared at last to 4*rawl 
along the i'<KiHt. Fortunat€»ly, he got some native provisions at 
one |ila<*f*, whieh enabletl him to fe«Nl his faniishe<I men. The 
rurn»nts and mlversi* winds, however, pn>v<Hl too nni(*h for 
the power of his shi|w to work t4> windward. They were all tlie 
while in danger of foundering. ** With thn»e pumps and the 
use of pcits and k«»ttIeH/' Ih» says, '* we (*oul«I S4»arci'ly clear 
the water that came into the ship, there U'ing no n»me<ly but 
this for the mis4*hief «lon«* by the ship worm.** He 
rvliiotantlv, then»fore, Uire awav ft>r Jainaira, when*, -» R»^h« 
on June 23, he put into Puerto Htiono ( l)ry llarltor). 
Pin^liog neither water n«>r food here, he went on the next day 


hn Gloria, known m later days as Don Christopher'i 

1 he foiind it necessary, a little later (July 23 aod 

igust 12), to run his sinking skips, one after tbe 

|llier, aground, but he managed to place them side by 

so that they could be lashed together. They 

I with the tide. Cabins were built oo the forecastles 

I to live in, and bidwarks of defense were reared a^ 

■ould be along the vessels' waists. Columbus now 

Itrictest precautions to prevent his men wandertng 

nit was of the utmost impoi-tance tliat no indignity 

KtTered the natives while they were in such bazardons 

I defenseless straits. 

! a serious question how to feed his mefi. 
■cant provisions remained on board the stranded can- 
Ipoiled. His immediate savage neighbors supplied 
I cassava bread and other food for a while, but they 
ii-ved stores to draw upon, and these sources wers 

|l<:ndez now offered, with three men, carrying goodi 
> barter, to make a circuit of the island, so tfaM 
dd reach different caciques, with whom he conld 


from hiH cxpeditioD. Mendez pictured the risks of going forty 
leogiieH in these treacherous seas in a frail canoe, and intimated 
tliat the Admiral had better make trial of the courage of the 
whole 4*ompany first. He said tliat if no one else offered to go 
hf would shame them by his courage, as he had more than once 
don«* l)efore. So the company were assembletl, and Columbus 
niatle public the pn)i)osition. Every one hung back 
fn>ui the hazards, and Mendez won his new triumph, pftn^uK 
MS he had Hupi)OS4Hl he would. lie then set to work 
fitting the canoe for the voyage*. lie put a keel to her. He 
built u|) her sides so that she could better ward off the seas, and 
riggetl a mast and sail. She was s(K)n loadinl with the neces- 
aary pnivisions for hiinst^lf, one other Spaniard, and the six 
Indians who were to ply the paddles. 

The A<huiraU while the preparations were making, drew np 

a K*tt4*r to his soven*i*:iis, which it was intendtnl that Mendez, 

after arran;;:inf; with Ovando for the rescue, shouhl 

, . ♦ . ijflS" July 

bt*ar hims4*If to Si)ain by the first ontmrtunitv. At 7. lku.? 


least it is the reascmable assumption of Humlnddt that t..tho 
Ihi.H is th«* letter which has (H>me down to us dateil 

July 7, i:>();i. 

It is not known that this epistle was ])riiit4'd at the time, 
thou^^h nianus(*ript copies seem to havr cirnilatod. An Italian 
versi«»n of it was, however, print^Ml at Venice a year before 
CVilumbus died. The ori«;:inul Spanish t4*xt was not known to 
st^hohirs till Xavarretc, havin<; discnvcrtnl in the king^s library 
at Madritl an early tniiiscTipt of it. priutinl it in the first volume 
of his Cfttrrrion. It is the document usually referred to, from 
the title of Morelli's n»print (1810) of the Italian /^„^. 
text, as the Lrttrrn ninHsimu r/i Crii^tnfon) ^V>/om/>o, ^'^^'^^ 
Thi** letter is ev<»n mon» than his trt^atise on the prophets a sor- 
rowful index of his wandering r(»as4>n. In parts it is the merest 
jamble of hurr}'ing tliou':litH, with no plan or st4*a<ly pur|M>se in 
view. It is in |>la(vs well (*alculat4Hl to arouse* the dee|H*st pity. 
It was, of c*ourse, avowtMllv written at a ventuns inanmuch as 
the rbanct* of its rt^ai'hin^ the hands of his sovereigns was a 

very small one. ** I S4»ntl this l«»tter." he savs, ** bv means of 

• • • 

and by tlie liands of Indians ; it will Ik* a miracle if it re;iches 
its destination.** 


loly goes baik over the adventures of the present 
in a reeilal wliich has beec Dot infrequently qnotted 
gtages, but he reverts gloomily to the more distant 
iugers on the discouragements of his first years in 
■'.very one to whom the enterprise was mentioned," 
hose days, " treated it as i-idiculous, but now then 
Li, down to the very tailors, who does not beg to be 
become a discoverer." He remembers the neglect 
ived upon the first flush of indignation when he ri- 
jiaiu in chains. "The twenty years' service throng 
■0 passed with so much toil and danger have profited 
. and at this very day I do not possess a roof b 

I can call my own. If I wish to eat or sleep I ham 
go but to a low tavern, and most times lack wfaero- 
\- the bill. Another anxiety wrings my very heart- 

II T tliink of ray son Diego, whom I have left an 
Spain, stripped of the house and property which i« 

(in ray fteeoiint, although I had looked upon it as a 
■At your Majesties, as just and grateful princes, would 
> him in all i-ewpeets with increase." 
twenty-eight years old," he says again, "when I 


not ao Imrge at viiIgEr opinion makes it, and that one degree 
from the equinoctial line meaauren fifty-eix mUes and two thirdsi 
and this may be proved to a nicety.** 

Antl then, in his thoughts, he turns back to his quest for 
gold, just as he had done in action at Darien, when in despair 
he gave up the search for a strait. It was gold, to f..j,,,^^ ^ 
hiA mind, that could draw souk from purgatory. He ^ ""^ 
exclaims: '*(iold is the most precious of all commodities. Gold 
const it utes treasure, and he who possesses it has all he needs in 
this world, as also the means of n'scuing souls from purgatory, 
and restoring them to the enjoyment of iiaradise.** 

Then his ho|)es swell with the vision of that wealth which he 
th4>ught he had found, and wotdd yet return to. He alone had 
the flues to it, which he had concealed from others. ^ I can 
safely assert that to my mind my |)e<»ple returning to Spain are 
the bearers of the best news that ever was carried to Spain. 
... I hail certainly foreseen how tilings would be. I think 
mon* of thi.H o|M>ning for c<»mmcroe tliau of all that has been 
dime in the Indies. This is not a child to be left to the care of 
a sU'pniother.** 

Thrse wen' some of the thoughts, in lar;^ {uirt tumultuous, 
inr<i|it*n*nt, clinpiritiHl, harrow in<;« woaki'iiiii<;. and sad, | Manned 
within S4>uud of the noise of MtMidrz's pn'parations, and dis- 
chMingan exultant and lM»wildertHl Ihmii*;. siip^ularly iH>m|N>umletl. 

This script was isHuuiitttnl t4) Mfiulez, U'side one addressed 
ti» (>\*ando, and another to liis friend in S)>ain, Fatlier Uorricio, 
ti> whom he im{)arts some of the same frantic expectations. 
** If my voyage will turn out as favorable to my health,** he says, 
^ an«l to tlM* tranquillity of my house*, as it is likely to lie for the 
giory of my royal masters, I shall live long.** 

Mendea started bniv«*ly. He worke<I along the coast of the 
ialand towanls its 4»ast«*rn end : not without peril, m<wi« 
hr»wevfr, Uuh fnMu the sea and from the Indians. ^•'*^ 
Finally, his {mrty fell captives to a startkni cariipK*; but while 
the savap*s were disputing over a division of th«* s|N>ils, Mrndex 
siicce«Nl«'«l in slipping liark to the canoi*. and, putting off alone, 
IKMldk**! it liaok to the* strandi*d ships. 

Another trial was mack* at oii(*i*. with lar«;er preparation. A 
canoe was aikk*il to the «>x|Nslition. and the ehar^ of 


ven to Bartholomew Fiesoo, a Genoese, who bad 
ininanded one of the caravels. The daring adven- 
rera stai-ted again with an armed party under tlw 

following them along the shore. 

and boat forces reached the end of the island witb- 
itiou, and then, bidding each other farewell, the 
(id boldly away from land, and were soon lost to the 
Adtlantado in the deepening twilight. The land 
icd to the Admiral without adventure. There trai 
or thu i)oor company to do but to await the retan 
vho li.'wi been directed to come back at once and 
Admiral that Mendez had safely aecomplished lui 

ys passed, and straining eyes were directed along Uw 
teh a glimpse of Fiesco's canoe ; but it came not 
lot muih left to allay fear or stifle disheartenmeni 
■d quarters of the tenements on the hulks, the bsd 
the men were foi-ced to depend upon, and the vwn 
^(>on produced murmurs of discontent, which A 
the captious spirit of a leader to convert into the 
rv-olt. 8udi a gatherer of sedition soon appeared. 


qrnipaUiuera watching within easy call, Franciaoo de Poms 
midilenly presented himself in the cabin of the weary ,sp|, j^,.^ 
and botlridden Admiral. An altercation ensued, in !l?3. i^ 
which tlie Admiral, propptnl in his couch, endeavored ^^"'^ 
to assuage tlie bursting violence of his accuser, and to bring 
him t4> a Hensc* of the {Nitient duty which the conditions de- 
ma ndtnl. It was one of the times when desperate straits seemed 
to restore the manhocxl of Columbus. It was, however, of little 
use. The crisis was not one tliat, in the present temper of the 
mutineers* could lie avoideil. Pornis, finding that the Admiral 
couhi not U* swaveil, eallt^d out in a loud voice, ^ I am for Cas- 
tih* ! ThiMc who will may come with me ! ** This signal was 
ex|>eoteiK and a shout rang in the air among those who were 
awaiting it. It arous*^! Columbus from his couch, and he stag* 
gi^nnl int4> sight ; but his |>rest*m*e caused no cessation of the 
tumult. Some of his loyal companions, fearing violence, took 
him bai'k t4> his InmI. The Adelantado braceti himself with his 
lanee for an eneountiT, and was pai*iiietl cmly by the persua- 
sions of the Aduiirars friends. Thev lovallv said, ^* Let the 
inutin«i*rs go. We will remain.** The angry faction seized ten 
cmii«M>H, which the .\dmiral had 8einin*d from the Intlians, and 
putting in them what they etiuld get. they cnibarketl for their 
iieriliMis V(»va;'e. Some t>tlicrs who had not iointsl in 
their plot lM*ing allnn*4l by the flattering lioix* of re- nfr.>rrM 
lease, there were forty-4*ight in all, and the little flo- 
tilla, amid the mingUnl exe<*rations and murmurs of des|>air 
aimm;; the weak and the downcast who stayctl liehind, {laddled 
out of tliat fateful harl>or. 

The gn*ater part of all who were vigorous luul now gone. 
Tber«* were a few strong souls, with some vitdity left in them, 
among the small c«>mpany which reniaimHl to the Admiral : but 
the most of them wen* sorr}* objtvts, with dejiM*ted minds and 
boilies more or less prostrate fnun dise:isi* and privation. The 
conviction stMUi s4*ttl«Hl u|ion this deserte<l conmmnity that 
Doihing coiikl savi* tli«*ni but a brotherly and eonfldent determi* 
nation to help one another, and to an»ns4* t<» the utmost what- 
cvrr of cheer and giKMl will was latent in their spirits. They 
could hanlly have m<*t an attick of the nativ«*s, and they knew 
it. This made them more considerate in their treatment of 
their neighbors, and the supply of provisions which they eouhl 


Iiose who visited the ship was plentifal for a while. 
ibits of the savages were not to accumulate much 
■sent needs, and when the baubles which the Span- 

distribute began to lose their strange attractiveness, 
ve was gone to induce exertion, and supplies were 

less and leas frequently. It was soon found that 
^ had diminished in value. It took several to a]v 
iitive cupidity where one had formerly done it. 
jv* another difficulty. There were failures on the 
lit of the more distant villages tu send in their 
iistomary contributions, and it soon came to be 
nown that Porras and his crew, in.'^tead of having 
iiid, were wandering about, exacting provisions and 

indignities against the inhabitants wherever they 

that the ten eanoes had followed the coast to the 
fit to Espiinola, at the eastern end of the island, and 
tig for a calm sea, and securing some Indians U> 
mutineers bad tinally pushed off for tlieir voyage. 
lie boats had scaicely gone four leagues from land, 


their exactions they began at last to tap the distant sources of 
supplies for the Admiral and his loyal adherents. 

Columbus now resorted to an expedient characteristic of the 
in^i'niotui fertility of his mind. His astronomical tables en- 
abled him to ex{KH.*t the approach of a lunar eclipse is^i^ ^ob- 
(Fcbnuiry 29, l."i04), and finding it close at hand he HJifof 
luifttily summout^d sonu* of the ncigliboring caciques. *^*»*^* 
IK* told them that the (iod of the S|Hiniards was displeased at 
their negliH't t4> feed his |>eopli*, and that He was about to mani- 
fes^t that displeasure by withtlrawing the moon and leaving them 
ti> sueli iKileful influences as they luul provokeil. When night 
fell and the sliadow begun to steal over the moon, a long howl 
ut liurror anise, and promises of supplies were made by the 
»tricken caciques. They hurleil thentselves for protection at 
the fi*et of the Admiral. Columbus retired for an ostensible 
i*unimuniun with this |M»t4>nt Spirit, and just as the hour came 
f<»r the nliailow to withdniw he ap|>eanHl, and announced that 
their eontritiuu hail ap|H'aseiI the Deity, and a sign would l>e 
given «if hiii iH>ntent. (inulually the moon passetl out of the 
shadi»w. and when in the elear heavens the luminary was again 
swimming unobstniet^'il in hi*r liglit, the work (»f u>touishment 
hail b(*en done. Afti*r that, Columbus w:ls never nuicli in fear 
of famine. 

It is time now to see how nnieh more suei^essful Mendez and 
Fiesco ha<l bet*n than Porras and his erew. They 
had aivomplished the voyage to K>pai')ola, it is true, ^'^[*f*^ 
but under such |>erils and sufferings that Fiesco c*ouhl 
Dot induct* a crew sufficient to num tlie canoe to return witli 
him to the Admiral. The {vissage had biH*n made under the 
nKMt violent ctmdititms of tropit^al heat and unprotected endur- 
ance. Their supply of water had given out, and the tortures of 
thirst came on. Tliey looketl out for the little island ^i ;««««» 
of Navasa, which lay in their tnu*k, when* they thought '*^**^ 
that in the crevices of the nx^ks th«*y might find some water. 
They looked in vain. The ilay when they luul hopcnl to see it 
ymAM d, and night came on. One of the Indians died, and was 
dropped overboard. Others lay imnting and exhaust4*d in the 
botUMn of tlie canoes. Mendez sat watehing a glimmer of light 
in the eaalem Iioriion that betokened the eoming of tlie moon. 


, faint glisten of the real orb grew into a s^nMOt 
st'e the water line as the illuoiiDation increased. 
:l black stretch of soraetbing jagging the lower edge 
iitiiit. It was land ! Navasa had been found. By 
uy had reached the island. Water was discovered 
rocks ; but some drank too freely, and paid the pen- 
ir lives. Mussels were picked up along the shore; 
;i fire and boCed them. All day long they gazed 
>iigiDglyou the distant mountains of KspaSola, whioh 
Lie in full sight. Refreaiied by the day's rest, they 
i;,^ain at nightfall, and on the following day arrived 
Ijuroii, the aouthweatern peninsula of Espafiola, hav- 
i;^ been four days on the voyage from Jamaica. 
hey landed among hospitable natives, and having 
iiited two (lays to recuperate, Mendez took some sav- 
uioe, and started to go along the coast to Santo Do- 
hundred and thirty leagues distant. He had gone 
thirds of the distance when, comninuicating with 
lie learned that Ovando was not in Santo Domingo, 
agua. So Mendez abandoned his canoe, and started 
i;;h the forests to seek the governor. 


of mcue. His importunities became so pressing thmt Oyando 
at last consented to his starting for that port, seventy leagues 

No sooner was Mendcs gone than Ovando determined to 
ascertain the condition of the |)arty at Jamaica without helping 
them, and so he dispatched a caravel to reconnoitre. He 
purposely sent a small craft, that there might be no excuse for 
attempting to bring off the com|>any ; and to prevent seizure 
of the vessel by Columbus, her commander was instructed to 
lie off the harbor, and only send in a boat, to communicate 
with no one but Columbus ; and he was |>articularly 
enjoined to avoid being entice<l on Inianl the stranded ama* iMt>. 
caravels. The command of this little craft of espion- wrv* c<» 
age was given to one of Columbus*s enemies, Diego 
de Escobar, who liad been active as Koldan*s lieutenant in his 

When the vessel appeared off the harbor where Columbus 
was, eight months h:ul |mH.sed since Mendez and Fies<H> had de- 
parted. All hopes of hearing of them had l>een silmndoned. 
A rumor liad eome in from the natives that a vossi^I, Imttom 
upwanN, had lxN»n seen near the island, drifting with the cur- 
rent. It is .Huid t4> have been a story startiMl by l\»rras that its 
effect might Ik» distn»ssing to 0>lunibus\s adhenMits. It seems 
to have had the effect to h:isten further discontent in that 
fttrieken Imnd, and u new revolt was almost n*a<iv to make itself 
known when Kscobar*s tiny caravel wan desi*rie<l standing in 
towards shore. 

The vesstd was seen to lie to, when a boat soon left her side. 
As it came within hailing, the figure of EscM)bar was recognized. 
Columbus kn(*w that he had once c^ondemnetl the man to death. 
Boliadilla had pardoniMl hini. The l>oat bumped against the 
*S4le of one of the stnin<ie<l eanivels ; the crew brought it side- 
wise against the hulk, when a letter for the Admiral was 
haiMled up. Columbus's men maile ready to rec(*ive a cask of 
wine and side of liacon, whioh Ksc*obar*H companions lifted on 
board. All at once a quiek motion pushful the boat from the 
btdka, and Ks4*olMir stop|HHl her when she hail got out of reach. 
He DOW addresse<l Columbus, and g:ive him the assurances of 
Ovando** regret that he had no suitible vi^ssel to send to him, 
hmt thai he hoped before long to hav«> sueh. He added that if 


Jesired to reply to Ovanilo's letter, he would wait \ 
.il for him to prepare an answer. 

umeiiding tLe purposes of Mendez and Fiesco to tlie 
dnd attention, and closed with saying that he reposed 
lice in Ovando's expressed iuti^tition to rescue his 
that he would stay on the wrecks in patience till 
me. Escobar received the letter, and returned to 
which at once disappeared in the falling gloom of 

M was not without apprehension that Escobar had 
y to make .sure that the Admiral and Ills company 
d, and Las Casa.s, who was then at Santo Domingo, 
vu been of the opinion that Ovando had at this Ume 
to do more. The selection of Escobar to cany a 
sage gave certainly a dubious ostentation to all ei- 
i friendly interest. The transaction may possib^ 
ther interpretations. Ovando may reasonably haTB 
t Columbus and his faithful adherents shoidd not 
in Espafiola, as in the absence of vessels returning 
!ie Admiral might bo obliged to do. There were 


not offtvtive. Pomui met the ambuiisadors, and declined the 
proffers. 1 le said his followers werv quite content with the f rce- 
«l«>m of the isLind. The fact soenicil to be tliat the mutineers 
were not quite nure of the Aduiirars sincerity, and feared to 
|>ut themsidves in his |M)wer. Tliey were re^uly to come in 
when the vessels came, if trans|>ortation would be allowed them 
to that their iKind shouM not be divideil ; and until then they 
would cause the Admirers party no trouble, unless Columbus 
refusetl to share with them his stores and trinkets, which they 
must have, |>e:uvfully or fon^ibly, since they had lost all their 
supplies in the guK*s whi(*h had driven them bai*k. 

It was evident that Porras and his c(mi|)any were not reduced 
to sueh straits that they could be reasone<l with, and the mes- 
•cn^*rs returned. 

The author of the ///.s^/riV, and others who follow his state- 
ment'«, represent that the Unly of the nmtim^rs was far from 
bein^ as arro«^int as their leaders, was much more tnu^table in 
spirit, aixl was ineline<I to catch at the chance of rcsinie. The 
leadi rs lal>ored with the men to keep them steady in their 
rvvolt. Porran and his aWttors did what they eouKl to picture 
the cruelties of the Admiral, and even aeeusiul him of n(H*n>- 
maii(*y in summonin<^ the ^host of a raravtl by wliii'h to make 
hi<i jieople In^lieve that Kseobar had really Ihm'H there. Then, to 
give wmie a<'tivity t(» their eouni;^t', the whole ImmIv of the muti- 
necTH wxH led towards the harlMir on pretense of eapturing 
•tores. The AdelanUido went out to meet them with fifty 
anm*<l ft»llowers, tin* In^st he eoiiKl collect from the wearied 
ormi|>anions of the Admiral. Pornis n'fuse<I all of- iurtiH>uv 
f«Ts of conference, and KhI his band to the attack. J^*^"* 
There was a plan lai<l anion;; them that six of the p7^rJtlo. 
*tuuti*Ht should attaek the AdelanUido simultaniNmslv, ^*"^'*' 
thinking tliat if thi*ir header .shouKl be over]K)wen*4l the rt*st 
would flee. The AdelanUidoVs eourap* rose with the exigeney, 
as it was wont t4> d4». He swim:; hi*« sword with vi;;or, and (»ne 
after another the a.H>ailaiit>< frU, At la*^t Porras strii4*k him siieli 
a blow that the Adelanta(l<»*s buckler was eleft and his hand 
wounded. The blow was t<H» powerful for tlu* giver of it. His 
swoni reuiaintHl w<><lgi*(| in the bu«'kler, atTonlini; his enemy a 
chjuioe to (*1(»M*, while an attfuipt wa^ made t(» extricate the 
weapon. Others eaine t(» the loyal leader's assiMance, and 
Porras was sectiretl and iNumd. 



netl the L-iirrent of the fight. The rebels, serang tieii 
jiuier a prisoDer, fied iu eoufuaioii, leaving the field 
) the party of the Adelautado. The fight lisd b«ai 
1(5. They foimd among the rebel dead Juan Sxn- 
!iez, who had let slip the captured Quibian, and 
mong the wounded Pedro Ledesma, who had braved 
le bi-L-akers at Veragua. Las Casaii, who knew tht, 
titer at a later day, deriving some help from him ii 
^tory of theHe eventful mouths, sjMiaka of the manj 
1 wounds which he bore in evidence of his rebd 

liiiuself, were witnesses in the later lawsuit of Diego 
the Crown, certain details which the principal ii»> 

to give us. 

1 had seemed throughout the conflict to protect ibe 
friends. None were killed outright, and hut one 

■ ira i-eturned to the ships with their prisoners; and 
1 the midst of tlie f^ratulations which followed on the 


out of a fleet of three, just then arrived from Spain, and had 
victualed for the oireiUiion. llavin|i^ seen it depart from 
Sant4i Domingo, Mendez, in the other ships of this tonwroe 
«>p|N»rtune fl(*et, saiKnl din^ctly for Spain, to carry out 
the further instruetions of the Admii*al. 

The other of the approaching ships was in command of Diegi> 
lie SaK*eilo, the Adniirars factor, and had been dis|)at4*hiHl by 
( )vando. I^is C'aH;m tt^lls us that the governor was really forced 
to thin ai'tion by publie siMitiment, which had grown in conse- 
tpience of the stories of the trials of Columbus i\hieh Mendex 
had tohl. It is s:iid that even the priests did not hesitate to 
jMiint a m«iral in their pulpits with the governor*s dilatory sym- 

Finally, on June 28, everything was ready for departure, and 
(\dundms turned away from the mvne of so much i-^ j^^ 
trtiublc. " Columbus informed me afterwards, in ^ \rm^^ 
S|»:iin," s:iys Meudez, reconling the events, ** that in ''•«»***^ 
no jKirt of his life did Ih» ever exiH»rienee so jo\ful a day, for 
he hail never ho|»ed to havt» U*ft that place alivi*.*' Four y«»ars 
later, und(*r antlioiity fn»m the Aduiirars son Dit^go, the town 
of S'villa Nucva, later known as Scvilla d' ( )ro, was founded 
4»n the very s|M»t. 

The Admiral now committ^'d himself oner more to the treaeh- 
fn»us curn*nts and advcrsi* wiuils of these seas. We have sei»n 
that Mendex urgi*d his cautM* aci'os*^ tlic gap between Jamaica 
aiitl i\w nearest |M>int of Kspafiola in four days : but it took the 
hhips of Columbus alM>ut seven weck*« to reach the haven of 
Santo I>oming(». Then* was much time during this long and 
vexatiou^i vova*r(» for Colund)us to learn from SaKvdo 
the direful hist4»rv of th<' cohmy which had lNH*n k-i •&«>!» 
wri*?»t4*4l from him, and which even under the cnlargtMl •i.^i.r. of 
powern of ( ivanuo iiau not iM'cn without manii<»l<l 
tribulations. We must reliears** rapidly the mvurrences, as 
Cnhunbus heard of them. He tH>uld have got but the s(*antiest 
inkling of what hail hapjH'niHl durini^ the earliest o»*i,.io'. 
months of ()vando*s rule, when he applied by mess«*n- '"''^* 
gvr, *X! vain, for admission to the harbor, now m«»r(> than two 
jrmn ago. Tlie historian of this ]>eri«Nl must de|>cnd mainly 
u|M>n I.«as (^aiuiH^ ^ho bad <*ome <Mit with ()\aiiib>. ami ue must 
»kel«*h an outline of the t;ile, as (\»1 umbos heard it, from that 


itoria. It was the old sad atory of miagnided aspi- 
^altli in their first experiences with the hazurds and 
ling, — much labor, diaai)pointed hoi>es, failing pro- 
gold, sickuesB, disgust, and a desjwnding return of 
from the scene of their infatuation. It took bm 
or the crowds from Ovando'a fleet, who trudged off 
the mountains ou thoir landing, to come trooping 
■ited and diseased. 

.s conld hardly have listened to what was said of 
iiong the natives during these two years of his ab- 
nee without a vivid consciousness of the baleful sys- 
m which he had introduced when he a.ssigned crowd* 
Indians to be put to inhuman tasks by Roldans 
institution of this kind of distribution of labor hail 
rally, but it had become so appalling under Boba- 
wheu Ovando was sent out, he was instructed to put 
t. It was not long before the governor bad to con- 
tasperated thi-ouga coming back from the mines, de- 
empty- handed. It was ai>parent that nothing of the 
venue to the Crown was likely to be produced from 
elil of metal wheu there was no yield at all. So, to 


wan Ktiflicicitt The fatal system of Columbus was revived with 
iiicrt*:ise4l enormities. Six or eight months of uuremitting lalnir, 
with insufficient fiNNl, were cruelly exacttHl of every native. 
They were torn from their families, carried to distant parts of 
the inland, kept to their work by the hish, and, if they dared to 
I'scaiMf, almost surely recaptured, to work out their period under 
the burden of chains. At last, when they were dismissed till 
thrir lalK>r was agiiin nnpiired. Las C'asas tells us that the |)as- 
sage thnnigh the island of these miserable creatures could be 
trai-e^l by their fallen and decaying botlies. This was a story 
thaU if C\dumbus {MMsessed any of the tendernesses that glowed 
in the heart of Ijiis Casas, could not have been a pleasant one 
fur his contemplation. 

There was another story to which Columbus may have lis- 
trneil. It is wry likely that Saloedo may liave got all the par- 
ticulars fn»m Diego Mender who was a witness of the foul deeds 
which had indtHxl oci*urred tluring those seven months when 
i )vando, then on an ex|M.Hlition in Xaragua. kt*pt that uiessi^nger 
of C*tilunibus waiting his pleasun*. AnucuDua, the AmrMma 
Ulster c»f I^*h«*i*hio, liml suceee<lt*<l to that (^aeitpie in J,^**''' 
the ruh» i»f Xaragua. The li<H»ntiouH eondtiet and the *'*'*'^ 
capriei«»us demands of the Spaniards settles! in thi^ n*gion hatl 
in€*n*ast*tl the natural distrust ami indignation of the Indians, 
ami some signs of discnuitent which they manifestetl hail lHM.*n re- 
counttnl t4><)vando as indications of a n*voU which it was ne4*es» 
«ary t«i nip in the bud. S> the goveni«>r had man*hed into the 
(*«>untrv with three hundretl foot and s<*ventv ht>rse. The chief- 
tJiin«»se«, Anacai>na, came forth to niei*t him with much native 
psnule. and gave all the honor which her s;ivage ceremonials 
t^tultl signify t4> her distinguisht*<l giH*st. She lo«lp*<l him as 
well as she (Mndd« and eaus«Hl many gam«*s to 1k> playe<l for his 
divertisement. In n'turn. Ovando pn*part*tl a tournament cal- 
culatitl to rais<* the exiKS'tation of hi*< simple hosts, and htirsc- 
man and ftM»t came to the lists in full armor and adornment 
for the lieRildiMl show. On a signal fnun Ovando, the inn(K*ent 
paniile was <*«mvert4'd in an instant into a fanatical onslaught. 
TIh' assembleil eaciijUCH were Iu^I^^ihI alniul with arni«Ml p,^ i„.hmi« 
mm, and all were burni*«l in their cabin •*. The gen- •*»^^»''"^- 
rnl |mpulae« were transfix«'d and tnun)»liMl by the charging 
OHHjnletl s|M*annen. and «»tilv thoM.* who cmiM elude the obsti- 


leadlong dashes of the cavalry escaped. Anacaona 
and conveyed in chains to Santo Domingo, where, 
crest pretense of a triul for conspiracy, she was soon 

was the pacification of Xaragua. That of Ilignej, 
le most eastern of the provinces, and which had not 
St acknowledged the sway of the Spaniards, foUoweil 
ith the same resorts to cruelty. A cacique of this 

been slain by a fierce S]janish dog which had been 
m. Thisi impelled some of the natives living on the 
ize a canoe having eight Spaniards in it, and to 
aughter them ; whereupon .hian de Estjuibel was 
;nt with four hundred men on a campaign against 
a. the chief cacique of Higiiey. The invaders met 
sm in the defenders of this country than they had 
tomod to. but the Spanish armor and weapons ena- 
liel Ut raid through the land with almost constant suc- 

Indians at last sued for peace, and agreed to furnisb 
>{ provisioMH. Esqnibel built a smaJl fortress, and 
ne men in it, he rctunied to Santo Domingo; not, 
ntil lie had received Cotabauama in his camp. The 


Ovando's mind of such KUHpii'ions. and to express his own pur- 
pMc to avoid every act of irritation which might |K>Hsibly em- 
barraiiH the administration of the island. The letter <liHpatchcd« 
CtiliimbuH again set nail, and on August 15 his ship i-^, a„. 
enteriMl the liarbor of Santo Domingo. Ovando re- SJIIio'ih*. ^* 
etfivvtl him with every outward token of respect, and "''*■* 
ItNlged him in his own house. Columbus, however, never bt^ 
lieved that this officious kindness was other than a cloak to 
(>vando*s dislike, if not liatre<I. There was no little ])opular 
■ympathy for the misfortunes which Columbus ha«I ex|H>rienifed, 
but his relations with the governor were not such as to lighten 
tin* anxieties of his sojimrn. It is known that Cortes was at 
this time only re(*«*ntly arrivetl at Santo I>oniingo: but we can 
only nmjecture wlmt may have bei»n his interest in Columbus*s 

There soon arose questions of jurisdiction. Ovando onIen*d 
tbe n*k^ase of Porras, and arrangetl for sending him to Spain 
for trial. The govenior also attempted to interfen* with the 
Admirars control of his own cn»w, on the ground that his com- 
mission gave him i*ommand over all the regions of the new 
islands and the main. Columbus citc<I the instructions, which 
gave him |K)Wor to rule and judgi> his «>wn foUttwers. Ovando 
did not push his claims to extnaiiities, but the irritation never 
sabwided : and Columbus mm^uis t<» have lost no op|N»rtunity, if 
we may judge from his later letters, to ]Hek up every scan- 
dalous story and tale of maladininistnition of which coiwabw 
he i*ould learn, and which eoulii 1h» ehargcil against •^^•■■** 
Ovantio in later ap|ieals to the sovereigns for a restitution of 
his i»wn rights. The Admiral also in(|uire4l into his ])ecuniary 
interests in the iskind, and foun«I, :is he thought, that Ovando 
had obstructed hi^ faet4ir in tin* gathering of his share. Inde«*d, 
there may have lN*en wime truth in this ; for CarvajaU Coluni- 
bos's first fa<*t4>r, liatl complained of such a(*ts to the Hoven*igiis, 
which elicit4'd an admonishment from them to Ovando. 

Such money as Columbus c*<mld now c<ill(H*t he u-^mI in refit- 
tiog tlie ship whi4'h had bniught him fmm Jamaica, ami lu* 
pat her under the order of the Adelantado. Securing als«i 
another caravel for his own convevance. he embark«*<l «m her 
with his son, and on S*|iti'niU'r VI \h%\\\ sliipn Htart4*«I on their 
homewanl voyage. They were scan*ely at sea, when the <»hip 



e the Admiral lost her ma^t in a gale. He trans- 
erred himself and his immediate depeodenta to the 
.ther veswel, and sent the disabled caravel back to 
ianto Domingo. His solitary vessel now went for- 
vard, amid all the adversities that seemed to cling 
to this lust of Columbus's expeditions. Temped 
i\st jHirsued liim. The maaU were sprung, and again 
.l>rung ; and in a forlorn and disabled condition tbe 
ittle hapless bavk finally entered the port of Sm 
:.uoar on November 7, 1504. He had been absent 
a for two yeara and a half. 




Fkom San Luoar, Columbuti, a sick man in search of quiet 
and n*ht« wan ctniveviHl to Soville. Unhappily, there 
wan nrithor n*iK>iie nor iM*ai*e of mind in store for him. a^vuirtiu 
III* n*maine<I in that city till May, IfiOo, broken in 
ih|iirit> and alnioMt helplens of linih. Fortunately, we can trace 
hiri varyin}<: mental nio«Klti during these few montlui in a series 
of h'tt«*rs, uKwt of which an* addrensed by him t4» his LHicnto 
Hon l)ie<;o, then ehisely attaclu'tl t4> the Court. These ^'•"^ 
writin^^s have fortunately come down to us, and they constitute 
tht* only series of Coluni bus's letters which wc have, showing; the 
habits of his mind otmscH'utively for a cinifincMl |M*ri(Hl, m> that 
w«- ;;«*t a elos4* watch u|N)n his thon;;hts. Tlicy an* the wails of 
a ne>;lec*t4Hl soul, and the cries of on<^ wh<»si* iio|H* is cruelly de- 
frmni. They have in their entin^ty a ^nmI deal of that Imp- 
haxanl jerkinoss tin*somc to n*ad, and not easily made evident 
in abstract. They an>, however, not so deficient in mental equi- 
poise as, for instiniv, the letter M^nt fn»ni Jamaica. This is 
perha|>s owing t4i the one absorbing bunlcn of them, his ho|)e 
of rectivcring ]>«wsession of his sus))ended authority. 

lie writes tn\ November *il, 1*'>04, a fortnight after his laiul- 
ing at San Lucar. telling his S4in how he has engaged ,,ifm, h^ 
hU old friend, the iViminican I>e»i, now the Hishopof **'*^'-' 
Paleneia, t4» inti*n*(Mle with the s«ivenMgiis, that justii*e may be 
done to him with n*s|H*<*t to his intMinn*. th«* )iayment of which 
Ovanilo liad all :doii<:, as In* <Hmtends. obstructi^tl at Ks|KiAola. 
lie tri«*s to argue that if their lii;^line<s«*s luit knew it, they 
would, in onlering nMitiition t4i hiiit. iiicreasi* thi*ir «)wn shan*. 
He h4i|»es they liavi* no d«»ubt tliat hi<« /«*al for tlieir int4*n*stH 
has lieen quite as niueli as he (*4iulil manifest if he hail par- 


lin, aiul hopes they will remember, respecting any 
lay havt committed, that the Lord of all jiidges such 
he iiitciition rather than by the outcome. He seems 
iuspifion that Porras. now at liberty and about the 
ht be insidiotiiily at work to his old commander's dis- 
ainl liL- repi-eseiits that neither Porras nor his brother 
suitable persona for their offiees, aud that what had 
respecting them would be approved on inquiry. 
olt," he says, "surprised me, considering all that I 
ir them, as much as the sun would have alarmed me 
shot shadows instead of light." He complains of 
.aking the prisoners, who h^l been comjianioDS of 
in his hands, and that, made free, they had even dared 
thuniselves at Court. " I have written," he adds, 
lighncssea about it, and I have told them that it 
wsible that they would tolerate such an oEEense." 
I'ther that he has written to the royal ti-easui*r, b^- 
come to no decision of the representations of such 
nitil the other side could be heard, and he ajlds that 
til tlie treasurer a copy of the oath which the muti- 
in after Porras had been taken. '■ Recall to aU 
le." he writes to hiw son, "my infirmities, and the 

rOLf'Mnf'S'S LAST VKARS. 47ft 

Mevrrity of Inn diHoafk*. which kt't'ps him in Sevilh*. from which, 
lH>w«'v«*r, Iw ho{N.*H to ile]Kirt the coming week, ami of his dis- 
a|>|Miintiiient that the Hovert*i<rnH ha<l not rt*plii*d to his inqni- 
rit'H. lie .sfnils 1\\a love to I)ie^o Memlez, ho]nn<^ that his 
frien<rH 7.i*al ami love of truth will enahle him to oven*omc tin 
ilevvitH ami intrigues of Porras. 

(*4iluiiihus was not at thin tinu' aware that the im])emiing 
«li*atli (if the (ju(M*n had something t4> <lo with the tlelavH in hh 
€>wn afFairs at (*ourt. Two days (NovendM*r 20) l)oforo the 
Atlmind wr«»te this note, Isalu^lla had dietl, worn out ,;4^ j^-,^ 
by her laUirs, and depn»ss<il hy the afflictions whii*h g,Sil7ii^ 
j*ln» had «*x|iorienced in her <h>nicstic cinde. She was '*'***'*'^ 
an unlovely woman at the U'st, an ohstructor of Christian 
fdiarilv. Imt in her wiles she had allured (*olumlnis to a Iwlief 
ill lirr count««nan4*«» of him. The conventional estimate of her 
fdiararter. which is enforivd in the rather cloying de- i^i^i^ii^', 
^-ii|ition«i of Pn^sctitt, is such as her flatterers tlrcw •'•»*'■»'**''■ 
in lii*r own times : hut the revelations of historical n'searoh 
hanllv rontirm it. It wan with her nuich as witli (*olutiihus, — 


«he w.i^ to*i largtdy a cn»ature of her own age in lie sohdy judgtil 
liv the criteria of all a;;es, as lofty rharacler'^ can lie. 

Tht' loHs of h«*r influ«*nce on the king n-movtHl, as it |>rov(*d« 
i*v«-n till' ehanei* of a flattering deluHiveneH** in the Iio|m^ of 
( *oliimlins. Ah th«' romjiiler of tin* //l>f*»ri* •'xpre«is«»«i it, "(\v- 
lnnilin*« ha<l always enj<iyi>d li«*r favor ami ]irot«M'tiiin, while the 
Kini: had alwav** Um-u indifTm'Ut. or rathi*r inimieal.** She 


hail intletnl. «luring tin* Admirar^ ahs4*n«v on his la*»t voyage, 
nianifi'<it«*t| ««om«* new a|>]irf'cialii>n of hi«i servitvs, which cost 
her litth*, how«*ver. when <*hi' niad«' liin <ddi'st s^m one of her 
iNMh^uanl and naturalized his Imitlu'r i>icgo, to fit him fi>r 
•i<eid<*Hiastical pref«*rm«*nt. 

On lVcendN«r 1. ignorant of tin* *«ad (N*currenc«»< at (^)urt• 
<*idundiu*i writ«*s again, ehiiling Pirgn that he had not |.^,| ,|^ 
in his dutifulness written t«i hin |NMir father. "You """'*■■'' 
•Night to know/* he nays "that I havi* n«> ph-asiin* now Imt 
in a h'tter fn>in vou." i'nlumlius hy thi** time had lNM*ome, 
liv thf (Ninstant arrival nf I'miritTs. aware of th«* anxietv at 
Court over the (jiii't'u''o hraltli. and in* pravs that tli«* lioly 
Trinity will n*Htore her tn liralth. t^i tin* iihI that all that has 
lie««n lii'gun may In* ha]i|iily liiii^iicil. I If rriti'ratfs what ho 



isly written about the increasing severity of his mal- 
ihility to travel, liis want of money, and how be had 

cuulil get in Espailola to bring home bis poor com- 

le coinmends anew to Diego his brother Ferdinand. 

of tills yoHDger son's character as beyond his years. 

icrs would nut be too many for you." he adds; "b 
bad fortuue, I have never found better friends thu 

troubles him more than the delays in hearing frw 

nmior bad reached him that it was intended to 
bishops to the Indies, and that the Bishop of PaW 
rged with the matter. lie begs Diego to say to tbe 

it was worth while, in the interests of all, to con- 
L' Admiral first. In explaining why he does not nriu 
lundez, he says that he is obliged to write by night 
ly his hands are weak and painful. He adds tint 
which put back to Santo Domingo had arrirei 
le papers in Porras's case, the result of the inquest 

been taken at .Tamaica, so that he cotild now b« 
sent an indictment to the Council of the Indies. His 

is aroused at the mention of it. " "What can be so 


severity of his disease, which keeps him in Seville, from which, 
however, he hopes to depart the coming week, and of his dis- 
appointment that the sovereigns had not replied to his inqui- 
ries. He sends his love to Diego Mendez, hoping that his 
friend's zeal and love of truth will enable him to overcome the 
deceits and intrigues of Porras. 

Columbus was not at this time aware that the impending 
death of the Queen had something to do with the delays in his 
own affairs at Court. Two days (November 26) before the 
Admiral wrote this note, Isabella had died, worn out 1504 j^^ 
by her labors, and depressed by the afflictions which qu^'i^ 
she had experienced in her domestic circle. She was *»"*<^**»^ 
an unlovely woman at the best, an obstructor of Christian 
charity, but in her wiles she had allured Columbus to a belief 
in her countenance of him. The conventional estimate of her 
character, which is enforced in the rather cloying de- lanbeiia*. 
scriptions of Prescott, is such as her flatterers drew <^*»»'»<'*«'- 
in her own times ; but the revelations of historical research 
hardly confirm it. It was with her much as with Columbus, — 
she was too largely a creature of her own age to be solely judged 
by the criteria of all ages, as lofty characters can be. 

The loss of her influence on the king removed, as it proved, 
even the chance of a flattering delusiveness in the hopes of 
Columbus. As the compiler of the Historie expresses it, " Co- 
lumbus had always enjoyed her favor and protection, while the 
King had always been indifferent, or rather inimical." She 
had indeed, during the Admiral's absence on his last voyage, 
manifested some new appreciation of his services, which cost 
her little, however, when she made his eldest son one of her 
bodyguard and naturalized his brother Diego, to fit him for 
ecclesiastical preferment. 

On December 1, ignorant of the sad occurrences at Court, 
Columbus writes again, chiding Diego that he had not 1504. i>e. 
in his dutif ulness written to his poor father. " You *»"**' ^• 
ought to know," he says, " that I have no pleasure now but 
in a letter from you." Columbus by this time had become, 
by the constant arrival of couriers, aware of the anxiety at 
Court over the Queen's health, and he prays that the Holy 
Trinity will restore her to health, to the end that all that has 
been begun may be happily finished. He reiterates what he 




his deaied rights, and to the best way to make tbe 
il)le of Ilia earlier promiata, he next ailvises Diego to 
expenses ; to treat his uncle with the respect which ii 
11 ; and to bear btmself towards his younger brother 
r brother should. " You have no other brother," be 
d thank God this one is aU you could desire. H( 
vith a good nature." Then he reverts to the Queeu'i 
I'eojile tell me," he writes, " that on her death-W 
ssed a wish that my posi^essioa of the Indies should 
i to me." 

biter (Deeember 21), he once more bewails the «« 
u whifh he is left without tidings. He reeounts tbi 
exertions he had made to send money to bis advoctio 
lud tella Diego how he must somehow continue to gd 

he can till their Highnesses are content to give ibM 
■ power. lie repeats that to bring his companioia 
1 Santo Domingo he had spent twelve hundred »■ 
lul that he had represented to the King the royal is- 
s for this, but it producetl no reimbursement. It 
) to fuul out if the Qni'en, " now with God, no doubt' 
„ of bim in her will ; ;uid perhaps the Bishop <,f Pale^ 


liiHliiipricH in KHpanola, and that the a(Ivii*e of CohinihuH in the 
i*n«l |iivvail(*d over the '* oiiniiiuji^ of «lii>ioniuey.'' 

'rh«*n* ha«l Uvn soni«* time lM.*fore, (»win«; to tho difticulty 
whi(*h had lH*en ex|M*i*ienee(l in mounting the royal cavalry, an 
onK*r |iniiiiiil}^.ite<l forliiihlin;; the nse of mules in tnivel, Kiuce 
it was thought tliat the |»referi*nt*«* for this animal had hronj^ht 
aUiut the dt^terionition and si'an*itv of horses. It was to this 
iiijunetion that (\ihnnhus now rt^ferretl when he itsked Die^o t'.> 
get a di>|H*n»4;ition from tlie Kin;;: to alhiw him to enjoy the 
ea>i«*r seat of a mule when lir should venture (»n his 
jiiiiruey t4iwards the Court, whieh, with this help, hc riur> .11. 

hi'.,, ,. •I' r I .^'l eoliiuilHM 

i»|NMi t4) IK* able to lN*^in within a i«*w wc*eKs. ^^uen aiif«r«it» 

I'r w:i.s ill <lue tune issimmi ini reoruarv .0. l.iU;). 

On iWeiuU^r •SM\duiiil»u?« wrote ai^ain. Tlie letter was full 
€»f till* same pitiful ^u^|H'iisr. He hail reeeivetl no let- ,;^ ,,^ 
ter-*. Ill' lUMild but re|K*at the uhl sttu'v tif the letters "■"**' ^' 
of eri^lit wliirh he had S4>iit and wliieli had not Ikh^mi acknow- 
linl;;«*«l. N«i one of Ills |M*«iplr had lH*<*n ]>aid. lie s:iid, neither 
the faithful nnr the iiiutineers. '* Thev are all iNNtr. Tliev 
are ;:(iini; t«> i'nurt.'* he achls, " t4» pres> tii«*ii- chiiiiis. Ai<l them 
in it. " lie e\e«'pts, Imwrvi'i', fr«mi the kind interest of his 
fririids two f«'lliiw<i who had Immmi witii him mi iii*« last vova<:e, 
«»ni* i'auiaf*lio and Ma>ti'r lli-nial, the liittn* the pli\Hirian of the 
ria«:?«hip. i^'Hial was liu- iii>tiL::itor of thf irvuit of INtrraK, 
h«- t<i\s, ** aiitl I |i:inliiii«*d iiiiu at tin* prayer of my hmtluT.** 

It \%ill In* n*ineiidM'ri*d that, pri'vit'ii** tn starting; on his la»t 
viiya'^e. ('iiluudiiis hail written to the Hank of St. cuimnim. 
• ti-^ip^r in (n'lioa, pniiMtsin;; a ;:ifl of a tenth of his Klik'ri «i. 
incNimo fi»r the ht'iietit nf his nativi* town. The lett«'r ^'^'f- 
was Iiin^ in reaehiiii; its de^^ti nation, hut a n'ply was duly S4*nt 
thri»ni:li his son I)iepi. It iifvrr reat'h«-il i\iluiul>ns« and thi^ 
apfKin-nt spurning;: of his \i\\i hy tiftina eauseil not a sm:dl |i:ir« 
uf hi** pn*M*nt dis;^u*»t with tlh* worlil. 

Oil I>i'eemlN*r -7. I'l^^l. iif wmti- t"» Xii-iihi Oderi«;o, remind- 
in;; him iif till* h-ttrr, aiitl enuiplaiiiiiii; that whih- he ,.^,| ,^ 
hail e\|MM»ti"il t«i In' iiirt nu iii'« n-turii l»y sniiii' eiuili- ••"■'■■'-• 
di*nlial a;;i*nt <if tin* hank. In* hatl ii-it I'Vrn had a h-tter in rc- 
ik|iiiiiM-. ** It wa** uii<'iiiii-t«'«Mi-« ill tlir*«i' i^i'iitli-iui'ii lit St. (ieor;^e 
li«»t to luivi* faviin*d nil* witli an an«>\\er." Thi* intention wa**. 
in faet« far fnmi lM*in*^ unappri>«'iat«Ml. aihl at a later day tin* 


■aiiie 80 far magnified as to be regarded as an actual 
■h tht; Genoese were not without pride. The par- 
however, had a fidMment. 

,iry 4, 1605, the Admiral wrote to his friend Father 
uiricio. telling him that Diego Mendez bad arrived 
001 the Court, and asking the friar to encase in wax 
iitary privileges of the Admiral which had been ui- 
iin, and to send them to him. '■ My disease grom 
jyday." lie adds. 

ary 18, 1505, he again wrote. The epistle was b 
me ainall degree cheery. He had heard at last from 
iego. " Zaoiora the courier has arrived, and I hare 
great delight upon thy letter, thy node's, thy hnv 
Carvajal's." Diego Mendez, he says, sets oat in 
ir days with an order for payment He refers with 
olnesM, even, to Fonseca, who had just been raised 
opric of Placentia, and had not yet returned from 
> take iiossession of the seat " If the Bishop of 
as arrived, or when he comes, tell him how mat* 
11 at his elevation ; and that when I come to Court 
t'ud ou lodging-witb his Grace, whether he wishes 


riiiH into prominence throughout Europe, but hardly before he 
hail started on another voyage in the spring or early summer of 
ir>u:i, just at the time when Columbus was endeavoring to 
wiirk hi.H way from the Vrnigua i*twst to Espafioki. The au- 
thiirititvH are not quit^* agn^etl whether it was on May 10, 1503, 
nr :i month later, on tlune 10, that the little Portuguese fleet in 
%ihii*li Vespucius Hailc»<l left the TaguM, to find a way, if [Mtssi- 
bK\ to the MoIu<*cas siiniewhen* along the name great eoast. 
Thi^ exiHHiition had st^irUnl under the command of Coclho, but 
nii*t*ling with mishaps, by which the fleet was Mc|Kftn&te«I, Vespu- 
riu.H, with his (»wn vess4*K joine«I Liter by another with which 
he fell in. pnH*ecMKsl to Ii:diia, where a f:u*tory for storing Bra- 
zi|.w«MNl wan ereetiNl ; tiien(*e, aft4*r a stsiy then*, they sailed for 
Li-Um, arriving then* after an absence of seventy -si* ven days, 
••h dune 18, 1/>U4. It was lat«*r, nn Septi*mber 4, tluit Vespu- 
riii!* wnite. or rather datetl, that account of his voyajn: 
whieh \ia.-i to w«>rk sueh marvels, as we shall Si*e, in the ar.u.iDtof 
reputation i>f himself and of (\ihnubus. There is no 
r«*a^>n tn sup|Nisi* that (\ilumbus ever knew of this letter of 
St*pt4*ndier 4, so subversive as it turned out of his just fame ; 
nor, jud^^in^ from the aei*oiint of their int«*rview whieh i*olum- 
l*u^ n-iHirds. i> then* any n':is<)n to sup]N)si' that Vespueiu^ hiin- 
M-lf had any eoueeption of the work which tliat fateful letter 
wa^ already aci*oni]ilishin^, and ^> wliich rcfcn*ncc will be 
niaile lat4*r. 

On F«'bniarv •"»• 1")0.*), (\»hnubus wnitc to Diciro: "Within 
tw«> days I have talked uiili Aincricus Vespucius, who |.^^.^ i^^^ 
mill lit*ar this to you, an<I who is suiiimonetl t<» Court "^^^ 
on matt4*rs of navigation. Ilo ha** always manifesttnl a dis|HK 
f»ition to Ik* friemllv to me. Fortune has not alwavs fav<ired 
bini« and in this he is ntit ditTt*ri*nt fnuu mauv others. IIi<« 
ventures have n«it alwavs Immmi a^ sueeessful as he would wi>h. 
He left me full of the kiutlliest pur|N»s4's t4)wanls ni«*, and \%ill 
do anything for me whirli is in his |>ower. I lianlly knew what 
ti» tell him woulil l>e helpful in him t«i do for ni«'. U'rauM* I 
dill n«»t know wliat pur|MiH4* then* wa^ in eallin:; him to Court. 
Fintl out what he ean d<». and lie will do il ; only Ift it Ik* >o 
managi*«l that he will not U* ^^UHiNi'ted t»f n*ndi*riu;^ me aid. i 
have t«dd him all that it i<« po>*^ili|f ti» ti*ll liini a** U* my «>\iii 
affaipi, ineluding what I havt* ilnne ami what nH>iini|N>n«>i' I 


Show this letter to the AdelaDtado, so tliat he miy 
Veapucius can be made serviceable to us." 
a after this had VeBpticiiis installed as an agent of 
he Spanish government, naturalized on April 24 ai 
Castilian, and occupied at the seaports in superin- 
jnding the fitting out of ships for the Indies, with an 
ary of thirty thousand maravedis. We can find so 
y assistance that he afforded the cause of Colnmbm. 
lie events were taking place which Columbus mi^ 
[IS have arrested, could he have got the royal eat. 
Lii order had been sent in February to Espailola to 
■11 the effects of Columbus, and in April other prep- 

1505, Columbus, with tlie friendly care of his bro- 
icr Bartholomew, set out on bis journey to Segom. 
here the Court then was. This is the statement of 
-as Casas. but Harrisse can Knd no evidence of his J near the Court tiU August, when, on the 2Sth, | 
<■ attested, as will a])i)ear, his will before a notary. ^' 
lie change bringing him into the presence of hU 
■V only made liJs niortiftcntioii more poignant. Hi- 


rentrmiiied by motives of outward decency from a public re- 
jertion of all the binding obligationii towardii the Admiral into 
which he had entered jointly with the Queen. 

I\>himbu8 found in all thi» nothing to comfort a nick and 
tles|K>nding wan, and sank in di^imir u|K)n his couch. lie 
n»a.Hed enough to have a will drafted August 25, which MbT 
itmlinuetl a testament made in 1502« lief ore starting JSnk lUt 
• »u his last voyage. His disease renewed its atta(*ks. 
An c»ld wound had reopened. Fn»ni a bed of pain he began 
again his written appeals. He now gave u]> all hopes for him- 
M'lf, but he pleaded for his son, tluit u|M)n him the honors which 
1m* hiins4*lf had so laboriously won should be bestoweil. 
I>ii*;;ii at the same time, in sciMnding the |>etiti<m, piMdsfor 
pnimiMHl, if the reinstatcMuent t4M>k place*, tliat he 
wtiuKi (*ount those anu>ng his counsitlors whoui the royal will 
ftlutiihl designate. Nothing of protest or ap)>eal came oppor- 
tunely to the determinetl King. *^ The more he w:is |>etitioned,** 
iiavs Las Casas, '* the more bland he was in avoiding; anv i*<»n- 
cluMon. He ho|MHl by exiiausting the patienee of the Admiral 
t<i iudutv liini t4> aeeept S4>me estates in Castile in lieu of such 
■towers in the Indies. Columbus reitH'ttnl all sueh in- 

ftrW-f of • 

tiniatiitns with indi;;fiation. He would iiave nothing fpnoi««. 

but hi«» Umdinl rights. '' 1 have <loiie all that I ean 

•lit/* he !«:iid in a pitiful, des^Kiirin*; letter to l>ez:i. ** I must 

li*ave the issue t*) (iimI. He lia^ alwav> sust^iined me in ex- 


"It arguetl,** ^ays Prex'ott, in iHimmenting on this, *^ less 
knowltftigf of eliaraeter than the Kiiii; usually showed, that he 
^IhuiKI have thoui^ht tlie man ulm liad lii*i»ken off all ne<;otia- 
lions on the tlirt*.'%linld of a <liiliioiis rnterprisi*, mther than 
alKtt4* one tittle of hi?« d<*nKUhU. would ron.M'Ut to sueli abate- 
ment. wiit'U the Miceess «>f tliat entrrprist* was S4» glorittusly es- 

The Admiral was, during this part <»f his suit. ap]>arcntly 
at Salamanea, for Mend«*z >|»eak> of him :is U^ing « ,.iuR,iHi.a 
there itrnHntHl t4> his ImhI with the gnut. while he him- *****«»*»^ 
ftplf was doing all he i*ould to |>re!«.n his master's claims t4> have 
Diego m*ogniaBed in his rights. In return for thi> servicv, 
MendfS aHki*d to be ap|Niiiit«*<l principal .VIguazil of ^^^.^^ .^ 
K«|NiAola for life, ami he siiys tin* Admind aeknow- *-''^»»'*^ 


such au appointraect was but a trifliag remuneratKiit 
tt services, but the requital never came. 
oke a glioimer of Lope. Tiie death of the Queen 
i; throne oi Castile to her daughter Juana. the wife 
f Austria, aud they had arrived from Flanders to 

in their inheritance. Columbus, who had followed 
le Court from Segovia to Salamanca, thence to Val 
dolid, was now unable to move further in his deen\>- 
ude, and sent the Adelantado to propitiate Uie 
lughter of Isabella, with the trust that something of 
's sjTnpathy might be vouchsafed to hia entreaties, 
w never saw his brother agaiu, and was not privi- 
oimunieate to him the gracious hopes which the be- 
iiis reception raised, 
ad passed since the Admiral had come to the neiglh 

the Court, wherever it was, and nothing had beta 
id in respect to hia personal interests. Indeed, littU 
ic Indies at aU seems to have beeu doue. There had 
Bcn trial made of sendiug negro sLives to Espaflola 
s indicating that the native bondage needed reinforc*- 
Oviindo had leporti'il that the exi>eriment was a fait 


Spanish throne. It was, if anything, a mere act of bravado* 
aai if tu Hoiit at the authority whieh could dare deprive him of 
his poHMeasious. He pn»vides for the descent of his honors in 
the inak* line* and that failing, he bequeaths them to the repub- 
lic of (ienoa! It was a gauge of hostile demands on S|Mun 
which no one but a madman would imagine that Tho«wktu> 
(it*n«ia would accept if she could. lie bestowed on '"■p*"**^ 
tiis native city, in the same reckless way, the meann to erect a 
hoHpitaU und designat4*d that such n*souroes should come from 
hi< Italian estat4*s, whaU*vor they were. Certainly the easiest 
way to dispose of the )>a)>er is to ctmsider it a fraud. If such, it 
was drvisiMl by sonir one who onU^rtnl into the spirit of the Ad- 
minirs mailneHS, and nuuie the most of rumors that luul been 
afl<iat rt*s|HH*ting l\»Iuniburt*H purposes to benetit (ienoa at the 
ex|)fnHe of SiKiin. 

Aliout a fortnight lattT (May liO« he nitified an undoubted 
will, which had Inhmi draftetl by his own hand the year 
befon* at St»govia. and exi*<*ute<I it with the customary il>. ''lutubd 
t«>mialiti«*s. Its testanit*ntary provisions were not un- 
natural. He inadt' I)it*go his heir, and his entailetl pro|M'rty 
was, in default of heirs to I>ieg«>, to jkiss to liis iil(>;;itiniate 
son Fenlinaiid, and fmm him, in liki' default, to his own bmther, 
tiM' A(U*lant:ulo. and his niali* dt^si^^i^iidaiit^ ; and all such failing, 
t4» th«* fomali* lines in a similar surrrs^ion. I le «*njoini*d u|K)n 
hit n'|in»si»ntalive», of whati*vor «4<'ii«Tatioii. t4) mtvi* the S|»an- 
i<»h Kiiii: with tidflity. l*|Nin I)i«'go, and u|M»n lator heads of 
tilt* family, he iiii|>«>s4Hl the duty of ndifving all distn*sseil rela- 
tivoH anti others in ]N>verty. He iin|Kise<l on his lawful sim the 
ap|M>intment of some one of his Iin«'age to live i*tmstantly in 
(renoa, to maintain the family di<niitv. He directetl him to 
^frant due allowances t4i his bn»ther and uncle ; and when the 
e<«tat«*s yielded the means, to enN*t a eha)iel in the Vega of 
K*i|Kiflohu where ma.*wes might Im* said flaily for the n*|M>se of 
the souU of hinis4*If and of his iiean*st ndatives. H«* made 
the fnrtlM*ring of the enis.ide to recover the Holy St^piilchre 
f-qnally <*ontingeiit ii|miii the iuen*as4* of his inei>in«*. He also di- 
rv«-iMl I>iep> ti> pn>vide for the inainteiiam**' «>f I>i>iina Bi^a- 
triv Knriques« the mother of FiTfliiiaiid. as ** a |)4*rs(m to whom 
I am under gn*at uMigiition**/* antI "let this In» done for the 
di«rlwrgi* of my c«ms(*ieii<*e. fur it \\eiglis heavy on my soiiL, - - 


for which I am not here permitted to give ; " aaA 
behest that Diego, in hia own will, acknowledges his 
observe during the last years of the lady's life, 
codicil, Columbus enumerates sundry little beqoests 
ersons to whom he was indebted, and whose kindness 
to remember. He was honest enough to add that his 
ere im:iginary unless his rights were acknowledged. 
I neither have bad, nor have I now, any positive in- 
e failed to express any wish respecting the spot of 
nt. The documents were committed at once to a no- 
whose archives a copy was obtained in 1524 by his 
and this copy exists to-day among the family papen 
3 of the Duke of Veragua. 

dng of a will was almost his last act. On the neil 
ay be i)artook of the sacrament, and uttering, " Into 
ly hands, Lord, I commit my spirit," he gasped 
is last. It was on the 20th of May, 1.506, — W 
mstanees we might rather say May 21, — in the city 

7 ^^^^^^^B 


mourned. The tale of his departure came like a sough of 
wind to a few others, who hail seen no way to alleviate a misery 
that merited their sympathy. The King could have but found 
it a n*lief from the indiscretion of his early promises. The 
world at large thought no more of the mournful pro- mB^mOk 
eettsion which bore that wayworn body to the grave ■■~******- 
than it did of any )xx>r creature journeying on his bier to the 
pott4*r*s field. 

It is hard to conceive how the fame of a man over whose acts 
in 1493 li*arne<l men crietl for joy, and by whose deeds the ad- 
venturous spirit luul iK^en stirred in every seaport of western 
£ur«»|)e, should have so completely (massed into oblivion that a 
pr(>fi*ssed chronicler like Pet(>r Martyr, busy tattler as he was, 
should take no notice of his illness and death. There have 
come doii'n to us five long letters full of news and gossip, which 
Martyr wrote from Valladolid at this very time, witli not a 
wonl in them of the man he had so often commemorated. Fra- 
canzio da MontallKxldo, publishing in 1507 some correction of 
hi* «*arly voyages, hiul not heanl of Columbus's death ; nor had 
Madrignano in dating his I^tin n^ndering of the same lMK>k in 
1.j08. It was not till twentv-M*ven days after the d(*ath-be<i 
sc^vue that the briefest notic^e was made in |kassin<^. in an official 
titH'ument of the town, to the effect that ** the s;ii(I Ailmiral is 

deflii : * 

It is not even certain when* the InkIv was first ]dac(Hl, though 
it is usually afiirmc'd to Imvf Inh'u derM»sit4Hl in the 
Franciscan convent in Valladolid. Nor is there any 
evidence to sup|M)rt another e<|ually prevah*nt story tliat King 
Fenlinaml had onlered the n*moval of tht* remains to Seville 
•rvra yearn later, when a n)4>nunient was built bearing th«* 
cift4!0-<|Uoted distich, — 


NrrVO MINIMI |»|o roLOX, — 

it being pretty evident that such an iniH*ription was never 
thought of till C'ast4*Ilanos suggf^sted it in his Hfefjittt^ in l/>88. 
If I>iegu*t will in ir)09 can In* int4*rpret4Hl on this matter, it 
•eems pretty sure that within thrtv y«*ars (loOlM aft<*r the 
death of Columbus, inste:ul of S4*ven. his cofliii had 
bei»n conveyeil to SevilU* iiwA pl:u*e<I insidi* tlu* c»onvt»nt r-^rwd i«» 
•( Ijms C*iievas, in the vault of the ( arthusians, where 


of his son Diego and bi-other Bartholomew were in 
1 rest besitli! liia own. Heit the remains were nn- 
ill 1530, when the records o£ the convent affirm that 
:,nven u]) for transportatiou, though the royal order 
i.f Juiie 2, 1537. Fi-om that date till 1549 there is 
'djectiire as to their abiding-place. 
iiring this interval that his family were seeking to 
hat was supposed to be the wish of the Admiral \a 
in the island of Eapafiola^ From 1537 to 1540 the 
t are known to have issued three different orders re- 
1* removal of the remains, and it is conjectared the 
iiuAfereiice was ai^'tually made iu 1541, shortly after 
it' completion of the cathedral at Santo Domingo. 
F any record was made at the time to designate the 
rcentonibment in that edifice, it is not now knovrn, 
[ till 1G76 that somebody placed an entry in its reo- 
he burial had been made on the right of the altar. 
IS later (1683), the recollections of aged jieople «M 
iibstuntiate sucli a statement. We find no other no- i 
>iitury afterwanls. when, on the occasion of some re- 
in.: vault, supjiuHfil in thi- trailitions to be that whict 


It was representeJ, moreover, that those features d 
tioQ on the lately found leaden bos which seemed to 
aii thei'askot of'thelirst Admiral of the Indies bad 1 
■een fraudulently added or altered. The question has 
robahly been thrown into the category of doubt, * 
liough tbe case as presented in favor of Santo Do- 
some recognizably weak points, which the advocate* ^ 
T »ide have made the most of, and to tbe sattafactioa 

tbe more careful inquirers. The controversial liter- 
he subject is considerable. The repairs of 1877 in . 
Domingo cathedral revealed the empty vault from 
transported body batl been taken ; but they showed t 
:cupicd vault of tlie grandson Luis, and another in J 
a leaden case which bore the inscriptions which are \ 

■ statement of the Blstorie that Columbus preserved 
lie chains in which he bad come home from his thirf • 
oyage, and that he bad them buried with him, or in- 
.■uded to do so. The story is often repeated, but it 
ir authority than the somewhat dubious one of that 
it finds no confirmation in Las Casaa, Peter Martyr, 






l>eFore hnd imagined it. It looked sa if mercaotJIi 
IS to be (;oastraioed by no bounds. Articles of trade 
plied amaziDgly. Every movemeDt was not onlj 
road, but it was rapid beyond conception. It wii 
be remotleling of Japan, which we have seen in our 
iiytbiiig that had been eai'lier known, 
sway of the Moors was disintegrating. The Anb 
in seience and seamanship was yielding to the W» 
. The Turks had in the boyhood (1453) of CoIub 
imated their last great triumph in the capture ol 

ist. This conquest drove out the learued Cbrbitiaiii 
t, who had drunk of the Arab erudition, and they 
heir stores of learning to the western lauds, coming 
: heirs of the Romans with the spirit which Rome is 
d sent to the East. 

t Christian Euroi>e was losmg in the PortugJ 
Henry were gaining for her in the great and forbid- 
11 waste of waters and along its African shores. Ai 
■ of Mahometan invasion rolled over the Bosphoms, 
J, equatorial zone was piei-ced "from the north along 

THE vn.xn.Xt'TI'lH UF roU'MHrs. 


tiiiiis, so (hat tilt* tliiMiry i*oiil<l Ih* (lomonstratuil. This a^t* prtH 
iluri'd Iiiiii. Kiithiisiasin ami the i'oiita;;ion of palpahlc thou|;h 
**h:iilit\iv truths ^'av«* Cohinihiis. aft«'r iiiiirh trihiihitinii, the 
fiiuiitriiaiici* ill hi^h (|iiarti'rs that i*iiahh>(l him t4i i-i'ar!i mu'cvss, 
iiii'i-]itivf th(»ii<rh it \v:is. It wtiuhl iiavr 1»f«-ii wrll for his mciii- 

• •IV if hi' had died whi*ii his ina>t«*r work was (hiin*. Wit it liin 
151*1 -at aim cortitifil hv its ivsuhs, tiittii^^h tiii'V wvvv far from 
U-iiii; what hi' thoii;;lit. Iir wa<^ iinfortiiiiatfly h*ft in thr v\\\\ U 
In' laiil iKin* on trial, a ('omnioii mortal aft4*r all. the rn'atiin* of 
I'lilYi'tiiiLj i'ir<'UinHtanri'<^, ami a wraklini; in «'Vi'rv I'h*- ii^n, ,^,„-,„ 
iiii'iit i>f i'omman«l. His imagination hail avaih'd him -^'''«''^<"- 
iii hi'« U]»waril ('oiir<«i' w licit a <«im'i-iii' hal»it in hi<» waitim; (lays 
ffiiiltj iilisi'iiri* his (Irfcrts. Later. \\\v |ii'ohIi'ms hf fiifoiintciiMJ 
Will- tlio<>i' that r('4|iiiiiMl an cvi- tii t'ommainl. with ta«'t to |n*i'- 
«iiail>- :iiiil *»kill to fm'n'r. and he had none of thfiii. 

I III* man \\lio lM'('onir<» the rnns|>ii'nMii<* (h'Vriopcr of aiiv i^rral 
Will lii-iiiiivi-iiifiit is n>iiall\ thf I'mliiHlimriit of tin- ri|M'ni'tl a'^ 
|Mi-atii^ii-> of his time. Siii-li wa> ('ohiiiil»us. It !•* tiir furi-rnn- 
ii« r. till- man who ha** litth' riiiiiitrnancr in lii^-a-^i-. ulm |M»iiits 
tip* \^a\ fur «i>iii(* iia/ardiiM^ afti*r-sonl tn piii'-iif. Siirh \\a<« 
Ki'ji r Ii.^-Mii. till* Kiii^li^li rraiii'iM-aii. !» wa^" U.h-*!!'* 
I«.t !•• •isri'ft intii |>n>|Nr rliaiiin-U tin* ih-w -ihlimil: "f '• i 
tin* tX}Miiiiii>iitaI '•i*ii'ii«-f'« \\hit*Ii wa^ iiidiirid li\ tli<* 
i«\iviil '»tiitl\ iif Ari'-liilli-. aiiil wa-* i:iri\in:r ili'«iii:i\ iiitn the 
«lii^iijli><! U <if Platiini-m. Staiidin'^ mit frmii tin- liark'^rniinil 

• ■f Aral* M'i^tiiiTaliiii; ii-aniiiii:. tin- iiaiin* of K«»i;ir Itai'ini. liiiki-d 

• ift*ii \^it)l tliat lif AIIm rtii** Nhr^iiu^. HtniNl fur tin* hi*>t klii»w. 
1*-<I;^'* aipl iii'«i::iit of tlir tliiiti-tiilli i-i'iitiiiv. Haroii it \ias who 
;::i\i- that t*'iidi-iit*\ t<i ih<'iiL:lit ulii«'li, M-i/i-d hv Cardinal Picrri' 
d Aill\. aipj iiii'<»riNiratid l»\ him in iii** ////'/'/" Mumfi 

I 1 n** I. iMi-aiiif tin* link Im-Iwi'i'Ii l»ai'i»n and (iiliiiii- \> • t 

• •:i-. IlnmlMildt ha** iiiili*i-i| iA|iM*^^i-il hi- iM-liff th:il 

till* •■ni'\i'l'>|ia'ilii' Siir\r\ i»t tin" \N i»r!d i-m li-i-i'd a iiiiHi- im- 
|Hirt.iii? iiit1iii*n<*i' iijiiin tlii- di-i-ii\i'iv itt AiiU'rit-a than fXi-ii tin* 
|iri»iii]itiii:; whii'h ( '<»Iiiiii)>ii- L;<>t from hi- I'tim '*]ioiid<-iii'i' with 

Ti'-M-allilli. II'iW Will t '••llimlill- )mi|im1 ii\i-ltln- jMU'^ ''f tli«' 

/• .'I'/'i .^f'th'/i \\f Kii ii\ tiiiiii tlif :iiiiiMi:iti<>ii- nf hi* ••wn i'nji\, 
^h'« ii {■•-till |iri"-i'i \i"«l ill l]i« r»iMii>t« I'.i dilmiiii'iia. ll -n-ui- 

iikcl\ tli;it t'ohimliii* ::••! iinii-tl\ fuMii ilii- I k lini^t that 

I" klii'W of tho-i« |ia--;i.;i- mi Ai''*"!!--. *^m.iKm. ainl *^riuM .i 

J'ut»r. , "^ 



ik of the Asiatic shores as lying opposite to HUpa- 
e is some evidence that this book was his companion 
is voyages, ami Huml)oldt points out how he trsna- 
isaage fi-oni it, word for word, when in 1498 he 
t in a letter which he wrote to his sovereigns from 

ke the paina. as Humboldt did, to examine the writ 
!ig3 of Columbus, to ascertain the sources which he 
ited, we find what appears to be a broad acquaintance 
;ith books. It is to be remembered, however, that 
!ie Admiral quoted usually at second band, and that 
acquaintiincc with cla'^sic authors, at least, mainly 
is Imoffo Mundl of Pierre d'Ailly. Humboldt, in 
I list of Columbus's authors, omits the references to 
Lires and to the Church fathers, " in whom," as he 
lumbus was singulai-ly versed," and then gives the 
■atalogiie : — 

;; Julius Ciesar ; Strabo: Seneca; Pliny; Ptolemy; 
iliusCapitolinus; Alfrazano; Avenrnyz; Rabbi Sara- 
el ; Isidore, Bishop of SeviUe; the Venerable Bede: 
bbi' of Rpichenau : Duns Scotus : Fran(,-ois Mayronis: 


aiul circulating manuBcripts bring them into nympathy. They 
grow by the correlation. It is just this corre8|X)ndence that 
(•unfrontH ur in G)lumbus and Toscanelli, anil it is not 
quit4^, but almost^ )>erceptible that this wise Floren- awiT 

tine (l(xrt4>r was the fintt, dcHpite IIumlH>l(lt*8 theory^ 
to plant in the mind of Columbus his aspirations for the truths 
of geography. It is meet that Columbus should not be men- 
tiontMl without the aceom))anying name of Toscanelli. It was 
the (tenot*s<'*s diffen*nt fortune that he c<mld attempt ai^ a sea- 
man a pnictical demonstration of his fellow Italian's views. 

Many a twin movement of the world*s gro)>ing spirit thus 
M*«»ks tilt* light. Progress naturally pushes on {mrallel lim^ 
C\>nuiH*re(> thrusts lu'r intercourse to remotest regions, while the 
< liurch yearns for new souls to convert, and jH»ers longingly into 
the dim spaces tliat skirt the world's geogniphy. Navigators 
improve their methcNls, and learned men in the arts sii])ply 
them with exacter instruments. The widespread manifesta- 
tion<i of all this new life at last ervst:dlize, and (tama and Vo- 
lumbiiH ap|N*ar. the mtiex of every developm<*nt. 

Thus tlie <lis4»ov«'rv of Columbus came in the ri|M»ness of 
time. No one of tin* antt'vior aeeidmts, Mitrirrsting a 
wr'^t^m lan<i, gr.mting that tliere was >niin' mra^ure of i^.. ..r in. 
fact in all of tliem. Iiail (M»nie to a wnrKl )»ri*pan'a t4» 
think t»n thfir dev«*lopnu*nts. Vinlaiid was ])raeii«*ally forgotten, 
uherevfT it niav have Immmi. Th«* talfs of Fousjin;; had never 
:i li<«t4*ner in KurojM*. Mad<M* was as unknown as Klidaethon. 
Whih' the new Imlifs were not in their turn t4» Ih» ftirgotteu, 
their di-MMiviTer was to bury hiniM'lf in a world of eonj(H*ture. 
The >u|»erlative> of Columbus mm)ii s|H*nt their infbience. The 
pion«*«*r was lost sight of in the new (Mirrentn of thought whieli 
he bail »*tart«*<l. Not of least int«'rest ainoii'j them was the cog- 
nixiino* of new r:i(M*H of men, and new rrvelations in the animal 
aiitl physical kingdom**, whiK* tlie tpiestion of their origins 
pn*HM*d Very s4Min on the theologiral and M'it>ntitie S4M)s<> 4>f the 

N«> man (*raves nion* than Colunihus to U> judginl witii all 
th*- |Killiations dt»niandiMt «»f a t]ilTen*nrr of hi^ 4iwn s-Amu^^w 
agf ami ours. No child of any a;re »'\fr did h*ss to *"■■•* 
inprove his contem|Hinirii>**. and fi*\v rvcr diil more t4> pn*|Kire 


r such improvements. The age created him and the 
ge left him. There is no more conspicuous example 
1 history of a man showing the path and losing it. 
110 means sure, with all our boast of benevolent prog- 
itrocities not much short of those which we ascribe 
ns and his compeers may not at any time disgrace 
: as they have blackened the past years of the ninc^ 
;urj'. This fact gives us the right to Judge the io- 
F man in any age from tlie high vantage^round of 
notions of all the centuries. In the application of 
mial justice Columbus must inevitably suffer. The 
ti of tliL- times ceases to be an excuse when the man 
pil stands on the pinnacle of the ages. The bit^ra- 
>t forget. in(lee<l, that Columbus is a portrait set iu 
ndings of hia times ; but it is equally his duty at tlie 

U> judge the paths which he trod by the scale of an i 
blencss. 1 
^ domination of this man in the history of two hem- 
arrants us in estimating him by an austere sense 
IK hist ami of opportunities embraced. The reallv 

is Miju-rior to his age. and anticipates ifc> future; 


f«M>lhar(ly when it wan done. If he hail reached the opulent 
and |H>werful kings of the Orient, his little cockboats and 
tli«*ir hrave souls might have fared hard for their intrusion. Ilis 
hi under in geography very likely saved him from annihilation. 

The character of Columhus lias been variously drawn, almost 
alwavH with a violent projection of the limner^s own 

w His i*hifBi*- 

tMrrsonalitv. We find Prescott contending that ^^ what- ur dui«r- 

* , . . <nUr dmwL 

ever the defects of (\)lumbuH*s mental constitution, the 
linger of the historian will find it difficult to {x>int to 
a Hiiigle blemish in his moral character.'' It is cer- 
tainly difficult to |K>int to a more flagrant disregard of truth 
than when we find Prescott further saying, *' Whether we con- 
template his character in its public or private relations, in all 
its featun*s it wears the same noble as|)ects. It was in ))erfect 
liamiony with the gnindeur of his plans, and with residts more 
!»tu|M*nd4>us than thos4' which Heaven luis ))ermitteil any other 
mortal t4> ai'hieve.** It is very striking to find Prescott, after 
thus >|M*aking 4>f his private as well as public charactiT, and 
forgetting the reniorstt of Columbus for the soi*ial wrongs he 
hail <*(mimitte«l, np|)end in a footnoU* to this very |»assage a 
reference to his *^ illegitimate *' son. It s<M*ins to mark an ob- 
durate pur|M)se to disguise the truth. This is also nowhere 
more |iat4*iit than in the i^dliating hen>-worship of 
Irving, with bis luuistant effort to save a W(irld*s ext*m- 
plar ft»r the worhrs admiration, and more for the world's sake 
than for ('oluml>UH*s. 

Irving at one time berates tiu? biognipher who lets ^^ pemi- 
cioan erudition ** destroy a world's exemplar ; and at anotlier 
time he does not know that he is criticising himself when he 
nays that ** he who paints a gn*at man men*ly in grf*at and he- 
ruic traits, thiiugh he may pnNluee a fine picture, will never 
present a faithful ]M)rtrait.*' The eommendation which he l>e- 
sti>WH u|K>n llerrera is for prt*i*iH<*ly what militates against the 
highest aims <»f hintory. y^'iiu**" he pnii^^s that Spanish histo- 
rian's disn^gard of jutlieial fairness. 

In tlie U*ing whieh Irving makes stand for the historic Co- 
lumbus, his .nkili in M)ft<*n('d expn**«si(iii iiidneed Ilumlxildt to 
tuppom* that IrvingV^ avoidanei* «>f r\;ig*jeralion g:ivi» a fonv 
U» his euh»gy, but thi>re wxh little iietMl t4» exaggerate merits, if 
defectM were blurred. 


■ned Gennnn adds, in tbe opening of the third vo!- 
nie of Ilia Exumcn Critique, his own sense of tlie 
iipressiveness of Columbus. That impressivenese 
'eased; but it is like a gyrating storm that knows no 
; vagrancy of destruction. 
I not look long to discover the secret of Humboldt's 

Columbus. Without having tliat grasp of tile pic- 
hi(;h appeals so effectively to the popular mind in 

of Yeapuciu.s, tbe Admiral was certainly not desd- 
len observation of nature, but unfortunately thb 
■i not infrequently prostituted to ignoble purposes. 
lilt of Hiuiiboldt's proclivities, these traits of obser- 
ibed closely bis sympathy. He speaks in his Cuf- 
E development of this exact serntiny in manifold 

notwithstanding Columbus's previous ignorance of 
tory, and tells us that ibis capacity for noting natural 

arose from bis contact with such. It would ha\-e 
■ for the fame of Columbus if he bad kept this scieo- 

in its purity. It was aimply, for instance, a vitiattd 
stouiid that made lihn mingle theological and pbj^si- 
s about the lan<l of Paradise. Sucb jugglery was 


coromonplaoe exaggeration which in our day is confined to the 
trails of ^]HH;uhiting land companies. The fact was that Hum- 
ImiUU transferred to hin hero something of the superhitive love 
of natun* that ho himself had ex))eriencreil in the same regions ; 
but there was all the diffen^nce l>etween him and Columbus 
that tiiere is In^tween a genuine love of nature and a commer- 
cial usi> of it. Whenever Columbus could divert his mind from 
a |>ur|>os4* to make the Indies a paying investment, we find 
M>ini* hi«ruH of an insight that shows either observation 
of his own or the garnering of it from others, as, for iioo«o(n*. 
examples when he n^marks on the decrease* of rain in 
the ( *anaries and the Azcires w Inch followinl u|M>n the felling of 
tn*«'s, and when he conjt^ctures that the ehmgiited sha)H» of the 
i.-»lands of the Antilles cm the lines of the ]>arallels was due to 
the strt*ngth of the eipiatorial curn^nt. 

Sincv Irving, Prescott, and IIumlKildt did their work, there 
lia.*« sprung up the unn*:isoning and ecstatic French 
•ch4M»l under the leaii of Host^lly de Lorgues, who L.trir«ir« umI 

I •! ^111 111** e • 111* M-httitl. 

MMfk to as4Tib(> to V oluml)Us all the virtues of a s;unt. 

- C olumbus had no <lefe<»t of character and no worKllv uualitv,** 
they s:iy. The antiquarian and si^an-liing ^pirit of 
Ilarri'^M*. niu\ of thoM' \srit4'rs who havr inuiuU Wvu 

k*d into the cloM'>t studv «»f the evt*nt> of the lift' of Columbus. 
liaA not (lone so mu4*li to mould opinion as ivganls the es* 
timat4* in whi<*li thr Admiral should hv li<dd as to eliminate 
r«»nfu**ing >tat4'ments and put in order corrtdM)rating facts. 
TIm* reaetion from the laudation of the <*an4»ni/ers has not pro- 
du«*«*«l anv writer of (Hinsidenititm to arrav sueh den>y:iitorv esti- 
niates as effiH'tually as a plain recital <»f establi>htHl facts wimld 
«lt> it. IIuU*rt IV:incroft, in the incidental mention which he 
makes of (\>lumbus. ha^ t4)uchi*<l his character not inaptly, and 
with a consistent recognition of its infirmities. Kven Prescott. 
who V(*rg<'sc*onstantly 4»n the tu*static «*!fments of the aduLitory 
biographer, is forc^ul to entertain at timeH**a suspicion of a 
Urm|Mirary alienatitui of mind." and in reg:ird to the letter 
which Cohnnbus \irot4* fr«»ni tiamaiea to the sovereigns, is 
ob|ige«l t4» riHNigni/** *v«MdM>r narrativ«> and S4)un<l reasoning 
fttrmngfly blemliMl uith era/y difani'^ an«l doleful lament^iti«»ns.** 

- VagarifH like th***-*-." Ih» atbU, '*uliirli eame iK»ca>ionalIy like 
clouds over hi.n m>uI t<» >hut 4iut the light of reason. cann<it fail 


uitid of the reader, aa they doubtless did those of 
q'ii^, with mingled seiitinieiits of wonder and com- 
An unstinted denunciatory purpose, much weak- 
ufd by an inconsiderate rush of disdain, character- 
es an American writer, Aaron Goodrich, in his Life 
ailed Christopher Columhin (New York, 1875); 
ticH temper is too peevish and his opinions are too 
y biased to make bis results of any value. 
tal hallucinations of Columbus, so patent in his lad 

uot beyond recognition at a much earlier age, and 
ould get the true import of his character must traee 
wful manifeatationa to their beginnings, aud distin- 
;itely between Columbus when his purpose was lof^ 
^ii aud himself again wheu he became mercenary and 
) much does the verdict of history lodge occasionally 
ore iu the narrator of events than in the charactw 

thum that, in Humboldt's balancing of the basw 
oblor syinptums of Columbus's nature, he does not 
iic iHost degraded of hia actions other than power- 
;ind soinetiniea, at lea^t, clear in intelligence. There 
Illy curiously transparent, but transient gleams of 


<K|uip])e(l vessels. Ho seems to have succceclecl in attaclun*; but 
few men to him who adhered loyally to his cause. Those under 
him wore constantly rebellious and mutinous; those over him 
ffiund him impracticable. To array all these as enemies, in- 
spired bv a Satanic hostility to a great servant of God, is to ask 
too much for our belief ; ** and yet this is precisely wliat Irving 
by constant mollifications, and De Lorg^ies in a monstrous de- 
jree fiH^ themselves justitietl in doing. 

There is nothing in Columbus*s career that these French can- 
oniz4*rH do not find convertible to their pur]>ose, ji^rnmch 
whether it l)e his wild vow to raise 4,000 horse and «•«»**•"• 
60,000 fiwt in seven years, wherewith to snatch the Holy Sepul- 
chre from the infidel, or the most commonplace of his canting 
ejaculations. That Columbus was a devout Catholic, acconling 
to the Catholicism of his eiHK*h, does not a<lmit of cjuestion, but 
when trie<I by any test that finds the pt*rennial in holy acts, 
Columbus fails to bear the examination. He had nothing of the 
genenms and noble spirit of a cHinjoint lover of man and of 
G<h1. as the hi;;licr spirits of all times have deveIo|HHl it. There 
was no all-loving IX'ity in his comvption. Ills I^)rd was one 
in wlios4» name it was conv«»ni«»nt to pra«'ti«»t' enormities. He 
sbannl this subt^'rfuge witli Is^ilM^lla and the rest. We netnl to 
think on what I.*as Casas could In* among his n)ntem|>oraries, 
if we hesitate to apply the conceptions of an everlasting 

The mines which Columbus went to MH*k were hanl to find. 
The |N?ople he went to save to Christ wen» easy to exterminat(^ 
He mounietl bitterly that his own efforts wort* ill requiUnl. He 
hsu\ no pity f(»r the misery of t>thers, except they l)e his de|>en- 
ilents and co-sharers of his pnr|>os<'s. He found a |>olicy worth 
commemorating in slitting the nos«>s anti tearing off the ears of 
a nakf^l heathen. He vindicates his ex(*<*ss by imprt*ssing u|)on 
the worhl that a man M^ttiuL; otit t4> conquer the Indies must 
m>t l)e judgiMl bv the amenities of life which In^long to a (piiet 
rule in establishcHl eountri<»s. Yet. with a chance to establish a 
humane life among {H'oples n^aily to 1h* niouldeil to g<MKl pur- 
|itf»ses, he S4)uglit from the very tirst to orgaiiizA* among them 
the inheritiHl evils of *' establiHh«Hl (M»untries.*' He c,^^^^, 
tjdke<l a gn»at deal alnint making ronvertn of the |HH)r •*»•*•*•••*• 
■cmla, while tlie ver\ fimt sight \»hich he had of them pnmipteil 


I bim to consign them to the slave-mart, just as if the first step 
to Christianize was the step which unmans. 

The first vicar apostolic sent to teach the faith in Santo Do- 
mingo returned to Spain, no longer able to remain, powerless, 
in sight of the cruelties practiced by Columbus. Isabella pre- 
vented the selling of the natives as slaves in Spain, when Co- 
lumbus had dispatched thither five shiploads. Las Casas tells 
us that in 1494-96 Columbus was generally hated in Espials 
for his odiousness and injustice, and that the Admiral^s policy 
with the natives killed a third of them in those two years. The 
Franciscans, when they arrived at the island, found the colonists 
exuberant that they had been relieved of the rule which Colum- 
bus had instituted ; and the Benedictines and Dominicans 
added their testimony to the same effect. 

The very first words, as has been said, that he used, in eon- 
He urges en- veying to expectant Europe the wonders of his dis- 
iSiweafrom CO Very, Suggested a scheme of enslaving the strange 
the flwt. people. He had already made the voyage that of a 
kidnapper, by entrapping nine of the unsuspecting natives. 

On his second voyage he sent home a vessel-load of slaves, on 
the pretense of converting them, but his sovereigns intimated to 
him that it would cost less to convert them in their own homes. 
Then he thought of the righteous alternative of sending some to 
Spain to be sold to buy provisions to support those who would 
convert others in their homes. The monarchs were perhaps 
dazed at this sophistry ; and Columbus again sent home four 
vessels laden with reeking cargoes of flesh. When he re- 
turned to Spain, in 1496, to circumvent his enemies, he once 
more sought in his turn, and by his reasoning, to cheat the 
devil of heathen souls by sending other cargoes. At last the 
line was drawn. It was not to save their souls, but to punish 
them for daring to war against the Spaniards, that they should 
be made to endure such horrors. 

It is to Columbus, also, that we trace the beginning of that 
monstrous guilt which Spanish law sanctioned under the name 
of rcjHirtlmiefifos^ and by which to every colonist, and even to 
the vilest, absolute power was given over as many natives as his 
means and rank entitled him to hold. Las Casas tells us that 
Ferdinand could hardly have had a conception of the enormi- 
ties of the system. If so, it was because he winked out of sight 

coLUMntJsrs last year, 507 

the tefttimonv of oW^rvers, while ho liHtenecl to the tales 
|>n»nj|it«Hl of gnKHl, nipine, and cruelty. The value of the sya- 
t4*iii to fon*e heathen out of hell, and at the Hanio time to re- 
plfiiinh hin treaHury, was the side of it preHent^nl to Ferdinand*s 
mind by sticli as had aect*ss t4) his {NTHon. In 1501, we find the 
noiniiiicanH entering their protest, and by this Ferdinand was 
moved t4> take tlie counsel of men learned in the law and in 
w hat {Uissetl in those days for Christian ethics. This court of 
ap|N*al approviMl tliese necessary efforts, as was claimed, to in- 
ertias*' thos«* wlio were new to the faith, and to rewani those 
i»ho Hupj>ort4Ml it. 

Pft4»r .Martyr express<»d the c^onifortin^ sentiments of the age: 
** National right and tliat of the C'hurt*h concetle |H'rsonal lib- 
€»rty t4» man. State iH)liey, howt»ver, demurs. Custom n»j)els the 
idfa. l>»ng ex|)erienw shows that slavery is necessjiry t4> pre- 
vent tliose returning to their idolatry and error whom the Church 
ha** onee giiineil.'* All professtMl servants of the Church, with a 
frw fxeeptions like Ijas Casas, rangtMl themselves with Colum- 
Imi<» oil the side of sucli 8|KH;ious thoughts ; and Las Cas:is, in rec- 
ognizing this fact, asks what we could ex]N'et (»f an old s;iilor and 
fight«*r like Columbus, wlien the wis^'st and most re*.)H'etable of 
th«* pri(*Htho«Ml ba(*ked him in his views. It was ind<HHl the 
mi«M'ry of Columbus to miss tli«* opj>ortuiiity of Inking wis4»r than 
hi** ftdlows, the (N*casion always sought by a eommanding spirit, 
anil it was offf*re<l t<» him almost as to no other. 

Then* was no i;^*straining the «*vil. Tiie cupidity of the c*ol4»- 
Dists oven*ame all obstacles. Th«' Cjue«*n was U^guiletl into giv- 
ing •'ipiivoi'al instnictitms to Ovando. wlio suc*(*ee4l(Ml ivncw^oi 
U} lioliaililla, ami out of them by int4'rpn*tation grew ri^wJjTin 
an increase of the monstrous evil. In loOH, everv ****** 
atr<K*ity Usui rt»achetl a legal reeognitioii. I^abor was forctnl ; 
th** •'laves were <*arritMl wliither the colonists wilh^l ; ami for 
ei^ht months at least in every year, families were* at plejisure 
cli«rupt<*d without nu^n^v. ( )ne ftt^ls some satisfaction in see- 
ing C*olumbuH hims4*lf at last, in a letti^r to I)i«*go. IWeml>er 
I« 1'><U, sluuMer at the atnN*ities of Ovando. When one S4m.m 
the utti*r annihilation of tlie whole raiv of th«* .Vntillcs. a thing 
•learly assun'tl at th«* dat4* of tli«* d«*ath of Columbus, one v^ishes 
that that dismal d<*atli-b«Ml in Valladnlid could have liad its 
glooni iUumin«*«l by a eonM*iou>nes!> that tin* hand which liftitl 


• of Spain ana of Christ »t San Salvador had dotw 

to stay the misery which cupidity and perverted 
mt ill course. When a man seeks to find and parade* 
r cointnitting a crime, it is to stifle his conscieom. 
passed years in doing it. 

Isabella in this spasmodic interest in the Itidians 
vas the celebrated Archbishop of Oranada, Fernando 
e Talavera, whom we have earlier known as the priof 

He had been since 1478 the confessor of the Qaeen. 
the time came for sending missionaries to the An- 
s natural that they were of the order of St. Jerome, 
alavera was himself a member. Columbus, throng 
lich induced him to make aa apparent as possible his 
tingling of interests with the Church, ha^l before this 
dopted the garb of the Franciscans, and this oidrr 
iond in time to bo seen in Espaflola in 1502. Ther 
;ast tolerant of the leading orders, and had already 
sposition Ui the Indi.ins, and were known to 
itily the Queen's intercessions for the poor souls. It 
1 after the death of Cohmibus that the Dominican*. 

1510. rcinfoiwd the kindly s|>irit of the priests of 


1»t*tlor have remenilM^rtHl the words of warning jpven to Banii*h : 
"SH*ki>!it thou great thingM for thyMelf? S«H*k them not. For, 
•«aith the I^ml, thy life will I give unto them for a pn*y in 
all )»l:u.vH whither thou goent.** Ami a prey in all plaivs he 

llumbohit seeks to |KiIliate this eupidity by making him the 
(-tuiM'iouH inheritor of the |H*euniary rhanees whieh every fn»e 
MUi of (lenoa <*x{>eettHl to tind within his grasp by eommeriMal 
enterpriM*. Sueh prominenee was s«night l>ecauM* it earrieil 
M ith it |H>wer and intlueiiee in the ivpublie. 

If <'o|nnibuH had found riehes in the New World as easily as 
he antiei|Kit4HL it is |>ossible that sueh affluence would havt* 
iiMHildiHl his ehanirter in other ways for g«MMl or fi>r evil. lie 
mnm found hiinsi'lf eonf routing a diffieult tsisk, to satisfy with 
insuffieient means a eraving whieh his exaggerations had estal>- 
lii«li«*«l. This li*il him to spare no devi<*i% at whatever sacritioe 
of iIm* natives, to prtHlui*e the i*ov<*ted gold, and it was an ingen- 
ious nioi*ken- that indu(*e<l him todiH*k his eaptivi-s with gohli*n 
chain <% and panwle them through the Spanish towns. 

Aft«*r Da (lama IumI oim^uihI tlie nmte to Cathay by the C'a|»e 
of IiimmI II«»|m», and Cohunbus had. a** li*' stip]N>si>d, touclml 
ihf «'a!«tern I'ontines of tlic same iMiuntry. tin* wondrr- >j,.„i^ j, 
ful *torie«* of A^atic gl<»ries told by Nirolas <lr Conti *"**'*' 
wen* trannlatt^tl. by onler of King Kmanuel (in l'>00), iuto 
Portuguese. It is no wondtT that tbr intrifHt in the d«*velo|>- 
ment of 141^ miou waned wlim tlie w«»rld In^gan ti> 4*«im|iare 
the <IeM*riptions of the region U^yond tlie (langes, as maile 
kmvwn bv Man*o Polo, and S4> rt*<*«*ntlv bv ('onti« and the ap- 
{Mirent (*«»nfirmation of them estai>lislu*<l by the Portuguese, with 
the meagre roMm roes ^hieh <*olum bus had ass4M»iate<l Th^aorM-. 
with th** same eountrv. in all that lie eoubl <iv aUiut ******* 
tlie AntilleM or bring fnun thmi. An adventurous voyagi* 
the Sea of I>arkii<*'«s lifgat littli* satisfaction, if all there 
to shc»w for it mn'«iHt4*d of men with tails or a ^ingli* ev«*. or 

'^ of Amaxitns and cannibals. 

Whrii we vi«*w till* clianu'trr itf Columbus in its int1ut*n<*e 
nptin the mind^ of nifu. wr tiiid «^tiiii* Mraiii;** anomalii*'*. IV- 
forv his |msf»ion was taint«*d \%ith tlit- ambit itm of uealth and 
itii cfHiMf«|Uenre, ami >%bil«' lif wa*» urging tin* ai-t'trptancf of hi^ 
rirw« for their own s:ikf, it in vi-ry evident that lit* impn'*»M*d 


way tliat never liappened after he had somred hit 
It U after this tuiniDg-point of his life that we 
' his falsities aiid Iiidiscietions, or at least to find 
liem. The incident of the moving light in the aight 
lii-st landfall is a striliing instance of his daring 
I all the qualities that help a conimander in hk 
over hia men. It needs little discrimination to (lis- 
ter deceitfulness of that pretense. A noble deaiw 
loftiest honors of the discovery did not satisfy a 
iiin, insatiable greed. lie blunted every sentiment 
generosity when he deprived a poor sailor of his 
t'uniary reward. That there was no actual li^ 
is apparent from the distance that the diseoverere 
•>i they saw land, since if the light had been ahead 
not have gone on, and if it had been abeam they 
have Mt it. The evidence is tliat of himself and a 
le kept it secret at the time. ,The author of the Iff- 
le dtfticulty, and attempts to vaporize the whole stoij 
hat the light was spiritual, and not physical. Navar- 
it l>y as a thing necessary, for the fame of Colum- 


of it, and threw himsielf headlong into the vortex of what he 
i*aiK*d innpiration. 

Kvf*rything in his scientifio argument had been logical. It 
|>nMliu*ed tiie reliance which comes of wisdom. It was a manly 
i»how of an incisive reason. If he had rested here his claims 
for lionor, he would liavc ranked with the great seers of the ' 
uuivorsis with Copernicus and the rest. His successful suit 
with the S|)auish sovereigns tumtnl his head, and his degra- 
dation liegan when he debased a noble purpose to the level of 
inortvnary claims, lie relied, during his first voyage, more 
oil chicanery in controlling his crew tlian upon the dignity of 
kis aim and the natunil coiuniand inherent in a lofty spirit 
Thin deceit was the beginning of his decadence, which ended in 
a •swl self-aggraiidizemeiitt when he felt himself no longer an 
in*«trument of intuition to probe the sei*rets of the earth, but 
a |ii»Hscssor of niinu*ulous inspiration. The man who had l)een 
Helf-fontainetl became a tlinill to a fevered hallucination. 

The earnest mental study which luul sustainetl his inquisitive 
spirit through long years of dealings with the grt^at physical 
problems of the* earth was forgotten. He h<»|M'lcssly Ix^gan to 
aivnMlk to Divinity the measure of his own fallibility. *^ GikI 
ni:uie me/* he s:iys, ^Mhe nu*ssenger of tlie new heaven and the 
new earth, of which He s)M>ke in the A|NM*alyps4* by St. John, 
after having s|Miken of it by the mouth of Issiiah, and He 
sJmwed me the s|M>t when* to And it.** He no longer thought 
it the views of Aristotle which guidinl him. Tlie Greek might 
Ik* |ieinIoned for his igii<>nuu*e of the intervening America. It 
wa<i mere sacrilegt* to impute such ignorance to the Divine 

There is no excuse but the plea of insanity. He naturally 
lost his friends with losing his manly devotion to a |^^ |^ 
cau*t«*. I do not find the lieginning of this sur- ''•••^ 
render of his manhotMl earlier than in the will which he signed 
February 22. 1498, when he cnnlits the Holy Trinity with liav- 
ing inspiretl him with the idea that one t*ould go to the Indies 
by |iaH«ing westwanl. 

In his letter to the nupM« of I>on Juan, he says that the pro- 
phe(*y of Isaiah in the .AiMN^alyivst* hail found its interpret4*r in 
him. the me<uicngi*r to dist'loM* a new part of the world. '* Hu- 
man reaaon/* he wrote in the Pntjirian^ '' mathematics, and 


served me in no wise. What 1 have accomplished 
e fulfillment of tbe jtrophecy of David." 

seen a pitiable man meet a pitiable death. Hardly 
name in profane history is moi-e august than Lis. 
ardly auother charaoter in the wuild'a reconl has 
lile of its opportunities. His disoovery was a bhin- 
uuder was a new world; the New World is his 
Its di.'icoverer might have been its father; he 
f its despoiler. He might have given its young days 
gnity as tbe world likes to assjociate with a maker; 
I legacy of devastation and crime. He might hara 
sulfisli ]}i-onioter of geographical science ; he proved 
ler for gold and a vieeroyalty. He might have won 

the fold of Cliritft by tlie kindness of his spirit ; he 
execrations of the good angels. He might, like Lau 
u rebuked the fiendishness of his contemporaries ; 
1 an example of perverted belief. The triumph of 
li'd down to the ignominy of Valladolid, with eveij i 
degradation palpable and resultant. 



Columbus had left behind him, as the natural guardians of 
hif» name and honors, the followin^c relatives: his HbidM. 
brother Bartholomew, who in I)eoi*mber, 1508, had '**'^ 
issue of an illegitimate daughter, his only ehild m> far as known ; 
his brother Diego, who, as a priest, was precluded from hav- 
ing lawful issue: his S4>n Diego, now become the first inher- 
itor of his honors ; bin natural son, Ferdinand, the most oon- 
siderabk* in intellectual habit of all Columbus*s immeiliate kin. 

The descent of his titles de{)endiHl in the first instance on 
Mich a marriage as Diego might contract. Within a hubou 
year or two Diegi> had had by different women two ^^^'^ 
hastanl children, Francisco and Cristnval, shut off from heir- 
ship by the manner of their birth. Diego was at this time not 
far from four ami twenty years of agt\ 

Ten or twelve days after Diego sueee4*<le<l to his inheritance, 
Philip tlie Handsome, now sharing the thnme of (^astile as 
husluind of Juana, daughter of Isaliella, onlered that what was 
due to Columbus shouhl be {mid to his successor. This order 
rea4*hed Ks|Ninola in June, I50<». but was not obeye<l promptly; 
and when Ferdinand of Aragon retunied from Italy in Augniit, 
1507. and succeeded to the Castilian throne, he re|)eated the 
onler on .\ugust 24. 

It would seem that in due time Diego was in receipt of 
4*'»U,(K)0 ounces of gidd annually from the four foun- ih^.-..^. 
dricft in F^iNiAohi. This, with whatever else there may "** 
have l»ei*n, was by no means sntisfaet4>ry to the young aspirant, 
and he began to press Fenlinaiid for a restitution of 
hi4 inherited honors and |M)werH witli all the |H*rti- pri M ro? > 
nacity which had ehanieterizinl his f:ither*> tirp*n(*y. <ifc«4um- 
I*pon tin* return of Fenlinaiid from Naples, Diego 
drterminad to push tin* matter to :iu issue, but Ferdinand still 


Diego DOW asked, according to Laa Casas and 
. be allowed to bring a suit agaiust the Crown befow \ 
1 of tlie Indies, and the King yielded to the request, 
i-ery likely, in his ahilitj- to control the verdict in the 
ublie interests. The suit at once began (1508), and 
Dijtinued for several years before all was a-Bconi- 
lisheil, and in December of that same year (1508). 
ego empowering an attorney of the Duke of Alti 
t his case. 

to the Admiral's son was against public policy, aud 

with a law of 1480, which forbade any judicial ofBoe 
L'rown being held in perpetuity. It was further ar- 
le Crown's behalf that Columbus had not been tlw 
Liment of the first discovery and had not discovered 
lid. but that other voyagers had anticipated him. In 
1 all allegations, Diego rested his ease on the cod- 
lie Crown with his father, which assured him the 
[isked for. Further than this, the Crown had already 

lie claimed, a part of the contract in its orders oF * 
00. aiul Augutit 24. 1.507, whereby the revenues due 



lii^torv <if (*oliimlmH aiul his fame. If it wa.s a suit to tM*oiiiv 
a vfnli^'t a<;3iiiist tlu» Cn»wii in onler to protect the C'rowir.s 
ri^'lits iiiuler the hull of ilenuin*atioiu we eaii unilerHt;iii(l whv 
iiitioh that woultl havi> liel|»eil the {MMitioii of the tiscal was not 
hn>u<;ht forwanl. If it was what it ]>ur]>orte<l to be, an effort 
t<» n*lifV4* the Crown of obli;^itions fastenetl u|N>n it uiuler inis- 
(-«>iie4*|itions or ileeeits, we may well marvel at such i»mis;«ion of 

It Mas li'ft for the Kin;; to art on the (lei*ision for restitution. 
This iiii;;ht have Ihm'Ii hy his studied pHMTastination imleiinitely 
tlflayi^I hut for a shrewd movement on tht* part (»f Die^^i*. who 
op|M>rtun(*ly aspiri*<l t4i the haiul of I><>ria Maria de Toledi». the 
dau;;lit4*r of Fernando ih* Toledo. This nobleman was br«itiii*r 
of the I hike of Alva, one (»f the pr«>udest (*;nin4lees of Spain, 
and he w:t*» also eousin of Ferdinand, the Kin;;. The 

«!■ « 1 I I 1 • I»irfc'o mar. 

allianri*. mniu rtTiM*t«*tl, hnuiuht the vouni; suitor a nr* M^na 
|MiWi*rful friend in his unele. and the bride's family 
wt-n* n«»t avrrsi» ti> a roniierti«»n with the hrir to tin* vieerovaltv 
i>f th«' Indies, now that it was 4H»nfirmed bv the (*ouneil of tin* 
Imlii'^. llarrisM* eannot lind that the prnnii^<*d dowrr evi-r 
cami' with thf wif«-: but. on the eontrarv. I>ic^n hitui^* tn havi* 
U-eiim«* tli«* fiiian(*ial a''«Mit of his \\if<*\ fainilx. A di-mand for 
tilt* ni\al a('(piif>i*riu'«' in tin* onb-r** t>f thr ( Hiinril cnuld now 
In* nmn- easily made, and Ferdin:ind readily euneeded p.^j-..^^,,^, 
all but the title n( Vieemv. I He-i* waived tiiat for J',". V.^l-VV 
tin* timi*, attd In* was aeeordin;;ly aeerediti^l an ;;ov- ^ '*""*■> 
enior <»f K<«|Kinol:i, in the pla«*e of <>v:ini|o. 

I<ilMdla had indeed, while on h«-r death-UMl. im|Mirtuned the 
Kin;; to re«*all Ovandti. iK-eauM* t>f the appallin*; ntories of hi^ 
••nieity t*i the Iihlian-i. Ferdinand had fotind that the ;^«»v- 
««rnor'^ vi;;ilan<'<* e«»nduiMMl to lieav\ reniittanees <»f ;;old, and 
iiad nhown no eatjerne'*'* to rarry out th«* (^n*'4Mi*i wisht-s. lli* 
ha«l even orihTtnl i )vaiido to lM>i;in that tran*»ferenee of tlu* 
)Mior Lueayan In<1ians from their own i*»laniU to work in the 
K«|Kinola mines \\lii«'h <MMin re<«ulti-i1 in tlu* de|Nipul:ition «if the 
Kihama<«. N«iw that he wa"* fon-i'd tn withdraw ,|^^,., 
0\andi» he i'*aile it a^ ai^rei-abl*- fm- him a<« )H»«%sible. "■•*'^'' 
ami in the «>ntl then- wa^ ii<» la«'k "f t*oMini<'iiiiation of lii^ ail- 
minii^tration. Inde«'d. a*« >|iaiiiaid<> w«-iii in \]i*»^r day^, (Kanilo 
wart pMiil enou;;li to ;^ain tin- lo\i- of ha^ < 'a'%;iH, **i>\eept for 
•omc erront of moral bli miners." 


11 May 3, 1509, that Ferdinand gave Diego his in- 
iiictious ; and ou June 9, tlie new governor with 
s noble wife sailed from San Lucar. There went 
ith Diego, beside a large number of noble Spau- 
iitroduccd, as Oviedo says, au infusion of the beiti 
Kxl into the colony, his brother Ferdinand, whc 
Hy cliarged, as Oviedo further tells us, to foond 

and ehurches. Hia two uncles alao accompanied 
lioloinow bad gone to Rome after Colimibns's deatK 
teiition of inducing Pope Julius 11. to urge upon the 

voyage of discovery ; and Harrisse thinks that this 
)y some ntemoranda attached to an account of tbi^ 
'ci-agua, which it is supposed that Bartholomew gavt 

to a canon of the Laleran, which is now preserved 
,'Iiavecehian library, and has been printed by Har 
s Bibiiothcca Americana Vctuatissima. It was pe^ 
s visit that the Adclantado took to Rome that mtf 
us's voyage to tboKe coasts which it is usually swd 
! there in 1505. when he may possibly have borne 
letter of Columbus to the Pope. 
tiou wliicli Ravdiolomew now went with Diego to »»: 


L tnckwl new tba 
L itutalkd Ojedtt 

AmUluna, white the one beyond lhi>GuIfof Urnbti, k*^"*- 
wliicb infJadtnl VumipiA, hu givu to Divgo de Nipunaik, and 
nObd ii CaatilU dtd Oro. 

TUb Mtiaa of I i : .ut hia «tffort to put }*orto 

Bieo niidsr an i»di:i l. l l „ . .:^ .r, inuitMl new «x- 
flnhliiiiw tnm Uiego, wmI nennd lii nuke Lia mle 



^ fatliev. There also grew up the same discourage- 
n'lit from faction. The King's treasurer, Miguel Pal- 
itiionte, became the head of the rebellious party, not 
.[licioii that he was prompted to much deauneiations 
ileutial cominuuicatioDS with the King. Heports of 
sJeeds and ambitions, threatening the royal power 
assiduously conveyed to the King. The sovereign 
.ort of corrective, as he thought, of this, by institat- 
ig later, October 5, 1511, a court of appeals, or Audi- 
I'rla, to which the aggrieved colonists could go is 
luir defense a^aiust oppression or extortion. Its 
■et was to imdcrmiue the governor's authority and to 
influence. He found himself thwarted in all efforts to 
1 udians of their burdens, as nothing of that sort could 
ithout disturbing the revenues of leading colonists. 
no great iuducement to undo measures by which no 
i in receipts more than himself, and the cruel dew- 
ic native population ran on as it had done. He oer- 
iiot show hhnself averse to continuing the system of 
.,/■/,« for the benefit of himself and his fnends. 


knowiodging th» tncriU of bi« gorvmmont. Il4- Mfpitn | 

his b(M)d«d righbt with the old fvTencv. " I would bestow tbem 

williugljr tM) ytiu," naiii the King ; " but I coiinot do ki> witliuut 

[ tbmn «1m> to joar Ma mm! < 
JMl," wmU Vngo, '^ that I should ftuti 
r have 7 " Lu Cmu tell* u<i tlui 

^M«r h»raT 
^^pgr to bin 


\g found it reasouable to question tf Colambos had 
■ally sailwl along all the coasts id which Di^ 
:iiiuG(I a share, and ordered an examination of the 
lutter to be made. While these claims were in abey- 
:ing died, January 23, 1516. 

■lit much retarded the settlement of the difficulties. 
^imeues. who held power for a while, was not wilHng 

I nothing was done for four years, during part of 
liich period Diego was certainly in EspaSola. We 
now also that he was pre^nt at the convocation 
lii, presided over by the Emperor, when Las Casas 
urgent appeals for the Indians and pictured their 

Finally, in 1520, when t'harles V. was about to em- 
iirk for Flanders, Diego was in a position to advance 
■ the Emperor so largeasum as ten thousand ducats, 
. as it appears, about a fifth of bis annual income 
I'om Espufiula at this time. This financial soocor 
.■.-iiied to open tlie way for the Emperor to dismiss 

II charges against Diego, and to reinstate him b 
iithurity as Viceroy over the Indies. 


jid revengeful accusations of Diego's enemies were 
Y quelled, aud before loiig he was summoned to Spain 
Q actiount of his doings, for Luoaa Vasquez de Ayllon 
ted tliarges against liim. On September 16, 1523. 
arJiL'd, and landed at St. Lucar November 5. He 
limself before the Emperor at Vittoria in January, 
eviewed his conduct. This he succeeded in doing in a 
disarm his foes ; and this success encouraged him to 

for his inherited rights. The demand ended lu the 
iiestions in dispute being referred to a board ; and 
'iego for two years followed tlie Court in its migrations, 
ttendance on the sessions of this commission. His 
calth gave waj- under the strain, so that, with everj- 
ling still unsettled, he died at Alontalvan. February 
3, 152G, having survived his father for twenty troulv 
His remains were laid in the monastery of las 

the aide of Cohimbus. Being later conveyed to tie 
it Santo Domingo, they were, if one may credit the 
uved statements of the priests of the cathedral, mis- 
hose of his fatlier, and taiteu to Havana in 1795. 
u-Queen and her family were still iu Santo Domingo. 


the Muno year. This was that, upon the abandonment by Luis 
of all claims upon the revenues of the Indies, of the title of Vice- 
roy, and of the right to appoint the oflic^ers of the New World, 
h«* should be given the island of Jamaica in fief, a perpetual 
annuity of ten thousand ducats, and the title of Duke i^^^ ^ 
of Veragua, with an estate twent}'-five leagues square ^••■•^ 
in that province, to Hup|)ort the title and functions of Admiral 
of the Indies. In 1540 Luis returned to Gspafiola ,.i^ ij^ 
with the tide of (^aptain-Cieneral, and in 1542 mar- *" ■^•'*^ 
ritnl at Santo Domingo, much against his mothcr*s wish, Maria 
de Orozco, who lat^^r lived in Honduras and married another. 
While she was still living, Luis again espouMnl at Santo I^ 
mingo Maria de Mc)s<|uoni. In 1551 he returned to S)>ain. 

Whatever remaineil of the rights which Cohunbus hail sought 
to transmit to his heirs had already Ihmmi modified to coiumbwa 
their iletriment by Charlrs, under dtH.'rtH*s in 1540, JJiJjSir 
1«VI1, and 1542 ; and when Cliarles was sutrctHnletl by •'****«^' 
Philip II., early in 155(k one of the first :u*ts of the latter was 
to fon.v Luis to abandon his fief of Veragua and to throw up 
his jHiwer as Admiral. The (^ouncil of the Indies t<x>k cogni- 
aan(*e of the v:im* in July, 155(>, and on Sept^Muln^r 2H following, 
Philip II.. at (ihent. rei'onijvnsetl the gr:iiids<»n of (\>lumbus, 
for his submission t4> tli«» inevitable, bv drrn^^'inj' to Luis the 
honorarj' title of Admiral of the Indies antl Duke of Veragua, 
with an iniNmu* of S4*v«'ii thous:ind ducats. So in fiftv 

• I Vb All 

vemrs the dreams of Columbus for territorial magnifi- coinmbtu't 
craee came to naught, and tht* contul«*nt injunctions nchu abui- 
of his will wen* dissipat^nl in the air. 

IromiMliati'ly after this, Luis furtively marrieil, while ii! - 
<jCber wives wen» still living. Ana de Castro Oss4>rio. lui..^ 
The authorities fouml in thesi* |>olyg:imous acts a cnm- *y«***^ 
Tenient op|M>rtunity to p*t another tnmbk*some Colon out of 
the way, and arresti*^! Luis in 1551*. He was held in prison for 
nearly five years, and when in 15<i,S judgment was got against 
hinu he was sent4*ni*«Hl to t4*n vears of exile, half of which was 
to be passed in Onin, in Afri<*a. Whil<' bis ap|>eal was |M>nd- 
tng, his scandalous life add«*4l criim* t4> crime, and finally, in 
Xovembt»r, 15t>5, bis s(*nt4*iHM* Inking I'ontirnicd, be ,.-. ,,,,, 
was comluctcNl t4> Oran, and then* b«* die^l February **"* 
8, 1572. 


IM)I1K2V1C0 = Wi 

ColoBbo. of 


<L •. |k 

orDlitOi =0 


Am = Crialaval r= 







I Swra. 



MAaiA»o(IT«>>. la 

uf CofoMo. 




D two illegitimate ehildren, one a son ; but his lawful 
cirs were adjudged to be the childreo of Maria de 
losquera, two dangbtei-s, one a mm and the other 
liis last presented a elaim for the titles in opposition 
viands of Diego, the nephew of her father. She dc- 
lared this eoiiain to be the natural, and not the lawful. 
lui of Luis's brother. It wao easy enough to forget 
iich imputations in coming to the final conclusion, 
liien Filipa and Diego took each other in marriagB 
1573) t<i compose their differences, the husband be- 
ouiing Duke of Veragua. Filipa died in November, 
577, and her husband January 27, 1578. As they 
i<k1 no children, the male line of Columbus became 
onty years after hia death. 

suit which foUowe<l for the settlement of the suo- 
tssion was a famous one. It lasted thirty years. Tbe 
hiimauts were at first eight in number, but they were 
educed to live by deaths during tlie progress of tbfl 

t was Francesca, own sister of Diego, the late Duke. 
was rejected : but five generations later the digni- 

I'd to her descendants. 


of Maria, elder nifiter of Luih. This claimant died in 1583, 
whili* hin claim, having once been allowed, was held in abey- 
ance by an appeal of his rivals. His sister, Maria, was then 
adjiidpnl inheritor of the honors, but she died in 1605, before 
th(» final dei*ree. 

The sixth was Maria de la Cueva, daughter of Jiuma, sister 
of LuiH, who died before December, 1600, while her daughter 
died in 1605, leaving Carlos Pacheco a claimant, whose rights 
were diHallowcNl. 

The tM'veiith was Ralthazar Colomlx), a descendant of a Do- 
menif-o C\>lomb<>, who was, acconling to the claim, the same 
DomeniiH) w1h> was the father of Columbus. His genealogical 
reconl was not acHH>pteil. 

The eighth was Ik*rnanlo Colomlx), who claimed to l>e a de- 
scendant of Bartholomew C olumbus, the Adelantado, a claim 
Dot niaile good. 

TIh^hc last two contestantH restiHl their title in |>art on the 
fai*t tliat tht'ir antvstors had always l>omr the name of Co- 
lombo, and this was retpiinHl by Columbus to bc*long to the 
inb<.*rit4>rs of his honors. The lineal ancestors of the othrrclaim- 
mDt.< luul lM>nu* the names of Cardoiia, Portogallo, or Avila. 

Fn>m Nuflo de Portogallo the titles iIosimmuUhI t4> his son 
AlvaroJa«-into, and then to the hitter's stm, IVnlro suft.,d^ 
Nuflo. His rights wen* et>ntestt»d by l^uis de Avila H^jJ^U** 
(grandson of Cristoval, brother of Luis C<ilon ), who II5'if****** 
trietl in lt»20 to n»verse the venliet of ItJOH, and it •^''■•^ 
was not till lt>t>4 that Pe<ln» Nuno defeattNl his ailversaries. 
H«* was succeede«l bv his son, Pedro Manuel, and he by his son, 
Pedro NuiW>, who died in 1733, when this male line iM'canu* 

Tlie titles wert» now illegally assunuHl by INnlro Nufio's sister, 
Catarina Ventura, who by marriage gave tlH*m to hi*r huslmnd. 
James Fitz^Iames Stuart, son of the famous Duke of IVrwiek. 
and bv inlH*ritan4v in lii^ own ri«;ht, Duke of Liria. When he 
died, in 1738, the titles |KiHst*4l to his S4>n. .la(H>lio t^luanlo ; 
tbeDce to the latt4*r*s son, Carlos Fernando, who transmitte<l 
llietn to his son, Ja<N)l>o FilijM*. This ]:ist was obliged, by a 
rerdict in 171^), whieh rever^-d thf dt»en»e of ir»»l4, to vitid 
the titles to the lint* of Fnineesca, ^^ister of Diet^fo, the fonrtli 


Iciiild, Joaefa, married Martin Laireategui, whose 
-giandsou, Mariano (by deereea 1790-96), became 
'i-ragtin, from whom tlie title descended to his son, 
then to his grandson, Cristoval, the present Duke, 
;37, whose heir, the next Duke, was born in 1878. 
if the titles is said to-day to represent about eight or 
id dollars, and this income is chargeable upon the 
■ Cuba and Porto Rico. 

iiling this rapid sket«h of the descent of the blood 
' of Columbus, two striking thoughts are presentfii 
iteguis are a Basque family. The blood of Colum- 1 
iiioese, now mingles with that of the hardiest race 1 
■rs of western Europe, and of whom it may be ei- 
t if ever earlier contact of Europe with the New 
roved, these Basques will be found the forerunners of 
The blood of the supposed discoverer of the west- 
'' to Asia flows with that of the earlieist stock whid 
IS of that Oriental wave of population which inun- | 
ipe, in the far-away times when the races which mab 
:i Christian histories were being disposed in valleys 



TiiKBK WM a itro^ling effort of the ^geographical sense of the 
vorkl for thirty years and more after tlie death of Columbus, before 
tifte fart began to be gras|ied that a great continent was in- py^j^p^^ ^ 
terpoMd as a substantial and indeiiendent barrier in tlie <u»>^rx- 
track to India. It twik nearly a ludf century more before men gener- 
ally recognised that fart, and then in niont cases it was accepted with 
the resenration of a {MMsible Ajtiatic connection at the extreme north. 
It was sometliing more than two hundred and twenty years from the 
death of Columbus before tliat severance at the north wiis iiicontestablv 
cstablishe«l by t(^e voyage of Bering, and a hundrt*d and thirty years 
longer before at last tlie contour of tht* northern couat of the con- 
tinent was establishcil by the proof <»f the lung-*»ou^ht north we!it |iai^ 
•age in IMTiO. We must now, to conipK*te the stiiry of the influence 
of Columbus, rehearsH* soniewhat f*onct**i*ly tli<- narrative* of this pn»- 
grensive outcome of tliat wondrrful voyage of 141VJ. Tlie spirit of 
western discovery, which Columbus ini|iarte4l, wa*» of long continu- 

*' If we wish to make ours4»lves thonuigldy actpiainted.** Miys I)r. 
Kold. ** with the history of discover^- in the New World, we mut*t not 
oaJr follow the navigators on their •thi|Hi. but we must l<Mik int<i the 
cabmeta of princes and into the counting-liouses of merchants, and 
Ukrwise watch the scholars in their MiNHMdative studies." 
Tbere was no rallying |K>int for the si-holar of cosmofn^phy «Mwi>f pioi- 
m tliose early days of discovery like the text and influence ^SJ!^ *^ 
af Plulemy. 

We know little of this ancient geographer bey cmd the fact of Inn 
firiDg in the early portion of tlie second century, and mainly at AlfX- 
the fittest home of a ge<»grapher at that tinu*. »inc«* this Eg}'|>- 
eity was |iet*rleiis for c«>min<*n'«* and learning. Ilfre he <*oald «lo 
bart what be a<l vises aU geographers to do, ronfiult the journals of 
traveleffa, and get information of ecli|»M>«. as the name |iheiionietia Mrif 



tuj than printMl ekrtogntphieml works. About five hoadnd of tlwat 
w»«turt« kr« known in Itnlinn librkriot, nnd the grefttar proportion of 
than Are of lUliui origin. 

It ia » compoaite LAtin text, biooght inki final ahnpe hy Jaeoboa 
Anftelua not far from UOO-1410. which waa the baaia of the fAj 
painted editiona of Ptolemy. Thii veraion waa for a while eireulatad in 
BMnnaeript, aometimea witli copiea of the majM of the Old World har- 
iag n Laliniud nomenrlature ; and the public librariea of Karope con- 
tain here and there ipecimena of theae early eopiee, one of which it ia 
Ikonght waa known to Pierre d'Ailly. It ia k qneatiiHi if Angelus 
aappliml the maps which ari»mpanie«l tlieae early inanuacripta, and 
which got into the Bulogna Mtition uf 1462 (wrongly dated for 14Tlf), 
and into the metrical vanion of BL-rlingitri. Theae mapa, whethnr 
alwaya tlie aame in the early manaHcripld ur not, were lat«r anperaeded 
by a new aet of mapa made by a German cartographer, NieuUua Donis, 
which he added to a revision of Angelus'a lAtin text, i^usuitd 
Theae later mapa were cloae cu[ncit uf the original Greek '■•■■■■r- 

■apa. and were arenmpanied by othen nf a Himilar wurkmanahip, 
wkirh reptvaentrd better knawbilp^ than the Grreka had. In I'lTK 
iheae Dnni* maj* wt-re tirat enersveil on rop|ier. and were ^^ i>,m, 
■wd in the later edilionn nf 14!)0. «nil atightly rorreoted ""r^ 
JB ifcoae of l.'iOT and l.'MKi. I1ie engravt-ni were .Schweinhi-im and 
Bnekinck. and their work, followiu); ea|nM uf it in the rttilion of 
1490, haa been admirably rrproducnl ill Thi- t'aetimiU Attat at 
HOTdenakinU (StncLIi.tlm, IfWU). 

MaMMrUle, editiona of the ((-it nf Angeliu liad been iiwueil at 


2, aiid giving additions in 1486. with woodcut m^s, the 
1 isiiiea on a different projection, aseigaed to Dominot 
rmanus, who bad, according to Nordenskiisld, completed 
pt fifteen years earlier. It is significant, perhaps, of the 

1 which the bruit of Portuguese discoveries to the sotidi 

that there is in the maps of Africa no extension of 

nowledge. But if they are deficient in the south, they are 

markable is the north for showing the coming America 

a delineation of Greenland, which, as we have alreadf 

he early part of the same century. 

j.._ 0' 


ini<^f*<** with the discoTeriM of Marro Polo towardH the east. In roii- 
ne<*tioii with th« Utter, the sanie mmterial which Behaim 
luul used in his globe seems to have been equally accexsible Ruywb 
to Rajich. The latter *8 niap has a le^^nd uii the sea be- "^'*' 
tween Iceland aiitl Greenland, saying UuU an island situated there 
was burnt up in 14i>G. ThiH statement has been connected by some 
with another contained in the Sa^^as, that from an island in this chan- 
nel both (ireenland and Iceland could be seen. 

We also learn from another lej^end tliat Portuguese vessels had 
puslied down the South American cooMt to W* south latitude, and the 
historians of these early voyages hav<* hevix unable to say who the 
pi(in<H*n« were who have left un ho early a deM*riptioii of Brazil. 

It i» infemni from a n*ference of lk*neventanuH, in his l^lemy« 
rrnpecting tluH map, tltat umixw aid hail lM*en «ii*nv«Hl from a map ma<le 
by one of the ColimibuM^n, and u HUitcment tluit liartholomew Colum* 
bu«k. in Rome in ir><C>, gavt* a map of tli«* new discoveries to a canon of 
San (fiovatmi di I^it«*rant> has U»en th(»u^ht to refer to such a map, 
wliirh wouKI, if it could )m* eHtabli>he4l. cloKcly c*<mnect the coiumbiM 
RuyM*li map witli Columbus. It i*: alMi .Htip|M)ft4*<l to have Kuylch 
•unie relatiun to ('al>ot, hinre a voyu^je wliidi Kuvm*!! made ■***• 
to tiie n«'W n^^iunsi weHtwunl from Kngland may hav«' l»een, ami prol»- 
ably was, witli tliat navigat«>r. In tliis c:im>. tli«* ri*f«*ri*iir«' to that part 
of tlie coast of Asia uliich tin* Kn;:liHh (iiscovvri'd ni:i\ tvrtinl KiiVM'irs 
|ier«onal ex|M*rirm*ci». If thcM* things can Ik* con<«itlrri d a<« n'aionably 
evtablished. it giv«'s great interest to this map of HiiVM-h. and eonntH*tA 
Culumbu^ not only with tlie earliest nianuM'ript map. I^i (\»sa of 1«*)4N). 
but al^i with tlie earliest engrave**! map of the New NVtirld, as Ku\sch\ 
map was. 

In fi|N*aking of the Kiiysch map. Henry Stevens thinks that the 
rmrt4»graplier laid dt»wn the central arehi|M*lago uf America from the 
printrd letter of ( olumbus. In^cauM* it was the only account in print 
in ITrfir : but mhy n*strict the sounvn of information to 
ibfMte in print, when \a\ (\»sa*s map nii^ht have lM*«>n copietl. tii^ Ku><rti 
or th«* material whieh \a (Nisa employi'i! might have bi*en 

il by other*, and when the Cantint> map is a familiar c<ipy of Portu- 
originals, all of wliieli mi;^)it well have lieen known in tht* 
«an<*4l circles with which HuvmIi is s4*en bv his map to have lieen 
faniiliar ? 

While it is a fact that central ami northern Kun»|ie gt>t its cartn- 
graphical knowledge of the Nrw World almo'^t wholly fnan Portugal. 
•fving, perhaps, to the exirtitms «»f S|kuii to prt-M-rvf their ^^ 

CKphirem* srcn'ts, we do not. at tht* sanx* time, find a single fi«icr«i<)i« 
rograve*! Portuguese map of the rarly }ear^ <*f thin im'HimI 
of disroTcry. 



pilot nikjor bimI roykl coHDOgnipher klone kept the keys. There exist* 
« dociuneat bj which one of the compuuoiu of UagelUn wai put 
under m [wnalty of two thouMUid dueata not to diacloee the raute he 
traTcrvnl in thftt fanioui voyage. We know how Colambiu endeavored 
to conceal tha roata of liin final voyai^. in which he rraclted the com! 
of Varagua. 

b the two map* »f nearly i'i|Ual date, beini: thf i-orliert en^nved 
rharto which we have, thu ftiivM-h nM|> of I'lUH and the tHM-alli-il Ad- 
Mml'a map of I5<>7 (liil.'t). the i|miitiun of a ilrait Wading ^ „,^ ^ 
lu tha Aualie leaa, whirh CiiIiiiiiUm hail !>)N-nl wi nim-h <-n- ■"■"^ 
arsj ■■ ttyinx ><* A"'' during; hin IokI voyat,"'- >■< trfati-<l diffprenll)-. We 
hav* aaMt that Lt Cinia ™rif.-«-»il hi- Diin-iUiii kiii.wletiK«' l>j ruvvrini; 


C^ tceatpfe of 

cafttoatDe ns tocfttoarOr . as tbep 

are hnotocn anDfounD m ilir tc ourt 

Darcfl.altrr thcDcrtripdonof ^f» 

baftiQn C^unner in t)i3 boKf of bnb 

urrfall •£^o{mogcapbic:^l)Pnnthe 

Diligent rrdticr map frf [|)f 900O 

(uctcfTt'anD tcluarDe of noble 

ant) t)nncftcrnrccp:rrrg, 

top ihf lehttlvfwi ""If wr:l4'- 
Ip tpfhc* an obupnro, 

QiAii (aptlrm< 


Vundattft out o( ffatfa into Crtgbf^- Vr 

gtI>c^«Dr CDm. 

a linw wban Cortai ib^wil tbn wn oa 
il lor it. W* fiad it in 8eh(tiMr'i i^ebtn. la lh« Tna gotw. hmI 
■ bla M IKt2, in Um haktMl BUip of UllMltf. 
Tbt >«p af tin GUAtu MuitJi (Rtnu«biir|[. 1SU9) hm taam mr- 
I b«tnf[ iJba uriiMl iMOiNl north of iba Alpa. ra- ^^ 
)lh Um I'NtusoM* mhiI HpMiwli diaeanrtMi m^h*^ 
I Ibe pnjeetiog Mjfi» of lh« Sooth ^2^^ 
" " " I 9l Om '****^ 

libdMditful if k 

> to ih« n 

'dimmiM 1 

i« "-gT-*- litontlan iMfura AUzudM- BMnlftr pradoMa t 


f Brant's Ship of Fools, and for a few years there wen 
lly cliance references whicli made no impression on the 
^rory instincts of the time. It was not till &fter the mid- 

e of the century, in 1553, that Richard Eden, translating ft 
Ibastiaii Milnster's Cosmoijnipkia., published it in London 

e of the iiewe IndUi, and English-reading people first saw 

e acroimt of what the rest of Europe Itad been doing io 

Intrast with the Engliali maritime apathy. Two years later 

id), Eden, drawing tiiis time upon Peter Klar^, did 

I Decades of the Newe World to enlarge the English con- 

■oet striking and sigiiilieant of all tlie literary movements 

lich grew out of the new oceanic developments was tliat 

li gave a name to the New World, and has left & eonti- 

lunibus unwittingly found, the monument of another'* 

J September, 1504, that Vespucins, remembering an old 
Bmolmate in Florence, Piero Sodei'ini, who was then the 
Brpettiol Goiifalonifere of tliat city, took what it is va^ 
i had wi-itten out at lengtli concerning his expert- 
the New World, and made an abstract of it ia 
1 Ihe 4th of that month, he dispatched it to Itiiy- 

THb' liKmiHM'HlVAL KHStJt.TS, 


■null roUpgc uiil u prii)Un);-^ma. 'IIkk tuul tiv«n graupvd 
ATiidtiil Ummb H^tirin* u iininlicr uf li-kmt^l nit-n, ur ibuap 

lii« iianif. 11 dependent nnd seerelarj- of Duke Yienf. wm 

this body of scholars. Tliere had lately been brought ta 
lix » Malhias Ringmann, whi> eame from Paris with lU 
thai he had tried to imbibe under the tutoring of Dr. 
If we Wlieve the story as Major lias w.trked it ooL 
[lad come to this sjmrse community with all tiio fervor for 

kvith that Florentine's admirer, the architect Giovondo. 

o St. Di^, Ringmann had been made a professor of Latin, 

a^ audi he ap])eai-ti a little later in connection with u Latia 
iie Fiencli of Giocondo, which was soon made by anotlier 
)i>< :tchoiars. a i^non of tlie cathedral there, Jean Bassb 
iii-t. Still another young man, Walter WaldseemUUer. bad 
foie been made a teacher of geography in the college, ud | 
• was tlie wont. IukI been classicized into Hylacomyluft. . 
ve now been brought before the reader all the acton in 
't. I)i^ drama, upon which we. as Americans, must gate 
li the centuries as upon the baptismal scene of a contioenL 
u bad einphasi£ed tlie cusmographical studies of the age bjr 
Imeiil of an energetic yomij; student of geography, who 
I'L-ms to have hod a deft hand at map-making- Waldse.- 


ftloiM who WM retponiible for the plan there giTon to name thai part 
of the New World which Amerieos Veepueiiu had deeeribed after the 
Tojager who had eo graphicallj told his ezperieneet on He ehoreH. 
The plan, it » aappoeed, met with the approral of, or was the ooteone 


linfiipcr qaattnor Arnold 
V^pud) iiaii^atione8» 

Vnfonfalis CoCnognphiaedeC 
inlblido ^pplano/cisctiam i 
qtuePthobm(o ^Dotaam 
pens rcpcrta (unc» 


Omi dens aftia tegat/& ttmedfanadiGdac 
Nee tcttin/neceii fyAm maftii habcni^ 


•f the eooDMle of, this little hand of St. Di^ HchoUm roUectivelj. It 
i* not iba belief of PtadentA generally that thin e<iU*rie. any more than 
Vaipaeiaa hioMielf, ever imafpntil that the new ref^onii wen* really die- 
from tlie Asiatic main, th<iugh Vamha^^n rontrndt thai Vee- 
they were. One thini; in roH ainly tnie : that there was 


to apply the name which was now proposed to anjthii^ 
le continental mass of the Brazilian shore which VeKpocin 

jiiiil which was looked upon a» a distinct region btm, 
.hich Columbus had traversed. It had come to be beliered 
iil*lag<> of Columbus was far fi'om the paradise of loxor^ 
that liis extravagant temis called for, aTjd whit-h the de- 

Mart^o Polo had led the world to expect, supposing tlw 
M overland and oceanic discoverers to be the same. Pur- 
lin, u new expectation had been aroused by the repurU 
ome tu Kurope uf the vaster proportions and of the bril> 
ets — for such trivial aspects gave emphasis — of the moie 

Ills, to atone for their first disappomtmeut, grdsp at the 
ii:.iices of a newer satisfaction. This was the hope which 
jis entertained of this MundHt Noous of Vespucius, — 
(irld in the sense of a new continent. 

I Cabot anil Cortereal, clothed in ima^nation with the d«- 

:i!^t instead of from the west. It was different with tb 
iii'iia of Vespucius. Here was in reality a new life and 
loubtless conneeted. but how it was not known, with th-f 

II world of the merchants. It corresponded with nothinj;. 


flories of CipMigo and Cathay: the bnsj yearningt of a group of 
Toung and ardent spiriu, haring all the apparatus of a pre« to apply 
to tlie making of a public nentiment ; and the enthuiiiasni of narrators 
who iiou{;ht to season their marvels of dineofery with new delights and 

The hold which Ves|HiciuH luul seizi'd upon the imagination of Ku- 
ru|M», aiul which doubtless sen-eti to givi* him prominence in the |K>pu- 
lar appreciation, as it bas servecl many a reaily and picturescpic writer 
since, wan that glowing riHlundancy of di*itcri|>tion, both of the earth 
and the southern constellations, which formn so conspicuous a feature 
of his narratives. It was the later voyagi* f»f Vespucius, and not* liis 
alU^'tl voyage of 141)7, which raised, as Humboldt lias pointed out, 
tlie great interest which his name 8Ugg(*8te<l. 

Just what the notion pn*vailing at the time was of the rt*s|>ective 
exploits of Columbus and VespuciuH is easily gathered from 

"^ . r C<4amb«« 

a letter dat4*<l May .0, ir><K>, which ap|>ears in a Dynh^jus and v«ip»- 
JtthinnU Stamler de dlversarum tjenrium sect is ^ et mundi 
rrgii^nihua^ publiNlie<l in 154I8. In thiM treatise a reference is made to 
the letters of Columbus (141U) and Vespucius (ITiiKi) as concerning 
an insular and continental s|>aco res|)ectively. It s|M*aks of ** Cris- 
tofer C«>l(>ni. tbe discoverer of new utland*^ and of All»ericus Ves|Hi- 
rius concerning the new iliscovered irorfd, to Uttb of wboui our age is 
nuot lart^ely indebteil.** It will be remeniU'rtMl that an early niisnam* 
ing of Venpucius by calling him Alberieus insteail uf Aniericus, which 
tiMkk place in one of the early e<Iitions of his narrative, remained for 
•ucne time to C4infuM* tbe cupitTs of them. 

If we may judge fnun u diagram which Vett|>ucius givi*s of a globe 
with two standing men on it ninety degrt*«*s a|iart, each dropping a 
line til the centre of the earth, this navigator had grasped, together 
with the id(*a of the sphericity of the globe, the essential 
eonditions of gravitation. Tbere could Im* no up-hill sailing 
when tlie senith was always overhead. Curiously enough, 
the supposition of Columbus, when an he sailed on his third voyage he 
ffoond the air grow colder, was that he was actually sailing up-hill, as- 
ecnding a protuberance of the earth which was like tlie stem end of a 
pear, with the crowning region of the earthly |iaradise atop of all ! 
Soch contrasts show the lesser navigator t4i be the greater physicist, 
they go not a small way in accounting for the levelness of head 
gaineil the suffrages of the wi*te. 

When I>uke Ren^. n]M>n whom f*o much bad de|M»nded in the little 
rommonity at St. I>i^. dt«*d, in ir>4M. tin* gt^igraphical print- ^^g^^ |^^^ 
mg sehenM*s of WaldM^-mlllbT nnd bi«» frllom-M r«H*eived a It***^*^ 




e, and for a few years we hear nothing more of the edi' 
emy which had been planned. The next year (1509) 
er, now putting his name to his little treatise, was forced 



was accepted as iu no way invalidating the claim of Colnin- 
>verieB farther to the north ; and in another little trad, 
rioted at the same time at GrQniger's Stmssburg press, ths 
jionymouH Gl-obtM Miindi, the name " America " is adopted 
though the small bit of the new coast shonrn in its map i« 
li'unstation of Vespuciua's own designation merely " Newe 

1 i-e the edition whoae maps are associated with the name 

nee of a Greek manuscript of the old geoffi^apher which 
lad earlier brought from Italy, came out in 1513. Here 
L', in a book far more sure to have influence than the little 
tract of 1.507, to impress the new name Ameriu opon 

4 not easy to divine tlie cause of such an omission. The edi- 

ly, though but one of tliem shows also to its full extent 
iif Columbus's explorations. On one of the«e majw the 
.;ionH have no designation whatever, and on tlie other, tht 
map," there is ii legend stretched across it, assigning the 
tlie region to Columbus. 
il know, in all tlie contemporary literature which has cftne 



Wa)d!i«vinUllor'ii trorl ap|irArrtl nt Lyimii. — perhii)M wUliout liis \»v- 
tir)|<«ri<>n. — whtdi wa« nl«nv<i fimnil, ilown lu I.SMl, without a t^aI^ 
thi>iii;li llio ri)]it(>n kiioirn wn- vcrv frtr : IhiI in ()iat yt-nr n ropy with 
k tnii)i wan •liwovi-rtil, now owniil liy an Atni'ririui i-"11fot"r, in which 

Uir jtn>pii>itinn nf lli<- 1r\t i- I'li 
rr-)<n-><'ntation uf S<iiilli AnifiiiM 
M Ih- TniM (:.>n>«. Ill III.- pri> 
nM^t-r, it M':ii lhn> nl ii •mi 

tlt» n 


»t.J-:.».| lir-l in :.,. 

h th- n:iiii<- A lifu on the 

,. A „f ihi. ii...|. i. h.Ti' t:>vn 
-■n; ■■iiTiilitiiin of onr Lii>>u1>ilL.f of thf 

1r«l,.T.. :,1 1 IM.-. \S Il.:,t 

>rii>lr,l 11,1).. ii»l..-. ii..|..-l. I:r.'i'ij,. 

.,rii..< .1,11- t..iH..-i..i..-it. (I..- n.111- "■* 

■ \a f tl Iict ..l.i.-i-t« tlif-n- t^ 


adopted bjr the Nuremberg gtobe-nuker, SehOner (1516, etc.) ; by 
VadiMiiis at Vienna, when edidng FomponiuB Mela (1515) ; by Apian 
on a map used in an edition of SolinuB, edited by Camera (1520) ; 


and by Lorens Friem, who had been of Duke Rent's coterie and a 
eonvtpondent of Vespucuis, od a map introduced into the 
GrOniger Ptolemy, publinhed at Stmssburg (1522), which umf flnun 
alao reproduced the WaliheeniUller map of 1513. This is ' '^'™' 
the earliest of the Ftolemiei in which we find the name accepted on 


Th««n* U one iiip;nitiraiit fii4*t ccMirtTiiin^ tlif runHict cif the Croun 
with the heiniof (.(iliiiiihiis, which foHowcd ii]niii the AdniirarH (i«*ath. 
and ill whieh the .'i«lv«iratcM of the ^ivcriiiiifiit soiiirht to provi* tliat 
the eLum tif Cohiinhiiii t«> hiive illHcoviTtMl tht* «'oiitiiu*iital .*ihon> aUMit 
the tiulf of Paria in 141>H was nut tti h«' Hii-«taineil in view uf vi>itA hv 
oChen at an earlier <lute. Thin Hi^nitieunt fact is that Vespurius ix 
not once nienti«»netl thirinsr tlie liti^tion. It is i»f roiirsi' |M>ssihli*, and 
perlia|M pniliahUs that it wan for the intt'it'^^ts i»f lM>th ]>ai-ties to keep 
out of view a servant of I'ortn^il tn'nchinL^ upon what was hflirveti to 
be S|uinish territories. 'l*he same inipiilM' ooul«l lianlly hav«* intlii- 
enreil Fenlinanil C'ohimhns in th«' >ihMtt unpiicsrenre whieh. as a ron- 
lriu|>urary informs u^. was his attitiuie towanU thf action of tlie St. 
IHe pn>fi*^M»rs. There seems litth' <huiht of liis acceptance of a view, 
llien unilouht4'4llv connnon. that tliere was no contiict of the ciaini<« of 
the re<t]iective navii^ators. hecuuNe their ditTerent tieltU of e\pli»ration 
hail ni>t hrtMi^ht such chiinis in juxtaposition. 

FoUiiwin'^. hi»wever. ujmui the a*>sertioti uf WahlM'emuIh-r. Ve«*. 
pneiiis hail ** fouml " this continental tract neetlini; a name, tliere i^rew 
■p a iH'lief in Mune ipnirtep«, ami ih'<hicil»le from ilu' very ol><MMire 
chrono|ii;'v of liis narrative, which fitrnnilateil it-elf in a >tatenient 
that Veii]iiii'iu<» hail really Ihm'U tin* tirM to >r\ fiint on :niy 
part of this extemleil main. It wa** hrn- that vitv '^•miii iIh* j,,,!i. < "„ 
jraloti^y of tho'«e who hail the i;oi»i| natiie nt ( 'Mliitiihii'o in \\[\^^^ itkhi 
their keeping U'l^aii to manifest it-«i-lf, ami oiiiin- tinn' aftt-r 
l.%tr7« ~* if we accept that year a- (Ik- «I.i1e <it lii- iM-i^iniiitiL: work **\\ 
Ihf* /fiAf*»ri*t, — < 'a-ao. \s\in lia«l 1li>I -immc iiilimaii' relatimi'* with 
C't»Itiiiihii«. telU u<« that thf rejHirt \%aN riff nt \'iopii4*iii<. himself lieitii; 
|irivy ti» *uch ]»reten«iiiin'». I'ii1i'«<« l^i- ('.i'>a<«. **r the repnrter" t«» whom 
hr refern*<l. hail material of which ii* •me \v*\\ ha** kno\»lt'iI'je. it is 
rrrtain that there in mi e\ii|etice cunniTtin*^ Ve<»puciii<« with the St. 
Die priilxisitioii. ami it i<i eipially iiTtaiii that e\iilem*e faiU to e-tal»- 
li«h Iwyond iloiiht thf puMiiMtimi of aii\ map hearing thi- name Aim'r- 
ira while Ve^purin^ lixinl. lli- liail Ih-cu maile pllut majnr 4»f Spain 
Manh L"J. ITHtS. ami luul ilif.! Kehiii:ir\ 'J'J. I.M'J. We ha\e n.> chart 
niaile hy Veit|iiiriut himself. tli<iui;h it i« ktm^Kn that in l.'ilS ^ueji a 
rhart wa-* in the jn»«» *#•«.* inn «if Kenlinaml. lirolhfr uf ChaiU- v. m-i- ■ i«" 
thr Fifth. The Mi'i»\i*r\ nt tlii<» chart wmilil i|iiii}<i!<--<. iitj- "•■»»'• 
d«^ a »i:;nal M*rvic«' in illimiinatin'^ tlii-^ anil ■•thti ijin oiinii- nt •■.iily 
Ani«*riran carti>i;rapli\ . It mi*.: I it olmu n-^ Imw t.ii. it .it all. Vi->pU' 
cia« " •infiillv faih*t| i<i\i;ii(U thi- Ailniii:il. ;i« l..i^ ( '.i« i- 

re pu rtit of him. ninl ailiU " If \'i"*|tiii-iii^ |i.ii| 1\ i^-i^* > ■)■ .i- 

carmirv ti» thi« iM-lii-t i>t hi- tii-r -iliin.' t>i->i oi. <!.•■ m.r.n. 


ig W^i a l^rrat W'ickeilni'<«'« : ainl it it \«.io iml li-Mii- i!,TinIi<!\ . 1' '.••••k- 


9, Las Casas was cautious enough to consiiler that, after 

tbe rumor. 

clear that in Spain there had been no recognition of the 
ime ■■ America," nor was it ever officially recogniEod by 
If SpaninU government. Las Caxaa nnderetood tliat it liad 
en applied by " foreigners," who had. aa he says, " called 
at ought to Iw called Columba." JuBt wliat date should 
tach to this protest of Casa:i is not determinable. If it 
as later than tlie gore-map of Mercator iii 1541. which 
aa tbt' tirst, so far as is known, to apply the name to bodi 
oitb and South America, there is certaiiUy good reason 
ir the iliM|uietu<Je of Las Casas. If it was before tliat, it 
, with tlif progress of discovery, it had become more and 
bat all parts of the new regions were compont^nt parts ol 
y new continent, upon which the name of Uie timt discor- 
part of it, main or insidar, ought to hare been bestowed. 
ill be left to " foreign writers," as Las Casas said, to gin 
resenting a rival interest to a world that S])anish enter- 
lade known was no less an indignity to Spain than to her 
1 luliipted Adniirai. [.See Note on p. OKO.] 


nfoisrulmn Gengraphirum^ whirb he printed at Nuremberg in 1533, 
«i|M*iily rliarged Veft|mciuK with attaching his own name to iaxi. iwhft. 
a rfgion of India Su|ierior. Two years later, Servetus, v^^*||r* 
while he repeatetl in hiH Ptolemy of 1535 the earlier ma|w SHjj^tllr' 
In-aring the name America^ entered in his text a proteat tnJn^^**- 
ai:aiiiHt it* um* hy alleging diHtincUy that Columlms wai earlier than 
Vr«piiriuH in finding the new main. 

Within a little more than a year from the death of Vespucius, and 
while the maps assigned to Waldseemdller were pressed on the atten- 
titMi tif Hcholars. the integralnetts of th«* gn*at southern continent, to 
which a name conimenioniting AniericuM liad l>een given, was made 
maiiift^t, or at least probable, by the discovery of Balboa. 

l^'t w^ now sev liow the course of discovery was finding reconl dur- 
ini; tb«*Mf early years of the sixte«*ntli century in respect to j^ h^rrt^ 
thf creat but unsus|N-cted l»arricr which actually inteqiosetl ■»»i'«*-«^ 
in th«' way of those whti s«>ught Ahiu over against S|Kiiii. 

In th«* north, the discoveries of tlie Knglish under (*ulN>t. and of the 
I*ortuifi>«*'»*' under the Cort(*reaU. Hoiin UhI the Normans and n,^ ,if i ^m 
Kretons from l>iep]ie and .Saint Malo to follow in the wake '«»«»»«»«»«*. 
of !tnch pre<lecesftors. As early am 1504 the tishermen of tliese latter 
iirotile** serni 1«> liavv been <in the northern coasts, and we 
«iwe til them the name of C'a]M* Breton, which is thuui^ht to maiuuMi 
br the iihle?«t French name in our American ge(»i;i-a|iliy. It ***** 
i« tlie **Oran (*apitano** «if RamuMo who cretlit> the Hret4>ns with 
theM' early viititA at the nortli. thiuigh we get no jMisitive cart4)gra]»h- 
iral reconl of Mich visits till l.V^). in a map wliich iit given by Kumit- 
niann in \\\* Afhi*. 

Again, in \Ti^)k\, scmie I*ortugue!«e ap|N'ar to have l>een on the New- 
fiiundlah«l ciia^t under the royal patronage of Henry VII. ,.^^. p^ 
I if Knglantl. and by \TiiM\ the I'ortugiieM* ti^hennen wen* '»*«"'^ 
regular frequenters of the Newfountllaud lianks. We find in the ohl 
nia|Bs I*ortugues4* name<i lumiewhat witlriy M*att«'n*«l lui the neighlNiring 
roast linen, fur the fniinentini; of the n*i;i4in by tin* Hshermen of tlwl 
natii»n ciMitinuetl well towanU the cbi^i* of the century. 

Thrre are aliMi Mone<» of one Vi*laM*o. a S|ianianl. vif»itini; the St. 
Lawrrnce in 15(Ni. ami . loan de Agraintinte in 1511 enlrreil y^^, j, 
int<» an agreement with the S|mni.<ih Kini; to piir**ne <lt«rii%- '^^'i" 
ery in thene {lartt more actively, but we have no definite know bilge of 

Tlie death of Fenlinnnd. .I.iiiitary *J.'^. 151fi. wniiM ^feni to have put 
a Atop t4> a voyage wbirh bail altvaily bi-m ]il:iniiti| fur Spain b\ S«*. 
bMtian CalMit. to find a northur-i |i:i>««av;t' : but (In* nrxl yar ( I.' 17) 


ehalf of England, bod iu,i1e<l to Hudson's Strait, and theoce 
lorth to 07° 30', Jindinjr •• no night there," and observing 
xtraordinary variations of the compass. Somewhat later 
liere'are the very doubtful claims o£ the Fortugnese to ei- 
ilorations under Paguodes about the Gulf of St. Lawrence 

also there ia something like certainty respecting the Nor- 
iiuns, and under tlie influence of a notable Dieppese, Jean 
ingo. we soon meet a class of adventurous maiiners tempi- 
ng distant and marvelous seas. We read of Pierre Cri- 
rhomas Aubert. both of Dieppe. Jean Deuys of Honflenr, 
aimentier, all of whom have come down to as throngh the 
imusio. It is of Jean Denys in 1500. and of Thomas Au- 
later, that we find the fullest recitals. To I>enys there 
las been ascribed a mysterious cliart of the Gulf of St. Law- 

le original is said to have been found in the archives of the 
war in Paris so late as 1854. but no such map is found then 
vopy whicli was made for the Canadian archives is at Ot- 
biive been favored by the authorities there with a tracing 





s:^.-.r^ \ 

inr-H MARTrR. wii. 



\'\ Ueen before along this shore may be a qnestioii. Pri- 

vvn ill neighboriug waters some yean) earlier, as we have 
We find certainly in this voyage of Ponce de Leon for the 

have giroduced its cartographical record. The interdict* 
I'il of the Indies were, however, too powerful, and tlie old 
C'antino maji still lingered in the maps for some yean, 

t.iin Spanish maps. 

; stood for Biniini in the reports of this expedition is not 
k'ar : but there seems to have been a v^iii? notion uf its 
lit being the same as Florida, for when Ponce de Leon got 

[iiniini and Florida, and Diego Colon aa viceroy was di- 
elp on the expedition. Seven years, however, passed in 
ijit it was not till 1521 that he attempted to make a setUe- 
jst at what point is not known. Sickness and loss in en- 
li the Indians soou discouraged him, and he returned to 
■ uf an arrow wound received in one of the foray* of Um 

11 It question if Florida connected with any .tiljacent lamU- 



iri2<) we get (lemoiiHiralile |iro(»f. when Lucan Viu«qiie7. tie Ayllon «ent 
a raruvel under GonliH«». whieli joined roiii]uiny on the way ,,^ 
with another veMU.*! Iniund on u yluvi^-hinitin); ex|NHlition. A^Uun. 
juiil the two. procc*ediii^ north wani, Kighteil the main eikat^t lit a river 
w hich llivy found to Ik* in thirty-three and a half de|;n*eit of north loti- 
tiidv. «m the South Carolina roiiht. Thev rt*turncd with«>ut further ex* 
ploralion. Aylhm, with«iut great HmveHH, attempted further ex phirations 
in l.VJ.*); hut in ItVJti he went again with greater }in»|Mirati«»ns. and 
made hin landfall u little farther noiih, near tlu* mouth of th«' Waten*e 
Kiver. whirh he railed the tloniun, and mailed on to the Chesapeake, 

rlRR^ OIL LiC[/f\C/A DOb 



when*, with tht* hi'l]i nf nogru •ihivfK. then lip«t intrndnceil into thin 
ip«»n. he lN*i;aii the huildini; of a tnwn at or m*:ir the «»|Mit dmbIbi^ ii. 
where tin* Kiit;Ii<tli in tin- next erntury fnundrd «lam«*»tt>wn : ^' "»*■*»• 
"r at leajkt thi*« \s tht* nmjrrtnn' of Dr. Slust. Ilert* AyHon dietl of a 
|>e»tili*ntial ft*vi*r Oi'tnUT IH. l.VJIt, wlii-n the di>li«*artene4l ci»loni^ti«, 
im«* handn*<l anil fifty imt of tht* original tiw huniln*4|, return«*<l to 
Santfi IXimingo. 

Whilr theiM* nnfurtunate ex]N*rii*nrrH wm* in ]in»gre!i», Flttevaii 
ffome?^ Rent hy the S|iani'«h guvernnirnt. after (lu* rhiM* i»f |.^.^ 
the rfinferenee nt Hadajt»«. to make '«nri* that thrn- wa.** no <*""m>i 
paMage to the Mtiliirra^ anywhiTi' ahmt; tlii>* Atlantic ri»a.M. Martcil in 
thf autumn i»f I.VJl. if thi* ilata we havi> admit of that funrhi^ion an 
U» thn time. fri»m ( 'uniniia. in th«- mirth of Spain. lit* prorfiMli*«i at 
oiie«. aji Charlf^ V. hail iliriTti'd him. to tht* liarealaiM region, ntriking 
th«« mainlanil |Nif>^ilii\ at I«iiiraili»r. and thiMi tiiriii*<l ^inith. rari*fidly 
riamining all inli't.». Wt> hav** no aiith<iritati\<> narraii\f •*an<'tionf«l 
bv kit nain«*. or hv that of an\ oin' arroni|iaii\iii;; tin* f\iN'< ,-,...... 

diliun ; mir ha* thi* map whi«-h AIom.mi Cha^r^ made to eon- ■"'i' 

It •mas reported by Gomez been preaerved, bul the essen- 

nap ot Ribero (1529), and we Lave sundiy atray referenceit 
n the later phropiclera. From all tlila it would seem th«t 
owed the coast aouthward to tbe point of Florida, and 
tain to most mintla that no such passage to India esitted. 
e was a lingering suspicion that the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
n fliifficiently explored. 

in now to the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea. Neir 

his time the coast bad been pretty carefully made out u 
ar iiN Honduras, krgely through the explorations of Ojeda 
e la Cosa. The scheme was a dual one. and introdure.n as 
designations of the regions separated by that indentatioD 
f the coast known as tlie Gulf of Uraba. Here Ojeda and 

>ui- years. Mention has already been made of this in the 
hajiler. They delayed getting to their governments, quar- 
whilc about their bounds on each otiier, fought tlie natives 
alion but not with mnch profit, lost La Cosa in one of On: 

£/ Atieiantn^o HASCQ KVNES dc 
>:efer ■ ifue tlt*--ruitito to. rnardtlSiw, 

BALK)* fm llHIte<> Btrn~^\ 

H tAUS. B«U>M t^hUjr dtTte4Ml UmI It* <IUv<>T«r7. ff h> «mU ««Mt 
ib «imU •vrra kbo » good |Mr|taM la >|ab4lnK »mj JMtonMM *A hi> 
nla, irf whk^ h* waa UginniRif lo ■bNrr* •j^ipiMB*. 80 do Um 1*1 
W (bpUmW. 1A13, b* art Mt in the dirrrtiim wbidi llw utivM Ud 
M fa ifc rf . Md bjr Um 24th bo Ud MMbMl » nwonUia fatm tW lap 




lis giiiiiea told him lie would behold the sea. On tlie 
jHtli his party ascended, himself in front, and it was Dot 
ling befoie he stood gazing upon the distant ocean, the first 
if Europeans in discern the long-coveted sea. Dowu ttii! 
the Spaniards went. The path was a difficalt one. and it 
kiys before one of his advanced squads reached the beacL 
next day. the 29th, did Vasco Nuflez himself join thoeeio 
lien, Gtridin^; into the tide, he took posHeBsion of the wa 
lering lands in the name of his sovereigns. It was on Saint 
l:iy, and the Bay of .Saint Miguel marks tlie spot to-d»y. 
le end of January, 1514. he was again with the colony at 
1 Darien. Thenee, in Alarch. he dispatched a messent^ 
.ih news of the great diseovery. 

I ier did not reach Euroj^e till iifter a new expedition li«i 
ifen dispatched under Pedrarias, and with liiia went a 
lumber of followers, who did in due time their part in thrid- 

II Hernando de Soto, Bernal Diaz, the chronicler of the a- 
..ite«. and Oviedo, the historian. It was from April tiD 
, (hat Pedrarias was on his way. and it was not long before 
>i.Tnor with his imj)osing array of strength brought the n- i 
liriii to trial, out of which he emerged burdened with hfarr 


\ng the ton yean rince Balboa's discorery. They had learnetl here of 
a rich region farther on, and it got U* be spoken of l>y the same name, 
or by a iwrrersion of it, as Peru. In Uiis inten'al the town ,5,,^ ^^^^ 
of Panama had bet»n founded (IT) 19), and Pizarm :in«l m*«o«»wi^i- 
Almagro, with the priest Lutiue. were among th«we to whom allot- 
ments were made. 

It was by these three afMociateH, in \W1\ and liVJ(>, that tlie ex|ie<li* 
tions were organizetl which led to the exploration of the 
coaAts of Peru and the c*un(|ueiit of the rt*gion. 'Ilie e4|ua- 
tor was crossed in 151^6; in l.VJT they rearhetl 9' noiith. It was nut 
till ITKiTi that, in the progress of eventii. a knowletlge of the coast was 
extended souUi to the neighlKirhtMMl of Lima, whieh was founditl in 
tliat year. In the autumn of ir>,'Ci. AhiiHL'n) started south 

• "^ Chili 

to make con«piest of Chili, and the bav of ValiuiniiMi was 
orcupie«l in September. I.'kUi. Kiglit years later, in iri4 1, «*xploration«< 
were punhed south to 41 \ It was only in 1557 that exiMMliti^uis 
n*arhe<l the ar«*lii|>elag<» (»f (MiiliK*, and the whole rikast of 
South America on the Pacific was made out with some de- 
tail down to the region viliirh Map'llan had skirtinl. as will U* <«liui-tly 

It will be rememliered that in \7A\\\ (\»lunibuN h:ul •> truck the coa^t 
of Honduras west of (^a|ie <iraci:iji a I>io^. lie leanird then nt' lands 
ill the northwe^t from some Indians wbuni he met in a rauiM'. but bis 
eagenu*fui to find the strait nt' his dn*ani?« bil bini mhuIi. It wa^ ft>ur- 
teen vears lH*f«>n* the pronii*«i* of that canm* was revfali*<l. 
Id 15()H Ocam|)o liad founil the wl'^teI-il fxtr«*niity of Cuba. in-iii.|» 
and made the twth of (Vibimbus ridiculous. 

In ITilT a ;«lave-buntint; ex|ieilition. liaviu^ Mefr«*«l touaid«i the we^t 

from (*ul»a, disci»M*r«il tlif •«biire> of Yucatan ; and the \\v\\ .... . 

■■•ii 1 1I- 

yrar (l'>18) the real expb>ration of thai n-gion lit*gaii \iben *'**^ 

Juan de (irijalva, a nepbfw of the governor of Cuba. IimI tbitlu-r an 

espeditiim which explon*d tin* cua-t of Yucatan and Mi'xico. 

When (irijalva rflurni'd to (*ulia in I.MS, it wa^ to timl an ex|N*«li- 

lion alreaily plamuHi to fulluw up lii« diM'ovfrie?*, and Hit- |.,,4 

aand«i Cortt*s, who bail Utu in iln' Ni*w WorM ?«ince 1.*»<»1. ''■"'■* 

had l>een choHeii to I**:iil it, \«itli in<«tnicti«in«i tt» make fuitbiT rvplortl- 

ticin^ uf the r»a>t. — a pur)Ni«r \rry •«<M»ti to lN*i'oiiif iil»«riin'd in iitlier 

objt^rtM. lit* sailtvl on tbf 17(b til Nuvi-tubcr. an^l •^tnpprii aluiiL; the 

ruast of Cul»a fiir rrrniit"*. -ti it wa*< n^t fill Ki'bruar\ IS. 

■ ' ' ' 
]r>19, that he sunk tin' ^linri"^ of Cuba U-hiinl liini. .iinl in 

March he wa«( skirtin-j t1i«- Yiti*at:in ^imrt* ami ^aib-il imi tn Nin 

da UUia. In due tinif. fur^i'ttitrj bi<« inotiuction<*. ami rarin- fur itthei 


jMnain. It waa now pn^jr clwr ttutt llw bUnk >pMW ol mtHwt 
■n|Mt Uaiing it nnewrtMn if thmv vm a |MMaf>v wsaUrijr 0^^^ 
iwlwn in the tiorthwmt rorntr of Ihr gvU. abould b« !•■»»» 

oi»u aivn ui tc«Mu« tirrM:ii.tii oKfmuttnicvM.vm. 

■Bad oMn|Mrtlr. SUD. » belief tluU mdi ■ pMnp wMmI mw 
*hM« In lb* wwlfTti ooolMr of lb* gvlf wm not mMtDy BbudoBML 
CWlM. when Iw «Mt In HfolB lib ihrtcli of llw fnlf. «Udi 
«M paUnM tbr* in IA24. »w ilwrllinc m tU bofMi that Sts^M 
1 «dal«d noar YaratM^ ksd liia iMshr 

of that peninaiUa, with a. shadowy strait at its base, wm 

e map of MaioUo of 1527, which is preserred in the Am- 
irary at Milan. Grijalva. some years earlier, had been 
sent, 29 we have seen, to sail round Yucatan ; and though 
iiere are various theories about the origin of that name, it 
f enough that the tendency to give it an inanlar form arose 



tra, faQ oitdm thnr away, uid their eoaxwe wt itill Mitwud. nntil id 
1511 lha«o*«te<l Und of ipiceii. the elove awl tha Dntmeg, „,j ^^ 
waa reached in the Holucca IidandB. Thia progreaa of the i"**^ 
PortngneM bad heen watched witli a jealou* ejra by Mpain. It mu a 
qneation if, in paving tu theo* iNlands. the Pmtagaeae had not eroMed 
the line of demarcation a* carried to the antipodes. If they bail, 
lerritoiy neighboring la the Npantah American diaroveriM had been 

^¥^*- III?/ 

Gl-I^ or UKZIni, BT CORTRS. 

•pprapriated by llial rival ihiwit wh»lly u»n>n fronted. Thia wae 
limply berauM- the ,'i]iBiiiKb iiavifraturH hati niri a* y«M MirM-eded in 
finding a p«M>|^- thr»U);h tlit- .ip|NM.iiiK Urrii-r uf wlmt tlit-r wcrp l>e- 
ICinning Ui ruk]*!^ wan aflrr all nii int<'rTi-nin)< kiiHl. Mi-nnwhile, ('«- 
lumlxia and all i>iiir<- lii* <Ur liavirif; f:i!lr<l lo timl HUph a ]iaiwa|:e hr 
aay nf the CariklN'aii S<-a. and n<i one vi-t iliM-ovHrint; any a ■■miml 
■I llie nurth, nodiini,' win lid tiiii hi --ok it al tin- iwiith. EHrtT- 
Thin waa iho only rliaiii-e of (•■■nlcMiiii; willi the I'iirtU)^cM> "■•'^» 
tha ri^da which orcajNUion wan mtahlitthint; for thrni at ihc Molmra^ 


■■■ dorinf Um nine ytmr (lAll) tlutt Perditumd Columbo* _ _ . 

ftvpared hit CaioH de Conconlia, mhI in thw ha nuuii- Cateakn 

(■uwd tbtt theory of ft |Ma«g« to ba foutu) «otn»w1uir« be- «««« yw. 

fowl the point tomrde the MUth which the eipluren had "^ 
tba> f V KMhad. 


a ^ 




A frw yeftn lftt«r (l'>]<>) ihf Si«ni-.h Kini; M-nt Jiinri IKu de SoGi 
|0 ecfttch anew fur a luNutfc Up foiinil t)i<' \a llata. and ._„_ 

lor a while hoped he liail ilitritTereil iIif louknt-fur Ktrait. 
Hagrllan. whu had uk<-ii Mniif iintl>ra^- during bin l*<irlui.ii'>w !>er 
ffka, MHa flnaUf U> the Siianisb King. aiid. un thtr plea that tit*- Maine- 


tn, tell nndar their sway, Mid their coutm wm still eutvard, until in 
1511 the «OTeted land of spices, the clove wmA the nntm^, ^^ ^g. 
wms nached in the Moloeca Islands. This progress of the i"™"- 
Portngnese had been watched with a jealons eye hy Spun. It was a 
question if, in passing to these isUnds, the Portngnese had not crossed 
the Une of demarcation as carried to the antipodes. If they had, 
territory neighboring to the Spanish American discoveries had been 



appropriated bj that rival power wholly nnconfronted. Tins was 
rimply hecMise the Spanish navigators had not as yet sncceeded in 
finding a pass^e throngh the opposing barrier of what they were be- 
ginning to suspect was after all an intervening land. Meanwhile, Co- 
lombna and all since his day having failed to find gnch a passage by 
~way of the Caribbean Sea, and no one yet discovering any a nwtMu 
«t the north, nothing was left but to seek it at the sonth. SJ^^m 
*Ihia was the only ehanee of contesting with the Portngnese "" •onu. 
'tiie ri^ts whieh oeenpation was establishing for them at the Moluccas. 



lor Uitving in tueb ■ gmgTs|ilii<'al fart. It h pouibU tW athn- 
Mtlj diwonxvn hxt Wu 1t-» rarrtul ilmu Solim. tnd bad b«M) iniaM 
V tlw WmmI Mbui; of tlif La IlaU ti> tliitik lh»t it n* nail; «n Jn- 
tatMMyife pUMge. Kanw Mick intcUigBiiep wuultl neFin lu lwr« iiwti- 
iplmA tb» eoodiHon* portnj'wd in oiik v«t\y maji, bnt th» f;«neral 
MtMHi ol eartnf^phmi at ihr tit»« Ivnuinotei iLr kniiwu rowt kt ('«]ie 

FHd. MW V6» i* Jbbmio, h ta mtm to W the caM in tbe PtulrtnT map 
ti lAlX TlMre is a slory, origiafttiBg with PicRlvtU. bi» luatoriaM, 
tkat MafcUan hail aMii ft rmii at llHVtu Bdiahn, ■hM«4Bf ■ aanthvn 

than m ooaJMUnl tanniMtiaa, m Aumm in dw Lraax «imI wtHiMt 
KahSMT ilobM or Ulfi and lOM. Still. Wiwer awl NonlmakioU 
an br Iran Wlof wmft J o ti l that •««« tUAiiilp knowUg* of idc h a 
aMn atUioMl. iwwhahljr, m it i> ihanglil. friMN |irtvalo 
■fv of tritirh wr mar havi* a fvtnni in llw N*t* Zri- 


1 Ihe Lueulent!s»imn Desci-ipt'to. It is to be feared ihU 
atever it may have been, most remain shadowy. 

id with jealouay by Pui-tngal, and it was even, hinted thai 
litioii sailed a matrimonial allisni;e of Spain and Portagal 
ontcniplated must be broken off. Magellan was appealed 

he two countries. The stubborn navigator was not to l« 

;cover on the " back side " of the New World. 

B days of 1519, Magellan touched the coaat at Rio de J»- 

lien, passing on, he crossed the moutli of ttie La Plata, aod 
hat he had reached a colder climate and was sailing along 
oaiit. The verdure which had followed the warm cnrreDt» 
latorial north gave way to the concomitants of an icy flow 
itai-ctic regions which made the landscape sterile. So on 
mg this inhospitable region, seeking the expected strajt. 
in every inlet was so faithful that he neared the aogtheni 
wly. Tiie stemncBH of winter i-augbt his little barks in i 
■'iO" south latitude, and his Spanish crews, restless under 
id of a Portuguese, revolted. The rebels were soon more 



iry, 1526, and diacoTere<l Cape Horn, rendering the insular character 
if Tierra del Fuego all but certain. The fact was kept 

lacrci, and the map-uudcers were not generally made aware dkoovOTs 
d th» terminal cape dU Drake saw it, fifty-two years Uter. ^'^ "~ 
[t was not till 1615-17 tliat Scliouten and Lenuure made clear the 
MWtem limits of Tierra del Fuego when they discovered the jiassage 
tMiween tliat island and Statirn Island, and during the same interval 
Sehouten double<l Ca|>e Horn for tlie first time. It was in 1(»18-19 
Jiat the observations of Nodal first gave thi* east4*rly ben«l to the Houth- 
tm extremity of t